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Encyclopedia > Kazakhstan
Қазақстан Республикасы
Qazaqstan Respublïkası
Республика Казахстан
Respublika Kazakhstan
Republic of Kazakhstan
Flag of Kazakhstan
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
My Kazakhstan
Capital Astana
51°10′N, 71°30′E
Largest city Almaty
Official languages Kazakh (state language), Russian
Demonym Kazakh, Kazakhstani
Government Republic
 -  President Nursultan Nazarbayev
 -  Prime Minister Karim Masimov
Independence from the Soviet Union 
 -  1st Khanate 1361 as White Horde 
 -  2nd Khanate 1428 as Uzbek Horde 
 -  3rd Khanate 1465 as Kazakh Khanate 
 -  Declared December 16, 1991 
 -  Finalized December 25, 1991 
Area
 -  Total 2,724,900 km² (9th)
1,052,085 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.7
Population
 -  January 2006 estimate 15,217,711 National Statistics Agency of Kazakhstan (62nd)
 -  1999 census 14,953,100 
 -  Density 5.4/km² (215th)
14.0/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $145.5 billion (56th)
 -  Per capita $9,594 (66th)
Gini? (2003) 33.9 (medium
HDI (2004) 0.774 (medium) (79th)
Currency Tenge (KZT)
Time zone West/East (UTC+5/+6)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+5/+6)
Internet TLD .kz
Calling code +7

Kazakhstan, also spelled Kazakstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, IPA: [qɑzɑqˈstɑn]; Russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstán, IPA: [kazəxˈstan]), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of northern and central Eurasia. Ranked the ninth largest country in the world, it has a territory of 2,727,300 km² (greater than Western Europe). It is bordered by Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and China. The country also borders on a significant part of Caspian sea. Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Kazakhstan_(flat). ... Flag ratio: 1:2 The current flag of Kazakhstan was adopted on June 4, 1992. ... The coat of arms of the country of Kazakhstan The coat of Kazakhstan exists since the dissolving of the Soviet Union 25 December 1991. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... My Kazakhstan (Kazakh: ) is the current national anthem of Kazakhstan, adopted on January 7, 2006. ... Download high resolution version (1357x628, 21 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Askar Mamin Population (estimated)  - City 600,000 Time zone BTT (UTC+6) This article is about the capital of Kazakhstan; for the article on the palace in Sarawak, see Astana (Sarawak); for the professional road-cycling team see Astana Team; for the Iranian city, see Astaneh-e... Map showing Almatys location in Kazakhstan Almaty Orthodox church Mosque Almaty (Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata, also Vernyj, Vyernyi (Верный) in Imperial Russia) is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,185,900 (2004) (8% of the population of Kazakhstan) citizens. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... List of Presidents of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev (1990 - present) See also Politics of Kazakhstan Categories: Stub | Kazakhstan ... Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev (Kazakh: Нұрсұлтан Әбішұлы Назарбаев [Nûrsûltan Äbîshûlâ Nazarbayev]; Russian: Нурсултан Абишевич Назарбаев [Nursultan Abishyevic Nazarbayev] (born 6 July 1940 in Chemolgan, Kazakh SSR, Soviet Union) has served as the President of Kazakhstan since the Fall of the Soviet Union and the nations independence in 1991. ... This is a list of prime ministers and heads of government of Kazakhstan and its predecessor republic of the Soviet Union. ... Karim Kajymqanuly Masimov (Kazakh: ; Russian: ) born in 1965 in Tselinograd, Kazakh SSR now Astana, Kazakhstan)[1] has served as Prime Minister in the Government of Kazakhstan since 10 January 2007. ... Founding of the University of Pavia, Italy. ... The White Horde was a the name of a Mongolian state of the 14th century. ... Events October 12 - English forces under Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury besiege Orléans. ... Events July 13 - Battle of Montlhéry Troops of King Louis XI of France fight inconclusively against an army of the great nobles organized as the League of the Public Weal. ... Flag¹ Motto Alash! Capital Hazrat-e Turkestan Language(s) Kazakh Religion Sunni Islam Government Monarchy Khan  - 1465—1480 Janybek Khan and Kerei Khan (first) History  - Established 1456  - Disestablished 1731 Kazakh Khanate (Kazakh: Қазақ хандығы, Russian: Казахское ханство) was a Kazakh state that existed in 1456-1731, located roughly on the territory of present day... The location of Kazakhstan By far the largest of the Central Asian republics of the former Soviet Union, independent Kazakhstan is the worlds ninth-largest nation in geographic area. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... Gross domestic product (by purchasing power parity) in 2006 The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita for the year 2006. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... ISO 4217 Code KZT User(s) Kazakhstan Inflation 8. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .kz is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Kazakhstan. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... The country calling code +7 is assigned to Russia and Kazakhstan. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ...


Although it is vast in size, much of the land consists of semi-desert (steppe) terrain. In terms of population, Kazakhstan ranks 62nd in the world, with a population density of less than 6 people per square kilometre (15 per sq. mi.). The total population has declined somewhat since independence, dropping from 16,464,464 in 1989 to 15,300,000 in 2006. [1] This is due to the emigration of Russians and Volga Germans, since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan, once the Kazakh SSR, is now a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States. This article is about arid terrain. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Volga German pioneer family commemorative statue in Victoria, Kansas, USA. The Volga Germans (German: or Russlanddeutsche) were ethnic Germans living near the Volga River in the region of southern European Russia around Saratov and to the south, maintaining German culture, language, traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutheranism, Reformed and Roman Catholicism... State motto: Барлық елдердің пролетарлары, бірігіңдер! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Viktor Yanukovych Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Kazakhstan

The location of Kazakhstan By far the largest of the Central Asian republics of the former Soviet Union, independent Kazakhstan is the worlds ninth-largest nation in geographic area. ...

Kazakh Khanate

Kazakhstan has been inhabited since the Stone Age: the region's climate and terrain are best suited for nomads practising pastoralism. Historians believe that humans first domesticated the horse in the region's vast steppes. While ancient cities Taraz (Aulie-Ata) and Hazrat-e Turkestan had long served as important way-stations along the Silk Road connecting East and West, real political consolidation only began with the Mongol invasion of the early thirteenth century AD. Under the Mongol Empire, administrative districts were established, and these eventually came under the emergent Kazakh Khanate (Ak Horde). Stone Age fishing hook. ... Pastoralism is a form of farming, such as agriculture and horticulture. ... There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ... Taraz (formerly Zhambyl or Dzhambul) is a city and a center of the Zhambyl oblysy in Kazakhstan. ... The Mazar of Shaikh Ahmad Yasavi in the town of Turkestan. ... The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till China. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history, covering over 33 million km²[1] (12 million square miles) at its zenith, with an estimated population of over 100 million people. ... Flag¹ Motto Alash! Capital Hazrat-e Turkestan Language(s) Kazakh Religion Sunni Islam Government Monarchy Khan  - 1465—1480 Janybek Khan and Kerei Khan (first) History  - Established 1456  - Disestablished 1731 Kazakh Khanate (Kazakh: Қазақ хандығы, Russian: Казахское ханство) was a Kazakh state that existed in 1456-1731, located roughly on the territory of present day...


Throughout this period traditional nomadic life and a livestock-based economy continued to dominate the steppe. In the fifteenth century, a distinct Kazakh identity began to emerge among the Turkic tribes, a process which was consolidated by the mid-sixteenth century with the appearance of a distinctive Kazakh language, culture, and economy. Nevertheless, the region was the focus of ever-increasing disputes between the native Kazakh emirs and the neighboring Persian-speaking peoples to the south. By the early seventeen century, the Kazakh Khanate was struggling with the impact of tribal rivalries, which has effectively divided the population into the Great, Middle and Little (or Small) Hordes (jüz). Political disunion, tribal rivalries, and the diminishing importance of overland trade routes between East and West weakened the Kazakh Khanate. A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Persian-speaking peoples constitute one of the largest Indo-European linguistic groups in the world. ...


Other challenges to Kazakh hegemony over the region came from the Oirats and Dzungars, Mongol peoples who attempted to reassert control over the territory. A Dzungar invasion (1723–1730) was crushed so completely by Abul Khair Khan and the Little Horde that the event became known as the "Great Disaster." The Kazakhs won major victories over the Dzungar at the Bulanty River (1726) and at the Battle of Anrakay in 1729. Oirats (also spelled Oyrats or Oyirads; Mongolian: Ойрадын Ojradyn) refers to both a Western Mongol people of Europe and Asia and, historically, to a Turkic people now known as the Altays. ... The Dzungars (also Jungars or Zungars; Mongolian: Зүүнгар Züüngar) were a tribe of the Oirat Mongols. ... Abul Khair Khan (1693 - 1748) was leader of the Kazakh Little Horde in present-day western Kazakhstan. ...


