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Encyclopedia > Kayak
Look up kayak in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

A kayak is a small human-powered boat. It typically has a covered deck, and a cockpit covered by a spraydeck. It is propelled by a double-bladed paddle by a sitting paddler. The kayak was used by the native Ainu, Aleut and Eskimo hunters in sub-Arctic regions of northeastern Asia, North America and Greenland. Modern kayaks come in a wide variety of designs and materials for specialized purposes. Kayaks are in some parts of the world referred to as canoes. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Kayak -- personal watercraft Kayak (band) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... A spraydeck (or spraycover or sprayskirt) is a flexible cover for a boat, in particular for a kayak or a canoe. ... A paddle is a tool, originally a propulsion implement for mixing or pushing against liquids, typically in order to propel a boat. ... Ainu ) IPA: (also called Ezo in historical texts) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, the Kuril Islands, and much of Sakhalin. ... The Aleuts (self-denomination: Unangax) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, U.S.A.. The homeland of the Aleuts includes the Aleutian Islands, the Pribilof Islands, the Shumagin Islands, and the far western part of the Alaska Peninsula. ... For other uses, see Eskimo (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... This article is about the boat. ...

Inuit seal hunter in a kayak, armed with a harpoon.
Inuit seal hunter in a kayak, armed with a harpoon.

Contents

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x592, 349 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kayak ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x592, 349 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kayak ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ...

Design

Traditional kayaks typically accommodate one, two or occasionally three paddlers who sit facing forward in one or more cockpits below the deck of the boat. If used, the spraydeck or similar waterproof garment attaches securely to the edges of the cockpit, preventing the entry of water from waves or spray, and making it possible in some styles of boat, to roll the kayak upright again without it filling with water or ejecting the paddler. Term used to describe one who practises the sport of canoeing in which the force of the paddle through the water is used to power and control the craft. ... A spraydeck (or spraycover or sprayskirt) is a flexible cover for a boat, in particular for a kayak or a canoe. ... The Eskimo Roll is the act of uprighting a capsized kayak or canoe by use of the paddle and body motion. ...


Kayaks differ distinctly in design and history from canoes, which are more flat-bottomed boats propelled by single-bladed paddles by a kneeling paddler, although some modern canoes may be difficult for a non-expert to distinguish from a kayak. Kayaks typically have lower gunwales and present less windage to broadside winds. Kayaks also usually have a lower overall cargo capacity than a canoe of similar length. This article is about the boat. ... The gunwale, pronounced gunnel to rhyme with tunnel, is a nautical term describing the top edge of the side of a boat. ... Windage is a force created on an object by friction when there is relative movement between air and the object. ...


Origins

Boys in kayak, Nunivak, Alaska, photographed by Edward S. Curtis, 1930
Boys in kayak, Nunivak, Alaska, photographed by Edward S. Curtis, 1930

Kayaks (Inuktitut: qajaq, Inuktitut syllabics: ᖃᔭᖅ) were originally developed by indigenous people living in the Arctic regions, who used the boats to hunt on inland lakes, rivers and the coastal waters of the Arctic Ocean, North Atlantic, Bering Sea and North Pacific oceans. These first kayaks were constructed from stitched animal skins such as seal stretched over a wooden frame made from collected driftwood, as many of the areas of their construction were treeless. Archaeologists have found evidence indicating that kayaks are at least 4000 years old.[1] The oldest still existing kayaks are exhibited in the North America department of the State Museum of Ethnology in Munich.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x831, 140 KB) Boys in kaiak - Nunivak Edward S. Curtis, 1930 Northwestern University Library, Edward S. Curtiss The North American Indian: the Photographic Images, 2001. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x831, 140 KB) Boys in kaiak - Nunivak Edward S. Curtis, 1930 Northwestern University Library, Edward S. Curtiss The North American Indian: the Photographic Images, 2001. ... Inuktitut (Inuktitut syllabics: (fonts required), literally like the Inuit) is the name of the varieties of Inuit language spoken in Canada. ... The Inuktitut syllabary (Inuktitut: ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᕐᒃ ᓄᑖᕐᒃ titirausiq nutaaq) is a writing system used by Inuit people in Nunavut and in Nunavik, Quebec. ... For the ships, see USS Arctic, SS Arctic, MV Arctic The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Sea Bering Sea and the North Pacific Ocean Bearing Sea with Kamchatka Peninsula and Alaska The Bering (or Imarpik) Sea is a body of water north of, and separated from, the north Pacific Ocean by the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands. ... Pacific redirects here. ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... The State Museum of Ethnology (Staatliches Museum für Völkerkunde) in Munich was founded in 1868, but its history started much earlier. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ...


