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Encyclopedia > Kaykavian dialect

Kajkavian (kajkavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. The moniker for the dialect, like those of its correspondents, shtokavian and chakavian, is based on the interrogative pronoun kaj ("what"). The dialect is spoken in the northwestern parts of Croatia, including Zagreb, as well as in a few Croatian language oases in Austria, Hungary and Romania. The Croatian language is a language of the western group of South Slavic languages which is used primarily by the Croats. ... Shtokavian (Štokavian, štokavski) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian. ... Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ... Zagreb (pronounced: ) is the capital city of Croatia. ...


Kajkavian can be classified as a dialect of the Central South Slavic diasystem, generally referred to as the Serbo-Croatian language, but it is an exclusively Croatian dialect and fits into the wider group only due to its mixing with Shtokavian and Chakavian. In linguistics, a diasystem is a term used in structural dialectology, to refer to a single genetic language which has two or more standard forms. ... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (srpskohrvatski or hrvatskosrpski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, was an official language of Yugoslavia (along with Slovenian and Macedonian). ... Shtokavian (Štokavian, štokavski) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian. ... Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ...


Another distinctive feature of the Kajkavian language is the use of the future tense. Instead of "ću", "ćeš", "će", kajkavian speakers say "bum", "buš" or "bu",.


Furthermore, kajkavian speakers use the near future tense by far more often than speakers of the standard croatian language.

  • An example for "I'll show you":

Kajkavian "Budem ti pokazal" instead of standard croatian "Pokazat ću ti".

Contents


Characteristics

Some kajkavian words bear a closer resemblance to other Slavic languages (such as Russian) than they do to Štokavian or Čakavian. For instance gda seems (at first glance) to be unrelated to kada, however, when compared to the Russian когда, the relationship becomes more apparent. Kajkavian kak (how) and tak (so) are exactly like their Russian cognates, as compared to štokavian and čakavian kako and tako. (This vowel loss occurred in most other Slavic languages; Štokavian is a notable exception, whereas the same feature of Macedonian is probably not a Serbian influence, as the word is preserved in the same form in Bulgarian, to which Macedonian is much closer related than to Serbian.) Shtokavian (Štokavian, štokavski) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian. ... Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ... Shtokavian (Štokavian, štokavski) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian. ...


Kajkavian further stands out by lacking phonemes such as 'c' (ц) (instead using the combination of 'ts' as in Hrvatska), 'č' (ч) (instead using 'tš'), 'ć' (ћ), 'đ' (ђ), 'dž' (џ), 'lj' (љ) and 'nj' (њ), as well as the characteristic semi-vowel 'r' (р). Furthermore, Kajkavian includes a vowel the 'ə' which is similar to the Scandinavian 'ø' and missing from Štokavian and Čakavian. The Republic of Croatia is a country in Europe bordering the Mediterranean, Central Europe and the Balkans. ...


Kajkavian is often seen as transitional to Slovene, with which it shares various features, including the word kaj for "what".


History

Dialectogical investigations of kajkavian dialect have begun at the end of the 19th century: the first comprehensive monograph was written in Russian by Ukrainian philologist A.M.Lukjaneno in 1905 (Kajkavskoe narečie). Kajkavian dialects have been classified along various criteria: Serbian philologist Aleksandar Belić had divided (1927) kajkavian dialect according the reflexes of Ur-Slavic phonemes /tj/ and /dj/ into three subdialects: eastern, northwestern and southwestern.


However, later investigations have not corroborated Belić's division. Contemporary kajkavian dialectology originates mainly from Croatian philologist Stjepan Ivšić's work "Jezik Hrvata kajkavaca"/The language of kajkavian Croats, 1936, which is based on accentuation characteristics. Due to great diversity of kajkavian speech, primarily in phonetics, phonology and morphology — the kajkavian dialectological atlas is notable for its bewildering proliferation of subdialects: from four identified by Ivšić, via six proposed by Croatian linguist Brozović (widely accepted division) to fifteen, according to a monograph authored by Croatian linguist Lončarić (1995).