Russian Empire

In the nineteenth century, the Russian Empire began to expand, and spread into Central Asia. The "Great Game" period is generally regarded as running from approximately 1813 to the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907. Following the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 a second less intensive phase followed. The tsars effectively ruled over most of the territory belonging to what is now the Republic of Kazakhstan. The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Great Game is a term, usually attributed to Arthur Connolly, used to describe the rivalry and strategic conflict between the British Empire and the Tsarist Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia. ... The blue areas were to be Russian controlled, while the southeast pink region was to be British. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ...


The Russian Empire introduced a system of administration and built military garrisons and barracks in its effort to establish a presence in Central Asia in the so-called "Great Game" between it and the United Kingdom. Russia enforced the Russian language in all schools and governmental organizations. Russian efforts to impose its system aroused the resentment of the Kazakh people, and by the 1860s, most Kazakhs resisted Russia's annexation largely because of the disruption it wrought upon the traditional nomadic lifestyle and livestock-based economy. The Kazakh national movement, which began in the late 1800s, sought to preserve the native language and identity. The Great Game is a term, usually attributed to Arthur Connolly, used to describe the rivalry and strategic conflict between the British Empire and the Tsarist Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia. ... Kazakh (Qazaq) people, or Kazakhs, is Turkic ethnic group that lives mainly in Kazakhstan, but also in Russia & China(East Turkistan). ...


From the 1890s onwards ever-larger numbers of Slavic settlers began colonising the territory of present-day Kazakhstan, in particular the province of Semirechye. The number of settlers rose still further once the Trans-Aral Railway from Orenburg to Tashkent was completed in 1906, and the movement was overseen and encouraged by a specially created Migration Department (Переселенческое Управление) in St. Petersburg. In politics and in history, a colony is a territory under the immediate political control of a geographically-distant state (or city, in ancient times). ... Semiryechye (Семиречье, also written Semirechie, Semireche, Semirechiye, Semirechye) is a historical name of a part of Russian Turkestan, which corresponds to the South-Eastern part of modern Kazakhstan, known as Zhetysu (Jetysu, Jity-su, Жетысу, &#1044... A view from the train while traveling along the path of the Trans-Aral Railway. ... Orenburg (Russian: ) is a city on the Ural River and the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast in the Volga Federal District of Russia. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ...


The competition for land and water which ensued between the Kazakhs and the newcomers caused great resentment against colonial rule during the final years of Tsarist Russia, with the most serious uprising, the Central Asian Revolt, occurring in 1916. The Kazakhs attacked Russian and Cossack villages, killing indiscriminately. The Russians' revenge was merciless. A military force drove 300,000 Kazakhs to flee into the mountains or to China. When approximately 80,000 of them returned the next year, many of them were slaughtered by Tsarist forces. During the 1921-22 famine, another million Kazakhs died from starvation. ... For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ...


Soviet Union

Although there was a brief period of autonomy during the tumultuous period following the collapse of the Russian Empire, the Kazakhs eventually succumbed to Soviet rule. In 1920, the area of present-day Kazakhstan became an autonomous republic within Russia. An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ... “CCCP” redirects here. ... The Russian Federation is divided into 88 federal subjects (constituent units), 21 of which are republics. ...


Soviet repression of the traditional elite, along with forced collectivization in late 1920s–1930s, brought mass hunger and led to unrest. Between 1926 and 1939, the Kazakh population declined by 22%, due to starvation, violence and out-migration. Soviet rule, however, took hold, and a communist apparatus steadily worked to fully integrate Kazakhstan into the Soviet system. In 1936 Kazakhstan became a Soviet republic. Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Soviet Union administrative divisions, 1989 In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ...


Kazakhstan experienced population inflows of millions exiled from other parts of the Soviet Union during the 1930s and 1940s; many of the deportation victims were deported to Siberia or Kazakhstan merely due to their ethnic heritage or beliefs, and were in many cases interned in some of the biggest Soviet labor camps. (See also: Population transfer in the Soviet Union, Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union.) The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR) contributed five national divisions to the Soviet Union's World War II effort. In 1947, two years after the end of the war, the Semipalatinsk Test Site, the USSR's main nuclear weapon test site was founded near the city of Semey. Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ... Not by Their Own Will. ... Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms. ... State motto: &#1041;&#1072;&#1088;&#1083;&#1099;&#1179; &#1077;&#1083;&#1076;&#1077;&#1088;&#1076;&#1110;&#1187; &#1087;&#1088;&#1086;&#1083;&#1077;&#1090;&#1072;&#1088;&#1083;&#1072;&#1088;&#1099;, &#1073;&#1110;&#1088;&#1110;&#1075;&#1110;&#1187;&#1076;&#1077;&#1088;! Official language None. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Unions nuclear weapons. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... NASA satellite photo of Semey Semey, in Eastern Kazakstan Semey (Kazakh: ; also transliterated as Semij or Semei, and known by its Imperial Russian name of Semipalatinsk (Семипалатинск)) is a city in Kazakhstan, in the northeastern province of East Kazakhstan, near the border with Siberia, around 1,000 km north of Almaty...


The period of World War II marked an increase in industrialization and increased mineral extraction in support of the war effort. At the time of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin's death, however, Kazakhstan still had an overwhelmingly agricultural-based economy. In 1953, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev initiated the ambitious "Virgin Lands" program to turn the traditional pasture lands of Kazakhstan into a major grain-producing region for the Soviet Union. The Virgin Lands policy, along with later modernizations under Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, accelerated the development of the agricultural sector, which remains the source of livelihood for a large percentage of Kazakhstan's population. This article is about mineral extraction. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Virgin Lands by Fedor Malaev, a romanticised view of the Campaign The Virgin Lands Campaign was an initiative by Nikita Khrushchev to open up vast tracts of unused (virgin) steppe in the northern Kazakh SSR and the Altai region of the Russian SFSR, started in 1954. ... Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (Russian: , Leonid Ilič Brežnev) December 19, 1906 [O.S. December 19, 1906] – November 10, 1982) was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (and thus de facto ruler of the USSR) from 1964 to 1982, serving in that position longer than anyone...


Growing tensions within Soviet society led to a demand for political and economic reforms, which came to a head in the 1980s. In December 1986, mass demonstrations by young ethnic Kazakhs, later called Jeltoksan riot, took place in Almaty to protest the replacement of the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Kazakh SSR Dinmukhamed Konayev with Gennady Kolbin from the Russian SFSR. Governmental troops suppressed the unrest, several people were killed and many demonstrators were jailed. In the waning days of Soviet rule, discontent continued to grow and find expression under Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's policy of glasnost. Jeltoqsan (Kazakh: ; English: December) riot of 1986 was a spontaneous nationwide[1] revolt that took place in Almaty, Kazakhstan in response to General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachevs dismissal of Dinmukhamed Kunayev, the First Secretary of the Kazakh SSR and an ethnic Kazakh, and the subsequent appointment of outsider Gennady Kolbin... Map showing Almatys location in Kazakhstan Almaty Orthodox church Mosque Almaty (Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata, also Vernyj, Vyernyi (Верный) in Imperial Russia) is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,185,900 (2004) (8% of the population of Kazakhstan) citizens. ... Dinmukhamed (Dimash) Akhmeduly Konayev (Kazakh: ; Russian: ), born 12 January 1912 [ O.S. 31 December 1911] in Verny, now Almaty, died 22 August 1993, was a Kazakh Soviet Communist political figure. ... Gennady Kolbin (&#1043;&#1077;&#1085;&#1085;&#1072;&#1076;&#1080;&#1081; &#1050;&#1086;&#1083;&#1073;&#1080;&#1085;, 1927-1998) was the first secretary of the Central Committee of Communist Party of Kazakh SSR from December 16, 1986 to June 22, 1989. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ...


