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Encyclopedia > Kazakh language
Kazakh
Qazaq tili, Қазақ тілі, قازاق تىلى
Spoken in: Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Russia, Iran 
Region: Central Asia
Total speakers: 12 million 
Ranking: 66
Language family: Altaic[1] (controversial)
 Turkic
  Kypchak
   Kypchak-Nogay
    Kazakh 
Writing system: Latin alphabet, Cyrillic alphabet, Arabic alphabet 
Official status
Official language of: Kazakhstan
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: kk
ISO 639-2: kaz
ISO 639-3: kaz

Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively Qazaq tili, Қазақ тілі, قازاق ٴتىلى‎; pronounced [qɑzɑq tˈlə]) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ... Altaic is a putative language family which would include 60 languages spoken by about 250 million people, mostly in and around central Asia. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... The Kypchak languages (also known as the Kipchak, Qypchaq, or Northeastern Turkic languages), are a major branch of the Turkic language family spoken by more than 12 million people in an area spanning from Lithuania to China. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Nogai (also Nogay or Nogai Tatar), is a Turkic language spoken in southwestern Russia. ... Karakalpak is a Turkic language mainly spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan), as well as by Kazakhs, Bashkirs and Nogay. ...


Kazakh is an agglutinative language, and it employs vowel harmony. It has been suggested that Agglutination be merged into this article or section. ... Vowel harmony (also metaphony) is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels. ...

Contents

Geographic distribution

Kazakh is the official state language of Kazakhstan, along with Russian, the official language of commerce. In Kazakhstan, nearly 10 million speakers are reported (based on CIA World Factbook's estimates for population and percentage of Kazakh speakers). More than two million speakers reside in China. Russian Census (2002) reported 560,000 Kazakh speakers in Russia. Other sizable populations of Kazakh speakers live in Mongolia (fewer than 200,000). Large numbers exist elsewhere in Central Asia (mostly in Uzbekistan) and the former Soviet Union, and in Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, and other countries. There are also some Kazakh speakers in Germany. They immigrated from Turkey in the 1970s. Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


Writing system

Main article: Kazakh alphabet

Related predecessors to Kazakh were written in the Orkhon script, containing 24 letters. Modern Kazakh has historically been written using versions of the Latin, Cyrillic, and Arabic scripts. The Kazakh alphabets are the alphabets used to write the Kazakh language. ... Orkhon tablet Inscription in Kyzyl using Orkhon script Orkhon script The Orkhon script (also spelled Orhon script, also Orkhon-Yenisey script, Old Turkic script, Göktürk script, Turkish: Orhon Yazıtları) is the alphabet used by the Göktürk from the 8th century to record the Old Turkic... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ...


Today, Kazakh is written in Cyrillic in Kazakhstan and Mongolia, while the more than one million Kazakh-speakers in China use an Arabic-derived script similar to that used to write Uyghur. Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ...


In October of 2006, Nursultan Nazarbaev, the president of Kazakhstan, brought up the topic of using the Latin alphabet instead of the Cyrillic alphabet as the official script for Kazakh in Kazakhstan.[3][4] A Kazakh government study released in September 2007 said that Kazakhstan could feasibly switch to a Latin script over a 10 to 12 year period, for a cost of $300 million.[5] The shift to the Latin alphabet is seen both as a way of furthering Kazakhstan's decolonization project and more deeply integrating the country into the global information economy.[6] Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev (Kazakh: Нұрсұлтан Әбішұлы Назарбаев [Nûrsûltan Äbîshûlâ Nazarbayev]; Russian: Нурсултан Абишёвич Назарбаев [Nursultan Abishevich Nazarbayev]) (born July 6, 1940 in Chemolgan, Kazakhstan) is the current President of Kazakhstan, and the countrys only leader since independence from the Soviet Union. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ...


Phonology

Kazakh exhibits front-back vowel harmony, with some words of recent foreign origin as exceptions. There is also a system of rounding harmony which resembles that of Kyrgyz, but which doesn't apply as strongly and isn't reflected in the orthography. Vowel harmony (also metaphony) is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels. ...