Kajkavski is today spoken mostly in Zagorje and adjacent areas. The cities on the edge of Kajkavian speaking area are Karlovac, Sisak, Bjelovar and Pitomača although three afforementioned cities are Shtokavian. There are also couple of Kajkavian enclaves in Gorski Kotar, region where all three Croatian dialects colide. Most Croatian speakers know of it as the local dialect of the city of Zagreb, whose relatively few native residents use it for communication at home and on the street. People who immigrate to Zagreb from štokavian and čakavian territories often pick up elements of kajkavian in order to assimilate better, notably the use of the word "kaj" in place of "što" or "ča", shifting accents in words towards the first syllable, and the extended use of the second future tense. Categories: Geography stubs | Counties of Croatia ... Zagreb (pronounced: ) is the capital city of Croatia. ...


In older times, as explained by the Serbian linguist Pavle Ivić, "Not to be able to work kajkavština means to be considered inferior, to show utterly that you don't come from the capital" (from Srpski narod i njegov jezik). It still holds true that non-kajkavian speakers in Zagreb clearly show that they don't come from the capital, but given how Zagreb has been inundated with immigrants, this has lost in importance over the years. Professor Pavle Ivić (December 1, 1924 - September 19, 1999) was a leading South Slavic and general dialectologist and phonologist. ...


Kajkavian literary language

Kajkavian is not only a folk dialect, but has, in the course of history of Croatian language, been the written language (along with the corpus written in Chakavian and Shtokavian). Kajkavian was the last to appear on the scene, mainly due to economic and political reasons. While first Croatian truly vernacular čakavian texts (ie. not mixed with Church Slavonic) go back to the 13th century, štokavian to 14th century, the first kajkavian published work was Pergošić's "Decretum", 1574. The Croatian language is a language of the western group of South Slavic languages which is used primarily by the Croats. ... Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ... Shtokavian (Štokavian, štokavski) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian. ... Events April 14 - Battle of Mookerheyde. ...


After that, numerous works appeared in Croatian kajkavian literary language: chronicles by Vramec, liturgical works by Rattkay, Habdelić, Mulih; poetry of Katarina Zrinska, dramatic opus of Tituš Brezovački. Kajkavian-based are important lexicographic works like Jambrešić's "Dictionar", 1670, and monumental (2,000 pages and 50,000 words) inter-dialectal (čakavian-štokavian-kajkavian, but based on kajkavian idiom) dictionary "Gazophylacium" by Belostenec (posthumously, 1740). Interestingly enough, Miroslav Krleža's visionary poetic masterpiece, "Balade Petrice Kerempuha", 1936, drew heavily on Belostenec's dictionary. Croatian kajkavian grammars include Kornig's, 1795, Matijević's, 1810 and Đurkovečki's, 1837. The Zrinski family, known as Zrínyi in Hungarian, was a noble family from Croatia influential in the Kingdom of Hungary during the period in history marked by the Ottoman wars in Europe. ... Miroslav Krleža. ...


Kajkavian literary language fell into disuse after Croatian national revival, ca. 1830-1850, when leaders of Croatian national unification movement (the majority of them being kajkavian native speakers themselves) adopted the most widespread and developed Croatian štokavian literary language as the idiom for Croatian standard language. The Croatian language is a language of the western group of South Slavic languages which is used primarily by the Croats. ...


However, after a period of lethargy, the 20th century has witnessed new flourishing of kajkavian literature- this time as Croatian dialectal poetry, main authors being Antun Gustav Matoš, Miroslav Krleža, Ivan Goran Kovačić, Dragutin Domjanić, Nikola Pavić (uncle of Serbian post-modernist fantasy writer Milorad Pavić) etc. Antun Gustav Matos (Antun Gustav MatoÅ¡) (June 13th, 1873 - March 17th, 1914) is Croatian writer best known as the representative of modernism in Croatian literature. ... Miroslav Krleža. ... Ivan Goran Kovačić (1913-1943) was one of the greatest Yugoslavian writers of the 20th century. ... Milorad Pavić (Милорад Павић) is a noted Serbian poet, prose writer, translator, and literary historian. ...


Kajkavian lexical treasure is being published by the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts in "Rječnik hrvatskoga kajkavskoga književnoga jezika"/Dictionary of Croatian kajkavian literary language, 8 volumes (1999). The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Latin Academia Scientiarum et Artium Croatica, Croatian Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti) is the national academy of Croatia. ...


Example

Kak je, tak je; tak je navek bilo, kak bu tak bu, a bu vre nekak kak bu!


Quotations

  • Kaj buš ti, bum i ja! (Whatever you do, I'll do it too!)
  • Ne bu išlo! (standard croatian: Ne može tako, "It won't work!")

References

  • Milan Moguš: A History of the Croatian Language, NZ Globus, 1995

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