Independence

Caught up in the groundswell of Soviet republics seeking greater autonomy, Kazakhstan declared its sovereignty as a republic within the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in October 1990. Following the August 1991 abortive coup attempt in Moscow and the subsequent dissolution of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan declared independence on December 16, 1991. It was last of the Soviet republics to declare independence. “Sovereign” redirects here. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964&#8211;1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


The years following independence have been marked by significant reforms to the Soviet-style economy and political monopoly on power. Under Nursultan Nazarbayev, who initially came to power in 1989 as the head of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan and was eventually elected President in 1991, Kazakhstan has made significant progress toward developing a market economy. The country has enjoyed significant economic growth since 2000, partly due to its large oil, gas, and mineral reserves. This article is about the economics of markets dominated by a single seller. ... Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev (Kazakh: Нұрсұлтан Әбішұлы Назарбаев [Nûrsûltan Äbîshûlâ Nazarbayev]; Russian: Нурсултан Абишевич Назарбаев [Nursultan Abishyevic Nazarbayev] (born 6 July 1940 in Chemolgan, Kazakh SSR, Soviet Union) has served as the President of Kazakhstan since the Fall of the Soviet Union and the nations independence in 1991. ... The Communist Party of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Kommunistik Partiyasi) is a political party in Kazakhstan. ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system. ...


But, democracy has not improved much since 1991. "In June 2007, Kazakhstan's parliament passed a law granting President Nursultan Nazarbayev lifetime powers and privileges, including access to future presidents, immunity from criminal prosecution, and influence over domestic and foreign policy. Critics say he has become a de facto "president for life."[2][3] Over the course of his ten years in power, Nazarbayev has repeatedly censored the press through arbitrary use of "slander" laws[4], blocked access to opposition web sites (9 November 1999), banned the Wahhabi religious sect (5 September 1998), drawn criticism from Amnesty International for excessive executions following specious trials (March 21, 1996) and harsh prison conditions (13 August 1996), and refused demands that the governors of Kazakhstan's 14 oblasts be elected, rather than appointed by the president (April 7, 2000)." is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Wahhabism (sometimes spelled Wahabbism or Wahabism) is a movement of Islam named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703&#8211;1792). ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


Politics

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (705x1014, 147 KB) Summary Nursultan Nazarbayev, President of Kazakhstan, during a visit to the Pentagon on November 17, 1997. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (705x1014, 147 KB) Summary Nursultan Nazarbayev, President of Kazakhstan, during a visit to the Pentagon on November 17, 1997. ... Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev (Kazakh: Нұрсұлтан Әбішұлы Назарбаев [Nûrsûltan Äbîshûlâ Nazarbayev]; Russian: Нурсултан Абишевич Назарбаев [Nursultan Abishyevic Nazarbayev] (born 6 July 1940 in Chemolgan, Kazakh SSR, Soviet Union) has served as the President of Kazakhstan since the Fall of the Soviet Union and the nations independence in 1991. ... Politics of Kazakhstan takes place in the framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Kazakhstan is head of state and nominates the head of government. ...

Political system

Kazakhstan is a constitutional republic. The president is the head of state. The president also is the commander in chief of the armed forces and may veto legislation that has been passed by the Parliament. The prime minister chairs the Cabinet of Ministers and serves as Kazakhstan's head of government. There are three deputy prime ministers and 16 ministers in the Cabinet. Karim Masimov has served as the Prime Minister since 10 January 2007. Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... A Commander-in-Chief is the commander of a nations military forces or significant element of those forces. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... Karim Kajymqanuly Masimov (Kazakh: ; Russian: ) born in 1965 in Tselinograd, Kazakh SSR now Astana, Kazakhstan)[1] has served as Prime Minister in the Government of Kazakhstan since 10 January 2007. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Kazakhstan has a bicameral Parliament, made up of the lower house (the Majilis) and upper house (the Senate). Single mandate districts popularly elect 67 seats in the Majilis; there also are ten members elected by party-list vote rather than by single mandate districts. The Senate has 39 members. Two senators are selected by each of the elected assemblies (Maslikhats) of Kazakhstan's 16 principal administrative divisions (14 regions, or oblasts, plus the cities of Astana and Almaty). The president appoints the remaining seven senators. Majilis deputies and the government both have the right of legislative initiative, though the government proposes most legislation considered by the Parliament. A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... The seat of Roman Senate in the Roman Forum, Rome A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ...


Elections

Elections to the Majilis in September 2004 yielded a lower house dominated by the pro-government Otan party, headed by President Nazarbayev. Two other parties considered sympathetic to the president, including the agrarian-industrial bloc AIST and the Asar party, founded by President Nazarbayev’s daughter, won most of the remaining seats. Opposition parties, which were officially registered and competed in the elections, won a single seat during elections that the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe said fell short of international standards. Fatherlands Ray of Light (Nur-Otan) is the largest political party in Kazakhstan, led by Bakhytzhan Zhumagulov with over 762,000 members. ... AIST-Abujas Official Logo The African Institute of Science and Technology (AIST) is a university system concept developed by the Nelson Mandela Institution aimed toward bringing the highest level of technical learning facilities to the continent of Africa. ... Asar (All Together) was a political party in Kazakhstan. ...


In 1999, Kazakhstan applied for observer status at the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly. The official response of the Assembly was that Kazakhstan could apply for full membership, because it is partially located in Europe, but that they would not be granted any status whatsoever at the Council until their democracy and human rights records improved. Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) is one of the institutions of the Council of Europe. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


On December 4, 2005, Nursultan Nazarbayev was reelected in a landslide victory. The electoral commission announced that he had won over 90% of the vote. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) concluded the election did not meet international standards despite some improvements in the administration of the election. Xinhua News Agency reported that observers from the People's Republic of China, responsible in overseeing 25 polling stations in Astana, found that voting in those polls was conducted in a "transparent and fair" manner. [3] Furthermore, Western governments were muted in their criticism of the election. is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev (Kazakh: Нұрсұлтан Әбішұлы Назарбаев [Nûrsûltan Äbîshûlâ Nazarbayev]; Russian: Нурсултан Абишевич Назарбаев [Nursultan Abishyevic Nazarbayev] (born 6 July 1940 in Chemolgan, Kazakh SSR, Soviet Union) has served as the President of Kazakhstan since the Fall of the Soviet Union and the nations independence in 1991. ... Front gate of the main building of Xinhua News Agency in Beijing For other uses, see Xinhua (disambiguation). ... Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Askar Mamin Population (estimated)  - City 600,000 Time zone BTT (UTC+6) This article is about the capital of Kazakhstan; for the article on the palace in Sarawak, see Astana (Sarawak); for the professional road-cycling team see Astana Team; for the Iranian city, see Astaneh-e...


On August 17, 2007, elections to the lower house of parliament were held with the ruling Nur-Otan coalition winning every seat with 88% of the vote. Opposition parties made accusations of serious irregularities in the election.[5][6] is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fatherlands Ray of Light (Nur-Otan) is the largest political party in Kazakhstan, led by Bakhytzhan Zhumagulov with over 762,000 members. ...


Kazakh Intelligence Services

Kazakhstan's National Security Committee (KNB) was established on 13 June 1992. It includes the Service of Internal Security, Military Counterintelligence, Border Guard, several Commando units, and Foreign Intelligence (Barlau). The latter is considered by many as the most important part of KNB. Its director is Major General Omirtai Bitimov. is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ...