Consonants

The following chart depicts the consonant inventory of Kazakh; many of the sounds, however, are allophones of other sounds or appear only in recent loan-words. The 18 consonant phonemes listed by Vajda are in bold—since these are phonemes, their listed place and manner of articulation are very general, and will vary from what's shown. The borrowed phonemes /f/, /v/, /ɕ/, /ʨ/ and /x/, only occur in recent mostly Russian borrowings, and are shown in parentheses ( ) in the table below.


In the table, the elements left of a divide are voiceless, while those to the right are voiced. Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ...

Kazakh consonant phonemes
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental/
Alveolar
Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar/
Uvular
Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k ɡ
Fricative (f) (v) s z ʃ ʒ (ɕ) (x) h
Affricate (ʨ)
Tap ɾ
Approximant l j w

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ...

Vowels

Kazakh has a system of nine phonemic vowels, which are shown in the table below. Three of these are phonetically diphthongs; however, Vajda argues that this has no phonemic bearing, and that they are in fact not phonemically composed of the elements which make them up, but are instead one phonemic element. The rounding contrast and /æ/ generally only occur as phonemes in the first syllable of a word, but do occur later allophonically; see the section on harmony below for more information.

Kazakh vowel phonemes
Front Central Back
Close ɪ ʉ ʊ
Mid ə
Open æ ɑ

Kazakh also has three diphthongs: /jɪ/, /wʉ/, and /wʊ/ Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A central vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... A mid vowel is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ...


Morphology and Syntax

Kazakh is generally verb-final, though various permutations on SOV word order can be used. Verbal and nominal morphology in Kazakh exists almost exclusively in the form of agglutinative suffixes. For other uses, see Morphology. ... An agglutinative language is a language in which the words are formed by joining morphemes together. ...


Case

Kazakh has 7 cases. The endings outlined in the chart below are applied to a word ending in a front vowel, a word ending in a back vowel, a word ending in each of those with a voiced consonant, and a word ending with each of this and an unvoiced consonant.

Declension of nouns
Case Morpheme Possible forms кеме "boat" ауа "air" шелек "bucket" сәбіз "carrot" бас "head" тұз "salt"
Nom кеме ауа шелек сәбіз бас тұз
Acc -NI -ні, -ны, -ді, -ды, -ті, -ты кемені ауаны шелекті сәбізді басты тұзды
Gen -NIŋ -нің, -ның, -дің, -дың, -тің, -тың кеменің ауаның шелектің сәбіздің бастың тұздың
Dat -GA -ге, -ға, -ке, -қа кемеге ауаға шелекке сәбізге басқа тұзға
Loc -DA -де, -да, -те, -та кемеде ауада шелекте сәбізде баста тұзда
Abl -DAn -ден, -дан, -тен, -тан кемеден ауадан шелектен сәбізден бастан тұздан
Inst -Men -мен(ен) -бен(ен) -пен(ен) кемемен ауамен шелекпен сәбізбен баспен тұзбен

Pronouns

Kazakh has six personal pronouns:

Personal pronouns
Singular Plural
Kazakh (transliteration) English Kazakh (transliteration) English
Мен (Men) I Біз (Biz) We
Сен (Sen) You (singular informal) Сендер (Sender) You (plural informal)
Сіз (Siz) You (singular formal) Сіздер (Sizder) You (plural formal)
Ол (Ol) He/She/It Олар (Olar) They

The declension of the pronouns is outlined in the following chart. Singular pronouns (with the exception of сіз, which used to be plural) exhibit irregularities, while plural pronouns don't. Irregular forms are highlighted in bold.