Though the term "kayak" is now used broadly for this class of boat, native people made many different types of boat for different purposes. The baidarka developed by indigenous cultures in Alaska was also made in double or triple cockpit designs, and was used for hunting and transporting passengers or goods. An umiak is a large open sea canoe, ranging from 17 feet to 30 feet, made with seal skins and wood. It was originally paddled with single bladed paddles and typically had more than one paddler. An Aleutian style sea kayak is sometimes called a baidarka. ... The umiak, umiaq, umiac, oomiac or oomiak is a type of boat used by the Inuit for transportation. ...


The word "kayak" means "man's boat" or "hunter's boat", and native kayaks were a very personal craft, built by the man who would use them (with assistance from his wife, who would sew the skins) fitting his measures, for maximum maneuverability. A special skin jacket, Tuilik, was then laced to the kayak, creating a waterproof seal. This made the eskimo roll the preferred method of regaining posture after turning upside down (from the kayaking point of view, it's not a capsize until you come out of the boat), especially as few Eskimos could swim; their waters are too cold for a swimmer to survive for very long.[2] This article should appear in one or more categories. ... The Eskimo Roll is the act of uprighting a capsized kayak or canoe by use of the paddle and body motion. ...


The modern version of a tuilik is a spraydeck made of waterproof synthetic stretchy enough to fit tightly around the cockpit rim and body of the kayaker, which can however be released rapidly from the cockpit to permit easy exit from the boat. A spraydeck (or spraycover or sprayskirt) is a flexible cover for a boat, in particular for a kayak or a canoe. ...


The builder used found materials and anthropomorphic measurements, using his own body, to create a kayak conforming closely to his own body. For example: the length was typically three times the span of his outstretched arms. The width at the cockpit was the width of the builder's hips plus two fists (and sometimes less). The typical depth was his fist plus the outstretched thumb (hitch hiker). Thus typical dimensions were about 17 feet long by 20-22 inches wide by 7 inches deep. This measurement style confounded early European explorers who tried to duplicate the kayak because each kayak was a little different.


Traditional kayaks encompass three types of boat: Baidarkas, from the Alaskan & Aleutian seas, the oldest design, whose rounded shape and numerous chines give them an almost Blimp-like appearance; West Greenland kayaks, with fewer chines and a more angular shape, with gunwales rising to a point at the bow and stern; and East Greenland kayaks that appear similar to the West Greenland style, but are often more snugly fitted to the paddler and possess a steeper angle between gunwale and stem which lend maneuverability. An Aleutian style sea kayak is sometimes called a baidarka. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Aleutian refers to: Aleutian Islands Aleut people Aleut language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chine. ... Blimp can refer to: a non-rigid airship as opposed to a rigid airship (e. ... Bow of the Cruise ship Spirit of Endeavour The bows of lifeboat 17-31 (Severn class) in Poole Harbour, Dorset, England The bow (pronounced to rhyme with how) is a nautical term that refers to the forward part of the hull of a ship or boat, the point that is... {{dablink|For other meanings, see Stern (disambiguation). ...