Provinces and raions

Main articles: Provinces of Kazakhstan and Raions of Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan is divided into 14 provinces (облыстар) and two municipal districts (қалалар)*: Almaty (Taldykorgan), Almaty*, Akmola (Kokshetau), Aktobe, Astana*, Atyrau, West Kazakhstan Province (Oral), Mangystau Province (Aktau), South Kazakhstan Province (Shymkent), Pavlodar, Karaganda, Kostanay, Kyzylorda, East Kazakhstan Province (Oskemen), North Kazakhstan Province (Petropavl), Zhambyl Province (Taraz). Kazakhstan is divided into 14 provinces oblystar (singular - oblys): Note: in 1995 the Governments of Kazakhstan and Russia entered into an agreement whereby Russia would lease for a period of 20 years an area of 6,000 sq km enclosing the Bayqongyr (Baykonur) space launch facilities and the city of... The provinces of Kazakhstan are divided into raions. ... Kazakhstan is divided into 14 provinces oblystar (singular - oblys): Note: in 1995 the Governments of Kazakhstan and Russia entered into an agreement whereby Russia would lease for a period of 20 years an area of 6,000 sq km enclosing the Bayqongyr (Baykonur) space launch facilities and the city of... Almaty is a province of Kazakhstan. ... Taldykorgan (Kazakh:Taldyqorghan) is a city in Kazakhstan. ... Map showing Almatys location in Kazakhstan Almaty Orthodox church Mosque Almaty (Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata, also Vernyj, Vyernyi (Верный) in Imperial Russia) is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,185,900 (2004) (8% of the population of Kazakhstan) citizens. ... Map of Kazakhstan showing Aqmola province. ... Kokshetau or Kökshetau{Also known as Kokchetav} is the administrative center of Aqmola Province, northern Kazakhstan. ... Image:Biz-Center 1, Aktobe. ... Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Askar Mamin Population (estimated)  - City 600,000 Time zone BTT (UTC+6) This article is about the capital of Kazakhstan; for the article on the palace in Sarawak, see Astana (Sarawak); for the professional road-cycling team see Astana Team; for the Iranian city, see Astaneh-e... Atyrau is a province of Kazakhstan. ... West Kazakhstan (Batys Qazaqstan) is a province of Kazakhstan. ... Oral on the map of Kazakhstan. ... Map of Kazakhstan showing Mangystau province. ... Aktau is a city in Kazakhstan and a seaport to the Caspian Sea. ... South Kazakhstan (Ongtüstik Qazaqstan) is a province of Kazakhstan. ... Shymkent (Kazakh: , Russian: ) or Chimkent, is the capital city of Ongtustik Qazaqstan (South Kazakhstan) Province, the most populated region in Kazakhstan. ... Map of Kazakhstan showing Pavlodar province. ... Karagandy is a province of Kazakhstan. ... Map of Kazakhstan showing Kostanay province. ... The Syr Darya River, in Qyzylorda. ... East Kazakhstan (Shyghys Qazaqstan) is a province of Kazakhstan. ... Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakh: &#1256;&#1089;&#1082;&#1077;&#1084;&#1077;&#1085;, Russian: &#1059;&#1089;&#1090;&#1100;-&#1050;&#1072;&#1084;&#1077;&#1085;&#1086;&#1075;&#1086;&#1088;&#1089;&#1082;) or Öskemen, is the capital of the Shyghys Qazaqstan (Eastern Kazakhstan) Oblast. ... North Kazakhstan (Soltustik Qazaqstan) is a province of Kazakhstan. ... Petropavl (Kazakh: ), also known as Petropavlovsk (from Russian: , not to be confused with Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky) is a city by Ishim River in Northern Kazakhstan close to the border with Russia, about 350km west of Omsk along the Trans-Siberian Railway. ... Zhambyl is a province of Kazakhstan. ... Taraz (formerly Zhambyl or Dzhambul) is a city and a center of the Zhambyl oblysy in Kazakhstan. ...


Note: Provinces have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses); in 1995 the Governments of Kazakhstan and Russia entered into an agreement whereby Russia would lease for a period of twenty years an area of 6,000 square kilometres (2,300 sq. mi); enclosing the Baikonur Cosmodrome and the city of Baikonur. Recently, the lease of Baikonur facilities was extended through 2050.[7] Map showing the location of Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan The Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы, Bayqoñır ÄŸarış aylağı; Russian: Космодром Байконур, Kosmodrom Baykonur), also called Tyuratam, is the worlds oldest and largest operational space launch facility. ...


Each province is headed by an Akim (provincial governor) appointed by the president. Municipal Akims are appointed by oblast Akims. The Government of Kazakhstan transferred its capital from Almaty to Astana on December 10, 1997. is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...


The provinces are subdivided into raions. A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ...


Geography

Map of Kazakhstan
Map of Kazakhstan

With an area of 2.7 million square kilometers (1.05 million sq. mi), Kazakhstan is the ninth-largest country in the world and the largest landlocked country in the world. It is equivalent to the size of Western Europe. It shares borders of 6,846 kilometers (4,254 mi) with Russia, 2,203 kilometers (1,369 mi) with Uzbekistan, 1,533 kilometers (953 mi) with the People's Republic of China, 1,051 kilometers (653 mi) with Kyrgyzstan, and 379 kilometers (235 mi) with Turkmenistan. Major cities include Astana (capital since December 1997), Almaty (the former capital), Karaganda, Shymkent (Chimkent), Semey (Semipalatinsk) and Turkestan. Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Kazakhstan Geography of Kazakhstan ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Kazakhstan Geography of Kazakhstan ... Map of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan is a landlocked country situateed in Central Asia, northwest of China. ... The following is a list of cities in Kazakhstan: Ak-mechet (Kyzyl-Orda, Perovsk) Aktau Aktobe Almati (Alma-Ata, Verny) Aral Astana - capital of Kazakhstan Atirau Ayaguz Beyneu Baikonur Chapayev Chu Ekibastuz Emba Karaganda Khorogos Kizilyar Koksetau Kostanay Oktyabrsk Oral Oskemen Pavlodar Petropavl (Petropavlovsk) Rudni Saryshagan Semey (Semipalatinsk) Chimkent... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Landlocked countries of the world. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Askar Mamin Population (estimated)  - City 600,000 Time zone BTT (UTC+6) This article is about the capital of Kazakhstan; for the article on the palace in Sarawak, see Astana (Sarawak); for the professional road-cycling team see Astana Team; for the Iranian city, see Astaneh-e... Map showing Almatys location in Kazakhstan Almaty Orthodox church Mosque Almaty (Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata, also Vernyj, Vyernyi (Верный) in Imperial Russia) is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,185,900 (2004) (8% of the population of Kazakhstan) citizens. ... Statue of Nurken Abdirov in downtown Karaganda Karaganda (Russian: Караганда) or Qaraghandy (Kazak: Қарағанды) is the capital of Qaraghandy Province in Kazakhstan. ... Shymkent (Kazakh: , Russian: ) or Chimkent, is the capital city of Ongtustik Qazaqstan (South Kazakhstan) Province, the most populated region in Kazakhstan. ... NASA satellite photo of Semey Semey, in Eastern Kazakstan Semey (Kazakh: ; also transliterated as Semij or Semei, and known by its Imperial Russian name of Semipalatinsk (Семипалатинск)) is a city in Kazakhstan, in the northeastern province of East Kazakhstan, near the border with Siberia, around 1,000 km north of Almaty... The Mazar of Shaikh Ahmad Yasavi in the town of Turkestan. ...

Syrdarya river in Kyzylorda province.
Syrdarya river in Kyzylorda province.

The terrain extends west to east from the Caspian Sea to the Altay Mountains and north to south from the plains of Western Siberia to the oases and deserts of Central Asia. The Kazakh Steppe(plain), with an area of around 804,500 square kilometres (310,600 sq. mi), occupies one-third of the country and is the world's largest dry steppe region. The steppe is characterized by large areas of grasslands and sandy regions. Important rivers and lakes include: the Aral Sea, Ili River, Irtysh River, Ishim River, Ural River, Charyn River and gorge, Lake Balkhash, and Lake Zaysan. Image File history File links Syrdrya_River. ... Image File history File links Syrdrya_River. ... Syr Darya (Uzbek: ; Kazakh: ; ; Persian: ‎, also transliterated Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia, sometimes known as the Jaxartes or Yaxartes from its Ancient Greek name . ... Qyzylorda (formerly Kyzyl-Orda) is a city in Kazakhstan, capital of Qyzylorda Province. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The steppes of Eastern Kazakhstan in Altyn Emeil National Park, where Genghis Khan reportedly once rode, appear to stretch out forever. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... The Konza tallgrass prairie in the Flint Hills of northeastern Kansas. ... The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре) is a landlocked endorheic sea in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... The Ili River is a river in Kazakhstan and in the western part of the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, in northwestern China. ... Irtysh (Russian:  ; Kazakh: Ertis / Эртiс ; Tatar: Ä°rteÅŸ / Иртеш ; Chinese: Erqisi / 额尔齐斯河) a river in Siberia, the chief tributary of the river Ob. ... The Ishim River (&#1048;&#1096;&#1080;&#769;&#1084;, another name is Esil River) is a river running through Kazakhstan and Russia. ... The Ural (Russian: , Kazakh: Жайық, Jayıq or Zhayyq), known as Yaik before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan. ... Lake Balkhash from space, April 1991 Lake Balkhash: NASA image, taken 18 April 2000 by SeaWiFS Lake Balkhash, or Lake Balqash, is a large lake in southeastern Kazakhstan, the second largest in Central Asia after the Aral Sea. ... Lake Zaysan (Russian: озеро Зайсан) is a freshwater lake, ca. ...


The climate is humid continental, with hot summers and colder winters. Precipitation varies between arid and semi-arid conditions. Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ...