Declension of pronouns
Nom мен сен сіз ол біз сендер сіздер олар
Acc мені сені сізді оны бізді сендерді сіздерді оларді
Gen менің сенің сіздің оның біздің сендердің сіздердің олардың
Dat маған саған сізге оған бізге сендерге сіздерге оларға
Loc менде сенде сізде онда бізде сендерде сіздерде оларда
Abl менен сенен сізден онан бізден сендерден сіздерден олардан
Inst менімен сенімен сізбен онымен бізбен сендермен сіздермен олармен

In addition to the pronouns, there are several more sets of morphemes dealing with person.

Morphemes indicating person
pronouns copulas possessive endings past/conditional
1st sg мен -MIn -(I)m -(I)m
2nd sg сен -sIŋ -(I)ŋ -(I)ŋ
2nd formal sg сіз -sIz -(I)ŋIz -(I)ŋIz
3rd sg ол -(s)I(n)
1st pl біз -MIz -(I)mIz -(I)K
2nd pl сендер -sIŋdAr -(I)ŋ -(I)ŋ
2nd formal pl сіздер -sIzdAr -(I)ŋIz -(I)nIz
3rd pl олар -(s)I(n)

Tense/Aspect/Mood

Kazakh may express different combinations of tense, aspect, and mood through the use of various verbal morphology or through a system of auxiliary verbs, many of which might better be considered light verbs. For example, the (imperfect) present tense in Kazakh bears different aspectual information depending on whether basic present-tense morphology is used, or one of (commonly) four verbs is used: Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... In linguistics, an auxiliary verb is a verb whose function it is to give further semantic information about the main verb which follows it. ...

Aspect in the Present Tense in Kazakh
Kazakh aspect English translation
Жеймін non-progressive "I eat."
Жеп жатырмын progressive "I am eating."
Жеп отырмын progressive/durative "I am [sitting and] eating." / "I have been eating."
Жеп тұрмын progressive/punctual "I am eating [this very minute]."
Жеп жүрмін habitual/frequentative "I eat [lunch at noon every day]."

Evidentiality

Kazakh exhibits an evidentiality system which does not neatly align with morphological paradigms. In linguistics, evidentiality is a modality that allows (or requires) speakers to specify why they believe a given statement—i. ...

  • тазалап тастапты - he cleaned it, and I saw the result
  • тазалап тастапты (екен) - he cleaned it, and someone saw the results and told me
  • тазалап тастаған - he cleaned it, I saw the result, and verified it with him
  • тазалап тастаған екен - he cleaned it, and told me, but I probably didn't see the results
  • тазалап тастады - he cleaned it, and I saw him clean it

References

  1. ^ "Ethnologue report for Altaic"
  2. ^ The most common English spelling, Kazakh, is from the Russian name, Казах.
  3. ^ Kazakhstan switching to Latin alphabet
  4. ^ Kazakh President Revives Idea Of Switching To Latin Script
  5. ^ Kazakhstan: Moving Forward With Plan To Replace Cyrillic With Latin Alphabet
  6. ^ Neo-Cognoscenti: Kazakhs Eyeing the Latin Alphabet

Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ...

See also

The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Kazakh language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
v  d  e
Turkic languages
Oghur Bulgar† | Chuvash | Hunnic† | Khazar† | Turkic Avar†
Uyghur Old Turkic† | Aini²| Chagatay† | Ili Turki | Lop | Uyghur | Uzbek
Kypchak Baraba | Bashkir | Crimean Tatar¹ | Cuman† | Karachay-Balkar | Karaim | Karakalpak | Kazakh | Kipchak† | Krymchak | Kumyk | Nogai | Old Tatar† | Tatar | Urum¹ | Altay | Kyrgyz
Oghuz Afshar | Azerbaijani | Crimean Tatar¹ | Gagauz | Khorasani Turkish | Ottoman Turkish† | Pecheneg† | Qashqai | Salar | Turkish | Turkmen | Urum¹
Arghu Khalaj
Northeastern Chulym | Dolgan | Fuyü Gïrgïs | Khakas | Shor | Tofa | Tuvan | Western Yugur | Sakha/Yakut
Notes: ¹Listed in more than one group, ²Mixed language, ³Disputed, †Extinct

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