Most of the Eskimo peoples from the Aleutian Island eastward to Greenland relied on the kayak for hunting a variety of prey — primarily seals, though whales and caribou were important in some areas. Skin on frame kayaks are still being used for hunting by Inuit people in Greenland. In other parts of the world homebuilders are continuing the tradition of skin on frame kayaks albeit with modern skins of canvas or synthetic fabric.


Contemporary kayaks trace their origins primarily to the native boats of Alaska, northern Canada, and Southwest Greenland. Wooden kayaks and fabric kayaks on wooden frames (such as the Klepper) dominated the market up until 1950s, when fiberglass boats were first introduced. Rotomolded plastic kayaks first appeared in 1973. The development of plastic kayaks arguably initiated the developed of freestyle kayaking as we see it today, since plastic boats could be made smaller, stronger and more resilient than those made of other materials. For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... A folding kayak is a direct descendant of the original Inuit kayak made of animal skins stretched over frames made from wood and bones. ... Bundle of fiberglass Fiberglass (also called fibreglass and glass fibre) is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. ... Rotomolding is a very versatile process of creating vertually all kinds of mostly hollow Plastic Parts. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ...

This Greenland paddle is 7 feet in length, and much narrower than European paddles.
This Greenland paddle is 7 feet in length, and much narrower than European paddles.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1644x160, 24 KB) Summary Cleaned up rotation of [1] Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1644x160, 24 KB) Summary Cleaned up rotation of [1] Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ...

Modern kayaks

Types of Kayaks
Sea Kayak
Whitewater kayak
Recreational kayak
Playboats
Slalom kayak
Surf skis

Modern kayaks have evolved into numerous specialized types, that may be broadly categorized according to their application as sea kayaks, whitewater (or river) kayaks, surf kayaks, and racing kayaks (flat water, white water, or slalom), though many hybrid types exist as well, broadly labeled recreational kayaks. The label "kayak" is often misapplied to other small, human-powered vessels not descended from the kayak tradition, including multi-hull or outrigger boats and those propelled by pedals. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Whitewater kayaking is the sport of paddling a kayak on a moving body of water, typically a river. ... A Recreational Kayak is a special type of Kayak that is marketed toward the more casual paddler. ... Playboating is a relatively new discipline to kayaking and has undergone some major changes in the past ten years. ... Whitewater Slalom is a competitive sport where the aim is to navigate a decked canoe or kayak through a course of gates on river rapids in the fastest time possible. ... A surf ski is an elongated open cockpit kayak used for surf lifesaving or flat-water racing. ...


Sea kayaks are typically designed for travel by one or two paddlers on open water and in many cases trade maneuverability for seaworthiness, stability, and cargo capacity. Sea-kayak sub-types include open-deck "sit-on-top" kayaks, recreational kayaks, and collapsible "skin-on-frame" boats. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A Recreational Kayak is a special type of Kayak that is marketed toward the more casual paddler. ...


Whitewater kayaks are in some cases highly maneuverable boats, usually for a single paddler, and include such specialized boats as playboats and slalom kayaks. White water racers combine a fast, unstable lower hull portion with a flared upper hull portion to combine flat water racing speed with extra stability in big water: they are not fitted with rudders and have similar manoeuvrability to flat water racers. Whitewater kayaking is the sport of paddling a kayak on a moving body of water, typically a river. ... Playboating is a relatively new discipline to kayaking and has undergone some major changes in the past ten years. ... Whitewater Slalom is a competitive sport where the aim is to navigate a decked canoe or kayak through a course of gates on river rapids in the fastest time possible. ...


Surf kayaks, often called "surf skis", are specialized narrow and long boats for surfing breaking waves and surf-zone rescues. Racing kayaks are designed for speed, and usually require substantial skill to achieve stability, due to extremely narrow hulls, though downriver racing kayaks are a hybrid style with whitewater boats. A surf ski is an elongated open cockpit kayak used for surf lifesaving or flat-water racing. ...