The Charyn Canyon is 150-300 metres deep and 80 kilometres long, cutting through the red sandstone plateau and stretching along the Charyn River gorge in northern Tien Shan 'Heavenly Mountains' (200 km east of Almaty) at 43°21′1.16″N, 79°4′49.28″E . The steep canyon slopes, columns and arches rise to heights of 150-300 m. The inaccessibility of the canyon provided a safe haven for a rare ash tree that survived the Ice Age and is nowadays also grown in some other areas. Charyn Canyon is an 80km canyon in Kazakhstan on the Charyn River 200km east of Almaty close to the Chinese border. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: &#22825;&#23665;; Pinyin: Ti&#257;n Sh&#257;n; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains), also commonly spelled Tien Shan, and known as Tangri Tagh (celestial mountains or mountains of the spirits) in the Uyghur language, is a mountain range located in Central Asia. ... Map showing Almatys location in Kazakhstan Almaty Orthodox church Mosque Almaty (Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata, also Vernyj, Vyernyi (Верный) in Imperial Russia) is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,185,900 (2004) (8% of the population of Kazakhstan) citizens. ...


Economy

Main square in the new capital Astana (built 1998).
Main article: Economy of Kazakhstan

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (960x1280, 559 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (960x1280, 559 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Askar Mamin Population (estimated)  - City 600,000 Time zone BTT (UTC+6) This article is about the capital of Kazakhstan; for the article on the palace in Sarawak, see Astana (Sarawak); for the professional road-cycling team see Astana Team; for the Iranian city, see Astaneh-e... Overview Kazakhstan, the second largest of the former Soviet republics in territory, possesses enormous untapped fossil fuel reserves as well as plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals. ...

Overview

The government of Kazakhstan plans to double its Gross domestic product (GDP) by 2008 and triple by 2015 compared to 2000. The GDP growth was stable in the last five years, and was higher than 9%. GDP growth in 2005 was 9.2%, and 9.4% in 2004. Kazakhstan's economy grew by 9.2% in 2003, buoyed by high world crude oil prices. GDP grew 9.5% in 2002; it grew 13.2% in 2001, up from 9.8% in 2000. This article is about GDP in the context of economics. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ...


External opinion generally considers Kazakhstan's monetary policy to be well-managed. Its principal challenges in 2002 were to manage strong foreign currency inflows without sparking inflation. In 2003 inflation did not remain under control, registering at 6.8% instead of the forecast level of 5.3%-6.0%. In 2002 inflation was 6.6%, compared to 6.4% in 2001. In 2000 Kazakhstan became the first former Soviet republic to repay all of its debt to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), 7 years ahead of schedule. In March 2002, the U.S. Department of Commerce graduated Kazakhstan to market economy status under U.S. trade law. The change in status recognized substantive market economy reforms in the areas of currency convertibility, wage rate determination, openness to foreign investment, and government control over the means of production and allocation of resources. It has been suggested that monetary theory be merged into this article or section. ... “IMF” redirects here. ... The United States Department of Commerce is a Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth. ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system. ... The Trade Act of 2002 (HR 3009; also called the ) grants the President of the United States the authority to negotiate trade deals with other countries and only gives Congress the approval to vote up or down on the agreement, but not to amend it. ...


In September 2002 Kazakhstan became the first country in the CIS to receive an investment-grade credit rating from a major international credit rating agency. As of late December 2003, Kazakhstan's gross foreign debt was about $22.9 billion. Total governmental debt was $4.2 billion. This amounts to 14% of the GDP. There has been a noticeable reduction in the ratio of debt to GDP observed in past years; the ratio of total governmental debt to GDP in 2000 was 21.7%, in 2001 it was 17.5%, and in 2002 it was 15.4%.  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Viktor Yanukovych Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... A credit rating assesses the credit worthiness of an individual, corporation, or even a country. ...


The upturn in economic growth, combined with the results of earlier tax and financial sector reforms, dramatically improved government finances from the 1999 budget deficit level of 3.5% of GDP to a deficit of 1.2% of GDP in 2003. Government revenues grew from 19.8% of GDP in 1999 to 22.6% of GDP in 2001, but decreased to 16.2% of GDP in 2003. In 2000, Kazakhstan adopted a new tax code in an effort to consolidate these gains. On November 29, 2003 the Law on Changes to Tax Code was adopted, which reduced tax rates. The value added tax fell from 16% to 15%, the social tax from 21% to 20%, and the personal income tax from 30% to 20%. (On July 7, 2006 the personal income tax was reduced even further to a flat rate of 5% for personal income in the form of dividends and 10% for other personal income.) Kazakhstan furthered its reforms by adopting a new land code on June 20, 2003, and a new customs code on April 5, 2003. World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... Tax reform is the process of changing the way taxes are collected or managed by the government. ... A budget deficit occurs when an entity (often a government) spends more money than it takes in. ... In the UK, every person paid under the PAYE scheme is allocated a tax code. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Comparison of tax rates around the world is a difficult and somewhat subjective enterprise. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        Value added tax (VAT), or goods and services tax (GST), is... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Energy is the leading economic sector. Production of crude oil and natural gas condensate in Kazakhstan amounted to 51.2 million tons in 2003, which was 8.6% more than in 2002. Kazakhstan raised oil and gas condensate exports to 44.3 million tons in 2003, 13% higher than in 2002. Gas production in Kazakhstan in 2003 amounted to 13.9 billion cubic meters (491 billion cu. ft), up 22.7% compared to 2002, including natural gas production of 7.3 billion cubic meters (258 billion cu. ft); Kazakhstan holds about 4 billion tons of proven recoverable oil reserves and 2,000 cubic kilometers (480 cu mi) of gas. Industry analysts believe that planned expansion of oil production, coupled with the development of new fields, will enable the country to produce as much as 3 million barrels (477,000 m³) per day by 2015, lifting Kazakhstan into the ranks of the world's top 10 oil-producing nations. Kazakhstan's 2003 oil exports were valued at more than $7 billion, representing 65% of overall exports and 24% of the GDP. Major oil and gas fields and their recoverable oil reserves are Tengiz with 7 billion barrels (1.1 km³); Karachaganak with 8 billion barrels (1.3 km³) and 1,350 km³ of natural gas); and Kashagan with 7 to 9 billion barrels (1.1 to 1.4 km³). This article is about the fossil fuel. ... Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Thousand Cubic Feet be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Thousand Cubic Feet be merged into this article or section. ... A cubic kilometre (symbol km³) is an SI derived unit of volume. ... A cubic mile is an Imperial unit/U.S. customary unit (non-SI non-metric) of volume, used in the United States. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... Tengiz field, in western Kazakhstan, is located in the swamplands along the northeast shores of the Caspian Sea. ... Karachaganak Field is a gas condensate field in Kazakhstan. ... Kashagan Field is an oil field located in Kazakhstan. ...


Kazakhstan instituted an ambitious pension reform program in 1998. As of January 1, 2005, the pension assets were about $4.1 billion. There are 16 saving pension funds in the republic. The State Accumulating Pension Fund, the only state-owned fund, could be privatized as early as 2006. The country's unified financial regulatory agency oversees and regulates the pension funds. The pension funds' growing demand for quality investment outlets triggered rapid development of the debt securities market. Pension fund capital is being invested almost exclusively in corporate and government bonds, including Government of Kazakhstan Eurobonds. The Kazakhstani banking system is developing rapidly. The banking system's capitalization now exceeds $1 billion. The National Bank has introduced deposit insurance in its campaign to strengthen the banking sector. Several major foreign banks have branches in Kazakhstan, including ABN AMRO, Citibank, and HSBC. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Securities are tradeable interests representing financial value. ... For alternative meanings, see bond (a disambiguation page). ... ABN AMRO (Euronext: AAB, NYSE: ABN) is one of the largest banks in Europe and has operations all over the world. ... Citibank is a major international bank, founded in 1812 as the City Bank of New York. ... For other uses, see HSBC (disambiguation). ...


Agriculture

A meat vendor at the Green Market in Almaty, Kazakhstan.
A meat vendor at the Green Market in Almaty, Kazakhstan.

Agriculture accounted for 13.6% of Kazakhstan's GDP in 2003. Grain (Kazakhstan is the sixth-largest producer in the world) and livestock are the most important agricultural commodities. Agricultural land occupies more than 846,000 square kilometres (327,000 sq. mi). The available agricultural land consists of 205,000 square kilometres (79,000 sq. mi) of arable land and 611,000 square kilometres (236,000 sq. mi) of pasture and hay land. Chief livestock products are dairy products, leather, meat, and wool. The country's major crops include wheat, barley, cotton, and rice. Wheat exports, a major source of hard currency, rank among the leading commodities in Kazakhstan's export trade. In 2003 Kazakhstan harvested 17.6 million tons of grain in gross, 2.8% higher compared to 2002. Kazakh agriculture still has many environmental problems from mismanagement during its years in the Soviet Union. Some Kazakh wine is produced in the mountains to the east of Almaty. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Map showing Almatys location in Kazakhstan Almaty Orthodox church Mosque Almaty (Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata, also Vernyj, Vyernyi (Верный) in Imperial Russia) is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,185,900 (2004) (8% of the population of Kazakhstan) citizens. ... Agriculture in Kazakhstan remains a small scale sector of Kazakhstans economy. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ... Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... This article is about the food. ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals and people of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats and rabbits and oxes... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Soft currency be merged into this article or section. ... Despite being a Muslim country, Kazakhstan produced 21,100 tonnes of wine in 2005 according to the FAO.[1] However, that figure may include production of Kumis, a drink made from fermented horse milk. ...

Wild Malus sieversii apple in Kazakhstan
Wild Malus sieversii apple in Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan is thought to be part of the original home of the apple, particularly the wild ancestor of Malus domestica is Malus sieversii. It has no common name in English, but is known in Kazakhstan, where it is native, as 'alma'; in fact, the region where it is thought to originate is called Alma-Ata, or 'father of the apples'. This tree is still found wild in the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Xinjiang, China. Image File history File links 95apple. ... Image File history File links 95apple. ... Alma, or malus sieversii, is a plant seemingly native to the area around Kazakhstan which is thought to be the primary modern ancestor of the apple tree. ... This article is about the fruit. ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i. ... Alma, or malus sieversii, is a plant seemingly native to the area around Kazakhstan which is thought to be the primary modern ancestor of the apple tree. ... Alma may refer to: Canada Alma, Ontario, a small village in Ontario, Canada Alma, Quebec, a town in Quebec, Canada Alma, New Brunswick, a fishing village on the Bay of Fundy Crimea Alma (river) and the site of the Battle of Alma (September 20, 1854) Kazakhstan Almaty, until recently the... Map showing Almatys location in Kazakhstan Almaty Orthodox church Mosque Almaty (Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata, also Vernyj, Vyernyi (Верный) in Imperial Russia) is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,185,900 (2004) (8% of the population of Kazakhstan) citizens. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...


Natural resources

Kazakhstan has an abundant supply of accessible mineral and fossil fuel resources. Development of petroleum, natural gas, and mineral extraction has attracted most of the over $40 billion in foreign investment in Kazakhstan since 1993 and accounts for some 57% of the nation's industrial output (or approximately 13% of gross domestic product). According to some estimates[8], Kazakhstan has the second largest uranium, chromium, lead, and zinc reserves, the third largest manganese reserves, the fifth largest copper reserves, and ranks in the top ten for coal, iron, and gold. It is also an exporter of diamonds and potassium. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... This article is about the fossil fuel. ... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the mineral. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ...


In total, there are 160 deposits with over 2.7 billion tons of petroleum. Oil explorations have shown that the deposits on the Caspian shore are only a small part of a much larger deposit. It is said that 3.5 billion tons of oil and 2.5 trillion cubic meters of gas could be found in that area. Overall the estimate of Kazakhstan's oil deposits is 6.1 billion tons. However, there are only 3 refineries within the country, situated in Atyrau, Pavlodar, and Shymkent. These are not capable of processing the total crude output so much of it is exported to Russia. The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... A refinery is composed of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operations used for refining certain materials or converting raw material into products of value. ... Atyrau is a city in Kazakhstan. ... The Grand mosque of Pavlodar Pavlodar (&#1055;&#1072;&#1074;&#1083;&#1086;&#1076;&#1072;&#769;&#1088;) is a city in northeastern Kazakhstan, 350km northeast of the country capital Astana, and 350km southeast of Russias Omsk along the Irtysh River. ... Shymkent (Kazakh: , Russian: ) or Chimkent, is the capital city of Ongtustik Qazaqstan (South Kazakhstan) Province, the most populated region in Kazakhstan. ...


Foreign relations

Kazakhstan has stable relationships with all of its neighbors. Kazakhstan is also a member of the United Nations, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council and Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). It is an active participant in the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Partnership for Peace program. Kazakhstan is also a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Economic Cooperation Organization and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization along with Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The nations of Kazakhstan, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan established the Eurasian Economic Community in 2000 to re-energize earlier efforts at harmonizing trade tariffs and the creation of a free trade zone under a customs union. Foreign relations of Kazakhstan are primarily based on economic and military security. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) OIC redirects here. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... Partnership for Peace is a NATO project aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union. ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Viktor Yanukovych Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... Map of the ECO member states The Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) is an intergovernmental international organization involving ten Asian nations. ... Membership 6 member states 4 observer states Headquarters Secretariat RATS - Beijing - Tashkent Working languages Chinese, Russian Secretary General Zhang Deguang Formation 14 June 2001 Official website http://www. ... Flag of EurAsEC The Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC or EAEC) was put into motion on 10 October 2000 when Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan signed the treaty. ...


Since independence in 1991, Kazakhstan has pursued what is known as the multidimensional foreign policy (многовекторная внешняя политика), seeking equally good relations with two large neighbors, Russia and China, and the United States and the West generally. The policy has yielded results in the oil and gas sector, where companies from the U.S., Russia, China, and Europe are present at all major fields, and in the multidimensional directions of oil export pipelines out of Kazakhstan.


Kazakhstan also enjoys strong, and rapidly developing, political and economic ties with Turkey.


Kazakhstan possesses the most major Soviet cosmodrome, where the first man was launched in space as well as Soviet space shuttle Buran and the well-known space station Mir. Russia currently leases approximately 6,000 km² (2,300 mi²) of territory enclosing the Baikonur Cosmodrome space launch site in south central Kazakhstan. The Buran spacecraft, serial number 11F35 K1, was the only fully completed and operational space shuttle from the Soviet Unions Buran program. ... Mir (Russian: ; lit. ... Map showing the location of Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan The Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы, Bayqoñır ÄŸarış aylağı; Russian: Космодром Байконур, Kosmodrom Baykonur), also called Tyuratam, is the worlds oldest and largest operational space launch facility. ...


On June 18, 2006, Kazakhstan became a space-faring nation in its own right when it launched its first commercial satellite, KazSat 1, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome on a Russian-built booster rocket. [4] is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... KazSat 1, the first Kazakh space satellite, was launched on June 18, 2006. ...


In September 2006, President Nazarbayev visited the United States, where he met President George W. Bush at the Oval Office and several key members of the U.S. Administration and Congress. While in Washington, President Nazarbayev unveiled the Monument of Independence of Kazakhstan and addressed a large gathering of the political and business elite on Kazakhstan's approach to nuclear nonproliferation.


Demographics

Population of Kazakhstan. ...

Population

Mosque in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan; Kazakhs predominately follow Sunni Islam.