Modern kayaks are typically constructed from rotomolded plastic, wood, fabrics over wooden or aluminum frames, fiberglass, Kevlar, or carbon fiber. Most kayaks accommodate one or two paddlers, but some special-purpose boats may accommodate more. Rotational molding or moulding is a versatile process for creating many kinds of mostly hollow plastic Parts. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Bundle of fiberglass Fiberglass (also called fibreglass and glass fibre) is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. ... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ...


Sea kayaks

For more details on this topic, see Sea kayak.
Kayaking in a double on Lake Union in Seattle, USA
Kayaking in a double on Lake Union in Seattle, USA

The sea kayak, though descended directly from traditional designs and types, is implemented in a wide variety of materials, and with many distinct design choices. Sea kayaks as a class are distinct from whitewater kayaks and other boats by typically having a longer waterline (emphasizing straight travel through the water over extreme maneuverability), and provisions for below-deck storage of cargo. Sea kayaks may also have rudders or skegs (also for enhanced straight-line tracking), and such features as upturned bow or stern profiles for wave shedding. Modern sea kayaks often have two or more internal bulkheads to provide watertight internal sections for flotation and waterproof storage. Sea kayaks, unlike most whitewater kayaks, may be built to accommodate two or sometimes three paddlers. Certain sea kayaks can even be used for surfing. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 447 KB) Summary Kayaking on Seattle, Washingtons Lake Union Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 447 KB) Summary Kayaking on Seattle, Washingtons Lake Union Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Lake Union from atop the Space Needle Lake Union is a freshwater lake completely within the Seattle, Washington city limits. ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Wooden kayaks

Kayaks made from thin wood sheathed in fiberglass have proven successful, especially as the price of epoxy resin has decreased in recent years. Two main types are popular, especially for the homebuilder: Stitch & Glue, and Strip-Built. Epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between Epichorohydrin & Bisphenol A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in the United States. ...


Stitch & Glue designs use modern, marine-grade plywood -- typically quarter-inch (5mm) thick. After cutting out the required pieces of hull and deck (kits will often have these pre-cut), a series of small holes are drilled along the edges. Copper wire is then used to "stitch" the pieces together through the holes. After the pieces are temporarily stitched together, they are glued with epoxy and the seams reinforced with fiberglass. When the epoxy dries, the copper stitches are typically removed. The entire boat is then covered in fiberglass for additional strength and waterproofing. This construction method is fairly straightforward, but as the plywood does not bend to form curves, design choices are limited. This is a good choice for the first-time kayak builder as the labor and skills required(especially for kit versions) is considerably less than for strip-built boats.


Strip-built kayaks are similar in shape to commercially available rigid fiberglass kayaks but are generally both lighter and tougher. Like their fiberglass counterparts the shape and size of the boat determines how they perform and what uses are optimal. The hull and deck are built with thin strips of lightweight wood, often Cedar, Pine or Redwood. The strips are edge-glued together around a form, stapled or clamped in place, and allowed to dry. This forms a wooden shell, which is not inherently strong. The boat's strength comes from a layer of fiberglass cloth and epoxy resin, inside and out. Strip built kayaks are sold commercially by a few companies, priced $4,000 and up. An experienced woodworker can build one for about US$400 in 200 hours, though the exact cost and time will be determined by the builder's skill, the materials chosen and the kayak's size/design. As a second kayak project, or for the serious builder with some woodworking expertise, a strip-built boat can be an impressive piece of work. Kits with pre-cut and milled wood strips are commercially available.


Skin on frame kayaks

Often an umbrella term for several types of kayaks, Skin on Frame boats are primarily considered a more traditional boat in design, materials, construction, and technique. They are often the lightest kayaks, and were traditionally made of driftwood pegged or lashed together and stretched seal skin, as those were the most readily available materials in the Arctic regions. Today, the seal skin is usually replaced with canvas or nylon cloth covered with paint, neoprene, or a hypalon rubber coating and the wood with aluminum. A piece of waterlogged driftwood Driftwood is wood that has been washed onto a shore or beach by the action of the waves. ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ...