The population is estimated to be 63% ethnic Kazakhs and 23% ethnic Russian, with a rich array of other groups represented, including Tatars, Uzbeks, Bashkirs, Uyghurs and Ukrainians. Some minorities such as Russian Germans (esp.Volga Germans), Ukrainians and Russian political opponents of the regime had been deported to Kazakhstan in the 1930s and 1940s by Stalin. Some of the bigger Soviet labor camps existed in Kazakhstan. Significant Russian immigration also connected with Virgin Lands Campaign and Soviet space program during Khrushchev era. There is also a small but active Jewish community. Before 1991 there were one million Volga Germans in Kazakhstan; most of them emigrated to Germany following the breakup of the Soviet Union. Most members of the smaller Pontian Greek minority have emigrated to Greece. The main religious groups are Muslim (mainly Sunni) 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, and other 7%. [5] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 436 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (468 × 644 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Pavlodar mosque File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 436 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (468 × 644 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Pavlodar mosque File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Grand mosque of Pavlodar Pavlodar (&#1055;&#1072;&#1074;&#1083;&#1086;&#1076;&#1072;&#769;&#1088;) is a city in northeastern Kazakhstan, 350km northeast of the country capital Astana, and 350km southeast of Russias Omsk along the Irtysh River. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Languages Kazakh (and/or languages in country of residence) Religions Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар []; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia, and... This article is about the people. ... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living near the Volga River and the Black Sea, maintaining German culture, German language, German traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutherans or Roman Catholic. ... The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living near the Volga River and the Black Sea, maintaining German culture, German language, German traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutherans or Roman Catholic. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labor. ... Virgin Lands by Fedor Malaev, a romanticised view of the Campaign The Virgin Lands Campaign was an initiative by Nikita Khrushchev to open up vast tracts of unused (virgin) steppe in the northern Kazakh SSR and the Altai region of the Russian SFSR, started in 1954. ... Soviet Soyuz rockets like the one pictured above were the first reliable means to transport objects into Earth orbit. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living near the Volga River and the Black Sea, maintaining German culture, German language, German traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutherans or Roman Catholic. ... Traditional rural Pontic house The term Pontic Greeks, Pontian Greeks, Pontians or Greeks of Pontus (Greek: Πόντιοι, Ποντιακοί or Έλληνες του Πόντου, Turkish: Pontus Rumları) can refer to Greeks specifically from the area of Pontus in the region of the former Empire of Trebizond on the Black Sea coast of Eastern Turkey, or in other... By tradition the Kazaks are Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi school, and the Russians are Russian Orthodox. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic &#1587;&#1606;&#1617;&#1577;) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (&#1056;&#1091;&#1089;&#1089;&#1082;&#1072;&#1103; &#1055;&#1088;&#1072;&#1074;&#1086;&#1089;&#1083;&#1072;&#1074;&#1085;&#1072;&#1103; &#1094;&#1077;&#1088;&#1082;&#1086;&#1074;&#1100;) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Kazakhstan is a bilingual country: the Kazakh language, spoken by 64.4% of the population, has the status of the "state" language, while Russian, which is spoken by almost all Kazakhstanis, is declared the "official" language, and is used routinely in business. Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ...


The 1990s were marked by the emigration of many of the country's Europeans, a process that began in the 1970s; this was a major factor in giving the autochthonous Kazakhs a majority along with higher Kazakh birthrates and ethnic Kazakh immigration from the People's Republic of China, Mongolia, and Russia. In the early twenty first century, Kazakhstan has become one of the leading nations in international adoptions. International adoption refers to adopting a child from a foreign country. ...


Table: Ethnic Composition of Kazakhstan (census data)[9] [10] [11]

Nationality 1897 % 1911 % 1926 % 1939 % 1959 % 1970 % 1979 % 1989 % 1999 % 2006 %
Kazakh 73.9 60.8 59.5 38.0 30.0 32.6 36.0 39.7 53.4 59.2
Russian 12.8 27.0 18.0 40.2 42.7 42.4 40.8 37.4 29.9 25.6
Ukrainian * * 12.4 10.8 8.2 7.2 6.1 5.4 3.7 2.9
German - - 0.7 1.5 7.1 6.6 6.1 5.8 2.4 1.4
Tatar 1.1 1.1 0.7 1.6 1.5 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.7 1.5
Uzbek 1.3 1.1 3.2 1.7 1.1 1.7 1.8 2.0 2.5 2.9
Belarusian * * - 0.5 1.2 1.5 1.2 1.1 0.8 -
Uighur - - - - 0.6 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.5
Korean - - - - 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 -

* For 1897 and 1911 "Russians" include all Slavs.


Religion

Dzhalilov, Z. (2006). Islam and Society in Modern Kazakhstan. Almaty: Daik-Press, pp.185. 

Religious Organizations  % , as of 2003
Islam 53.7
Russian Orthodox Church 7.8
Roman Catholic Church 2.9
Evangelical Christians, Baptists 12.3
Lutherans 3.2
Seventh Day Adventists 3.3
Jehovah’s Witnesses 4.2
Pentecostals 1.4
Newly founded 11.1
Others 3.0

The country has historically hosted a wide variety of ethnic groups with varying religions. Tolerance to other societies has become a part of the Kazakh culture. Foundation of an Independent republic, following the disintegration of the USSR, has launched a great deal of changes in every aspect of people’s lives. Religiosity of the population, as an essential part of any cultural identity, has undergone dynamic transformations as well.


After decades of suppressed culture, the people were feeling a great need for exhibiting their ethnical identity – in part through the religion. Quantitative research shows that for the first years after the establishment of the new laws, waiving any restrictions on religious beliefs and proclaiming full freedom of confessions, the country experienced a huge spike in religious activity of its citizens. Hundreds of Mosques, Synagogues’, Churches, and the likes were built in a matter of years. All represented religions benefited from increased number of members and facilities. Many confessions that were absent before independence made their way into the country, appealing to hundreds of people. The government supported this activity, and has done its best to provide equality among all religious organizations and their followers. In late 1990’s, however, a slight decline in religiosity occurred.


Radical religious organizations, despite a popular belief, are of little danger to the national security. The few organizations that were uncovered are being investigated thoroughly by the proper committee. Therefore, Kazakhstan has a very diverse, stable, and safe religious background – a truly exceptional occurrence.


Kazakhs and Kazakhstanis (terminology)

For many years, Russians often outnumbered the Kazakhs in many parts of the area known today as Kazakhstan. Even now, Russians and people of other ethnic origins play an important role in the economy and government and consider the country their home.


The Russian term казахстанец (Kazakhstani) was coined to describe all inhabitants of Kazakhstan, including non-Kazakhs.[12] The word "Kazakh" is generally used to refer to people of actual Kazakh descent (including those living in China, Afghanistan, and other Central Asian countries).


The ethnonym Kazakh is derived from an ancient Turkic word "independent, a free spirit". It is the result of Kazakhs' nomadic horseback culture and is related to the term "cossack". The Avestan/Old Persian (See Indo-European languages) word "stan" means "land" or "place of". For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... Yasna 28. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ...


Education

Education is universal and mandatory through to the secondary level and the adult literacy rate is 99.5%. Education consists of three main educational phases: primary education (forms 1–4), basic general education (forms 5–9) and senior level education (forms 10–11 or 12) divided into continued general education and professional education. (Primary education is preceded by one year of pre-school education.) These three levels of education can be followed in one institution or in different ones (e.g. primary school, then secondary school). Recently, several secondary schools, specialized schools, magnet schools, gymnasiums, lyceums, linguistic and technical gymnasiums, have been founded. Secondary professional education is offered in special professional or technical schools, lyceums or colleges and vocational schools. Education in Kazakhstan dates to the Soviet influence to unify Kazakhstan into the broader Soviet Union under communism. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... World literacy rates by country, based on The World Factbook. ... A primary school in ÄŒeský Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... In the U.S. system of education, a magnet school is a public school which offers innovative courses, specialized training, etc. ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... A Lyceum can be an educational institution (often a school of secondary education in Europe), or a public hall used for cultural events like concerts. ...


At present, there are universities, academies, and institutes, conservatories, higher schools and higher colleges. There are three main levels: basic higher education that provides the fundamentals of the chosen field of study and leads to the award of the Bachelor's degree; specialized higher education after which students are awarded the Specialist's Diploma; and scientific-pedagogical higher education which leads to the Master's Degree. Postgraduate education leads to the Kandidat Nauk (Candidate of Sciences) and the Doctor of Sciences. With the adoption of the Laws on Education and on Higher Education, a private sector has been established and several private institutions have been licensed.


Culture

Riders in traditional dress demonstrate Kazakhstan's equestrian culture by playing a kissing game, Kyz Kuu ("Chase the Girl"), one of a number of traditional games played on horseback [2].
Riders in traditional dress demonstrate Kazakhstan's equestrian culture by playing a kissing game, Kyz Kuu ("Chase the Girl"), one of a number of traditional games played on horseback [2].
Main article: Culture of Kazakhstan
See also: Music of Kazakhstan

Before the Russian conquest, the Kazaks had a well-articulated culture based on their nomadic pastoral economy. Although Islam was introduced to most of the Kazaks in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the religion was not fully assimilated until much later. As a result, it coexisted with earlier elements of Tengriism. Traditional Kazak belief held that separate spirits inhabited and animated the earth, sky, water, and fire, as well as domestic animals. To this day, particularly honored guests in rural settings are treated to a feast of freshly killed lamb. Such guests are sometimes asked to bless the lamb and to ask its spirit for permission to partake of its flesh. Besides lamb, many other traditional foods retain symbolic value in Kazak culture. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... For other uses, see Kiss (disambiguation). ... Kazakh food preparation Kazakh culture began to develop in the 13th century. ... The modern state of Kazakhstan is home to the Kazakh State Kurmangazy Orchestra of Folk Instruments, Kazakh State Philharmonic Orchestra, Kazakh National Opera and the Kazakh State Chamber Orchestra. ...