Folding kayaks

For more details on this topic, see Folding kayak.

A special type of skin-on-frame kayak is the folding kayak, the direct descendant of the original Eskimo kayak. A folder is a modern kayak with a collapsible frame, of wood, aluminum or plastic, or a combination thereof, and a skin, of some sort of water-resistant and durable fabric. Many types have integral air sponsons inside the hull, increasing secondary stability and making the kayaks virtually unsinkable. A folding kayak is a direct descendant of the original Inuit kayak made of animal skins stretched over frames made from wood and bones. ... A folding kayak is a direct descendant of the original Inuit kayak made of animal skins stretched over frames made from wood and bones. ... Sponsons are projections from the sides of a watercraft, for protection, stability, or the mounting of equipment such as armaments or lifeboats , etc. ...


Folders are known for their durability, stability, and longevity: The Klepper Aerius I, a single-seater, has been used successfully for white-water kayaking, due to its durability and excellent maneuverability, while many Kleppers have been in frequent use for more than 20 years.


Folding kayaks exhibit many of the same paddling characteristics as the original skin-and-frame vessels of the circumpolar north. Of all modern kayaks, they are closest relatives to the skin-and-frame boats of the past.


Military kayaks

Kayaks were adapted for military use in the Second World War. Used mainly by British Commando and Special Forces, principally the Combined Operations Pilotage Parties (COPPs), the Special Boat Service (at that time an Army unit) and the Royal Marines Boom Patrol Detachment. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The British Commandos were first formed by the Army in June 1940 during World War II as a well-armed but unregimented raider force employing unconventional and irregular tactics to assault, disrupt and reconnoitre the enemy in mainland Europe and Scandinavia. ... For other uses, see Special forces (disambiguation). ... Combined Operations was a department of the British War Office set up during World War II to harass the Germans on the European continent by means of raids carried out by use of combined naval and army forces. ... The Special Boat Service (SBS) is the British Royal Navys special forces unit. ... The Royal Marines (RM) are the marines and amphibious infantry of the United Kingdom and, along with the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary, form the Naval Service [2]. They are also the United Kingdoms amphibious force and specialists in mountain and Arctic warfare. ...


The latter made perhaps the best known use of them in the Operation Frankton raid on Bordeaux harbour. [3]. During World War II, Operation Frankton was a British Combined Operations raid on shipping in Bordeaux harbour, France in December, 1942, by 12 men of the Boom Patrol Detachment, Royal Navy, in two-man Cockle MK II Canoes. ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ...


Following the war the SBS was reformed as a Royal Marines unit and the Klepper Aerius II folding kayak became a staple of its training and operations. A folding kayak is a direct descendant of the original Inuit kayak made of animal skins stretched over frames made from wood and bones. ...


Sit-on-tops

A paddler in a sit on top kayak explores Kealakekua Bay in Hawaii.
A paddler in a sit on top kayak explores Kealakekua Bay in Hawaii.

Sealed-hull (unsinkable) craft were developed in the past for low level leisure use, as derivatives from surfboards (e.g. paddle or wave skis), or for surf conditions. Variants include planing surf craft, touring kayaks, and sea marathon kayaks. Increasingly, manufacturers are building leisure 'sit-on-top' variants of extreme sports craft, often with a skeg (fixed rudder) for directional stability. Water that enters the cockpit drains out through scupper holes - tubes that run from the cockpit to the bottom of the hull. Sit-on-top kayaks usually come in single and double (two paddler) designs, although a few models accommodate three or four paddlers. Sit-on-top kayaks are particularly popular for fishing and SCUBA diving, since participants need to easily enter and exit the water, change seating positions, and access hatches and storage wells. Ordinarily the seat of a sit-on-top is slightly above water level, so the center of gravity for the paddler is higher than in a traditional kayak. To compensate for the center of gravity, a sit-on-top is often wider than a traditional kayak of the same length, and is considered slower as a result. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3648 × 2736 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3648 × 2736 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image of Hawai‘i (island) taken by NASA. The Island of Hawai‘i is the largest of the Hawaiian Islands. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1946 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1946 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A Recreational Kayak is a special type of Kayak that is marketed toward the more casual paddler. ...

Recreational kayaks

For more details on this topic, see Recreational kayak.

Recreational kayaks are designed for the casual paddler interested in fishing, photography, or a peaceful paddle on a lake or flatwater stream; they presently make up the largest segment of kayak sales. Compared to other kayaks, recreational kayaks have a larger cockpit for easier entry and exit and a wider beam (27–30 inches) for more stability on the water; they are generally less than twelve feet in length and have limited cargo capacity. Using less expensive materials like polyethylene and including fewer options keep these boats inexpensive (US$300–$580). Most canoe/kayak clubs offer introductory instruction in recreational boats as a way to enter into the sport. Sometimes advanced paddlers still use recreational kayaks. They can fit all levels, but sometimes do not perform as well in the sea. The recreational kayak is usually a type of touring kayak. [1] A Recreational Kayak is a special type of Kayak that is marketed toward the more casual paddler. ... A Recreational Kayak is a special type of Kayak that is marketed toward the more casual paddler. ... Fishermen in the harbor of Kochi, India. ... Photography [fÓ™tÉ‘grÓ™fi:],[foÊŠtÉ‘grÓ™fi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ...


Whitewater kayaks

For more details on this topic, see Whitewater kayaking.

Whitewater kayaks for casual use are generally rotomoulded in a semi-rigid, high impact plastic, which is usually polyethylene: careful construction is needed to ensure adequate rigidity from the completed boat. The material used means they can bounce off rocks without suffering leaks, although they can fold up trapping a paddler and accumulate deep scratches very readily. Whitewater kayaking is the sport of paddling a kayak on a moving body of water, typically a river. ... Whitewater kayaking is the sport of paddling a kayak on a moving body of water, typically a river. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


They are shorter than other types of kayaks, ranging from 5.5 to 10 feet (2 to 3 metres) long. Modern design has moved toward shorter boats, which make them very maneuverable but slow, and the rather soft and flexible skin slows them down even more. However, whitewater boats do not need great speed, because they are used for recreation: not always flowing downstream, since many kayaks are used for playing up and down a patch of white water. In "freestyle" competition ("kayak rodeo"), whitewater kayakers exploit complex water movements of rapids to do tricks, while moving up and down stream along a short stretch of the river. For other uses, see Rapid (disambiguation). ...


Ultra-low-volume kayaks that are designed to be paddled both on and below the surface of the water are used in Squirt Boating. Squirt Boating is a form of Whitewater kayaking or canoeing where the boat is designed to be as low in volume as possible while still allowing the paddler to float. ...


Racing white water kayaks like all racing kayaks are made to regulation lengths making them longer than the ‘play boats’, and are generally made out of fibre reinforced resin for speed: stiffer, lighter, and less readily scratched than play boat construction. Repairs are often necessary especially if the paddler is inexperienced. Slalom kayaks are flat hulled, highly manoeuvrable, and stable but not very fast in a straight line; downriver white water racers have a combination hull with a fast but unstable lower section similar to a flat water racer's hull flaring out into a wider section higher up similar to a slalom hull to provide stability in big water.


Surf kayaks

For more details on this topic, see Surf skis.