Because animal husbandry was central to the Kazaks' traditional lifestyle, most of their nomadic practices and customs relate in some way to livestock. Traditional curses and blessings invoked disease or fecundity among animals, and good manners required that a person ask first about the health of a man's livestock when greeting him and only afterward inquire about the human aspects of his life.


Kazakhstan has a large modern music following, evident in its participation in the western style- pop idol. Asiatic versions of the guitar prevail as popular musical instruments. One of the greatest performances of the Kazak pop idol involved a "freestyljo" remix using this Asiatic instrument. Kazaks are known for their love of music, dance and festival in general.


Public holidays

Date English name Local name
January 1 New Year's Day Жаңа жыл / Новый Год
January 7 Eastern Orthodox Christmas Рождество Христово Not an official state holiday, but a day-off.
Last day of Hajj Qurban Ait* Құрбан айт
March 8 International Women's Day Халықаралық әйелдер күні / Международный женский день
March 22 Nauryz Meyrami Наурыз мейрамы Traditionally a springtime holiday marking the beginning of a new year, sometimes as late as April 21.
May 1 Kazakhstan People’s Unity Day Қазақстан халқының бірлігі мерекесі / Праздник единства народа Казахстана
May 9 World War II Victory Day Жеңіс күні / День Победы A holiday in the former Soviet Union carried over to present-day Kazakhstan and other former republics.
August 30 Constitution Day Қазақстан Республикасының Конституциясы күні / День Конституции Республики Казахстан
October 25 Republic Day Республика күні / День Республики
December 16 Independence Day Тәуелсіздік куні / День независимости

* Eid al-Adha, the Islamic Feast of the Sacrifice. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Islamic tradition. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image:IWD 2007 Logo. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Persepolis all nations stair case. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May Day is May 1, and refers to any of several holidays celebrated on this day. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 9, Soviet poster based on the famous photo of the Soviet flag being raised over the Reichstag in 1945. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2005-12-10, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Republic Day is the name of a public holiday in several countries to commemorate the day when they first became republics. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Independence Day (disambiguation). ... Eid ul-Adha (Arabic: &#1593;&#1610;&#1583; &#1575;&#1604;&#1571;&#1590;&#1581;&#1609;) is second in the series of Eid festivals that Muslims celebrate. ...


See also

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... A view of Kaindy Lake. ... Proposed Central Asian Union A Central Asian Union was proposed by Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbaev on April 26, 2007, consisting of the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. ... Map showing the location of Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan The Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы, Bayqoñır ğarış aylağı; Russian: Космодром Байконур, Kosmodrom Baykonur), also called Tyuratam, is the worlds oldest and largest operational space launch facility. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 1. ... Politics of Kazakhstan Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in Kazakhstan ... There are a number of environmental issues in Kazakhstan, in large part due to its years under the Soviet Union. ... Foreign relations of Kazakhstan are primarily based on economic and military security. ... The human rights situation in Kazakhstan has been an area of concern for many outside governmental and non-governmental observers. ... This is a list of Kazakh historical figures: Stamps featuring Toktar Aubakirov, the first Kazakh in space. ... Traditional Kazakh food revolves around mutton and horse meat as well as sour milk products. ... The steppes of Eastern Kazakhstan in Altyn Emeil National Park, where Genghis Khan reportedly once rode, appear to stretch out forever. ... Kipchaks in EurAsia circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Chinese: 欽察/钦察, Qīnchá, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium... Kazakhstani Media are relatively free by Central Asian standards. ... The Military of Kazakhstan is derived from a remnant force of the former Soviet Union. ... This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Kazakhstan. ... List of schools in Kazakhstan. ... Membership badge of the Organization of the Scout Movement of Kazakhstan Skauttik Ķozĝalys Üǐymy Ķazaķstan, (in Russian Организация Скаутского Движения Казахстан) the Organization of the Scout Movement of Kazakhstan (OSMK), was officially founded in 1992, and is working toward World Organization of the Scout Movement recognition. ... While not well known, the practice of sports in Kazakhstan is a unique part of the national heritage. ... Railways: total: 14,400 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines broad gauge: 14,400 km 1. ... By tradition the Kazaks are Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi school, and the Russians are Russian Orthodox. ... Bukharan Jews got their name from the Uzbek city of Bukhara, which once had a large community. ... The Germans of Kazakhstan are a significant minority in Kazakhstan, and make up several percent of population. ... Russian Orthodox church in Almaty There has been a substantial population of Russians in Kazakhstan since the 19th century. ... Languages Russian, Koryo-mar Religions Orthodox Christianity, Protestantism, Buddhism, others[2] Related ethnic groups Koreans, Sakhalin Koreans Koryo-saram (Russian: Корё сарам; Koryo-mar: 고려사람) is the name which ethnic Koreans in the Post-Soviet states use to refer to themselves. ...

Bibliography

  • Kazakhs by Martha Brill Olcott
  • Epicenter of Peace by Nursultan Nazarbayev
  • Kazakhstan: Coming of Age by Michael Furgus and Janar Jandosova
  • Kazakhstan: Power and the Elite Sally Cummings
  • Kazakhstan: Unfulfilled Promise Martha Brill Olcott
  • Lonely Planet Guide: Central Asia by Paul Clammer, Michael Kohn and Bradley Mayhew
  • The Lost Heart of Asia by Colin Thubron
  • Once in Kazakhstan : The Snow Leopard Emerges Keith Rosten
  • Post-Soviet Chaos: Violence and Dispossession in Kazakhstan by Joma Nazpary
  • The Russian Colonization of Kazakhstan by George Demko
  • Uneasy Alliance: Relations Between Russia and Kazakhstan in the Post-Soviet Era, 1992-1997 by Mikhail Alexandrov
  • Journey into Kazakhstan: The True Face of the Nazabayev Regime Alexandra George
  • Law and Custom in the Steppe by Virginia Martin
  • Silk Road to Ruin: Is Central Asia the New Middle East by Ted Rall

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ World War 3 web site.
  3. ^ Central Asia-Caucasus Institute briefing, July 5, 2000.
  4. ^ RFE Newsline, April 12, 1996.
  5. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/6952452.stm
  6. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/6949764.stm
  7. ^ CIA World Factbook: Kazakhstan.
  8. ^ Mineral Wealth.
  9. ^ Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights/ http://www.ohchr.org/english/issues/minorities/docs/WP5.doc
  10. ^ Alexandrov, Mikhail. Uneasy Alliance: Relations Between Russia and Kazakhstan in the Post-Soviet Era, 1992-1997. Greenwood Press, 1999, ISBN 978-0313309656
  11. ^ Agency on Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan - "Demographic situation in the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2006"/ http://www.stat.kz/index.php?lang=rus&uin=1176791556&chapter=1176791809 (in Russian)
  12. ^ Surucu, Cengiz (December 2002). "Modernity, Nationalism, Resistance: Identity Politics in Post-Soviet Kazakhstan". Central Asian Survey: 385-402. 

is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...

External links

Kazakhstan Portal
Find more information on Kazakhstan by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity

Government Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

Elections

Overviews

News The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), is a organisation under the United Nations which originated in December 1991 with the General Assembly Resolution 46/182. ...

  • The Kazakhstan Post
  • The Times of Central Asia (Kazakhstan events)
  • Khabar: Kazakhstan News Agency

Travel

Other links Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

Geographic locale
International organizations

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kazakhstan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4174 words)
Kazakhstan is the ninth-largest country in the world by area, but its semi-deserts (steppe) make it only the 57th country in population, with approximately 6 persons per sq km (15/mi²).
Kazakhstan has stable relationships with all of its neighbors and is a member of the United Nations, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council and Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC).
Kazakhstan is a bilingual country: the Kazakh language, spoken by 64.4% of the population, has the status of the "state" language, while Russian is declared the "official" language, and is used routinely in business.
Politics of Kazakhstan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (974 words)
Politics of Kazakhstan takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Kazakhstan is head of state and nominates the head of government.
Kazakhstan is divided into 14 Oblasts and the two municipal districts of Almaty and Astana.
The Government of Kazakhstan transferred its capital from Almaty to Astana on 10 June 1998.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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