Traditional Surf Kayaking comes in two main varieties, High Performance (HP) Surf Kayaks and International Class (IC) Surf Kayaks. HP boats tend to have a lot of nose rocker, very little to no tail rocker, very flat hulls, very sharp rails and up to three fins. This enables them to generate lots of speed and be able to pull very dynamic moves. IC boats have to be at least 3m long and have to have a convex hull, the surfing of international boats tends to be smoother and more flowing. International class is often thought of as the long boarding of the kayaking world. Surf boats come in a variety of constructions ranging from tough but heavy plastics through to super light, super stiff but rather fragile foam cored Kevlar carbon. Surf Kayaking has become popular in locations were you will find traditional surfboard surfing, as well as new locations such as the Great Lakes. A surf ski is an elongated open cockpit kayak used for surf lifesaving or flat-water racing. ... ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ...


Waveskis

A variation on the closed cockpit surf kayak is an open cockpit design called a waveski. Although the waveski utilises similar dynamics, in terms of paddling technique and surfing performance on the waves, construction can be very similar to surfboard designs. Elite waveski surfers are able to more closely imitate surfboard maneuvers. Waveski / Air-ski / Airski / Waveskier / Waveskiing Waveskiing is a dynamic sport combining the paddle power of a kayak with the manoeuvrability and performance of a surfboard. ...


Racing kayaks

Flatwater racing kayaks

A typical racing K2 design, at the Canadian Masters Championships, 2005. Note the extremely narrow beam.
A typical racing K2 design, at the Canadian Masters Championships, 2005. Note the extremely narrow beam.

The three types of flatwater racing kayaks (sometimes termed 'sprint boats') are K1 (single paddler), K2 (two paddlers) and K4 (four paddlers). These boats are raced at the Olympic level by men and women over courses of 200m, 500m, and 1000m (women compete on 1000m since 1997). World Championship events: Image File history File links Sprint_Boat_K-2. ... Image File history File links Sprint_Boat_K-2. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...

  • distances: 200m, 500m, 1000m
  • boat units: men and women K1, K2, K4; men canoe C1, C2, C4 All units compete on all distances.Each country can send one unit per event.

Olympic events:

  • distances: 500m, 1000m
  • events: men K1-K2 500m, K1-K2-K4 1000m; women K1-K2-K4 500m, men canoe C1-C2 500m, C1-C2 1000m Each country can send one unit per event.

Flatwater racing kayaks are generally made out of extremely lightweight composites such as Kevlar, carbon fiber, or fiberglass. They are not intended for any condition other than flat water. They are narrow, extremely unstable, and expensive, with a competitive K1 or K2 running in the US$2000 - US$4000 range. They require a good level of expertise to paddle well, but are extremely fast in the hands of proficient users. The beam of a flatwater boat is typically barely wider than the hips of the person who paddles it, allowing for a very long and narrow shape to reduce drag. // This article is about flatwater canoe racing. ... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ... Bundle of fiberglass Fiberglass (also called fibreglass and glass fibre) is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. ... An object moving through a gas or liquid experiences a force in direction opposite to its motion. ...


Due to their length (a K1 is 5.2m (17 feet) long and a k2 is 6.2m (20 feet) long), sprint boats come equipped with a rudder to help with turning. The rudder is controlled by the feet of the paddler (the foremost paddler in multi-person designs). In spite of this, these boats have a fairly large turning radius. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Flatwater racing kayaks are closely related to flatwater racing canoes, with both styles of boat usually training at the same club or with the same team, although it is rare for paddlers to compete in both canoes and kayaks.


Surf Ski

A highly specialized variant of flatwater racing kayak called a Surf Ski has an open cockpit and can be up to twenty-one feet long but only eighteen inches wide, requiring expert balance and paddling skill. Surf Skis were originally created for surf and are still used in surf races in New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa. They have become very popular in the United States for ocean races, lake races and even downriver races. A surf ski is an elongated open cockpit kayak used for surf lifesaving or flat-water racing. ...


Slalom kayak

Kayaks designed for Slalom canoeing have a relatively flat hull for maneuverability and—since the early 1970s—low profile decks. Whitewater Slalom is a competitive sport where the aim is to navigate a decked canoe or kayak through a course of gates on river rapids in the fastest time possible. ...


Like all racing kayaks, they are usually made of fibre reinforced resin (usually expoy or polyester reinforced with kevlar, glass fibre, carbon fibre, or some combination). This form of construction is stiffer and has a harder skin than non-reinforced plastic construction such as rotomoulded polyethylene: stiffer means faster, and harder means fewer scratches and therefore also faster.


Specialty and multi-type kayaks

The term "kayak" is increasingly applied to many craft that diverge substantially from traditional kayaks.


Inflatable kayaks

Another special type of kayak is the inflatable kayak. Inflatable kayaks usually can be transported by hand using a carry bag. They are made of hypalon (a kind of neoprene), pvc, or polyurethane coated cloth. They can be inflated with foot, hand or electric pumps. Multiple compartments in all but the least expensive increase safety. They generally use low pressure air, almost always below 3 psi. Hypalon is a trademark for a kind of synthetic rubber noted for its resistance to chemicals, temperature extremes, and ultraviolet light. ... Neoprene is the DuPont Chemical trade name for a family of synthetic rubbers based on polychloroprene. ... Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinyl chloride, (IUPAC Polychloroethene) commonly abbreviated PVC, is a widely used thermoplastic polymer. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ...


Until recently, inflatable kayaks have been non-rigid boats, essentially pointed rafts, and best suited for use on rivers and calm water. However, recently some manufacturers have combined folding kayak design principles (notably the use of an internal frame) with "Sit-on-top kayak" (see above) overall design using multiple inflatable sections to produce a seaworthy inflatable sea kayak. A folding kayak is a direct descendant of the original Inuit kayak made of animal skins stretched over frames made from wood and bones. ...


Besides being portable, inflatable kayaks generally are stable with a small turning radius and are easy to master, but they take more effort to paddle and are slower than traditional kayaks.


Pedal kayaks

A special type of kayak using pedals allows the kayaker to propel the vessel with a propeller or underwater "flippers" attached to pedals in the cockpit, rather than with a paddle. This allows the kayaker to keep his or her hands free for fishing or other activities, but introduces a somewhat delicate mechanical component into the boat and eliminates the paddle as a tool for capsize-prevention and self-rescue.


Multi-hull and outrigger kayaks

Traditional multi-hull vessels such as catamarans and trimarans benefit from increased lateral stability without sacrificing their speed but these advantages cannot be successfully applied in all multihull kayak models Outrigger kayaks, are equipped with either a single or a pair of usually smaller hulls (outriggers) attached to the main hull to provide additional stability, especially for fishing, touring and kayak sailing. Twinhull sit-on-top and sit-in kayaks have been on the market for many years. The inflatable models are popular in whitewater and fishing applications and the Polyethylene models in fishing and recreation. Newer twinhull designs are operated from inside the cockpit with the kayaker's legs stretching down to the bottom of each hull, which improves control and stability and enables using them in surfing, fishing and touring applications in multiple positions including standing .[citation needed] In a canoe or bangca, an outrigger is a thin, long, solid, hull used to stabilise an inherently unstable main hull. ...

Sit-on-top kayak rigged for fishing
Sit-on-top kayak rigged for fishing

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (528 × 704 pixel, file size: 47 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sit-on-top kayak rigged for fishing I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (528 × 704 pixel, file size: 47 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sit-on-top kayak rigged for fishing I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Fishing kayaks

See also: Kayak fishing

While native people of the Arctic regions did not rely on kayaks for fishing, in recent years sport fishing from kayaks has become popular in both fresh and salt water, especially in warmer regions. Specially designed fishing kayaks have emerged, with designs similar to those of recreational sit-in and sit-on-top kayaks characterized by very wide beams (up to 36 inches) that increase lateral stability. Some fishing kayaks are equipped with outriggers[citation needed] for this reason, and the newer twinhull models are stable enough to enable paddling and fishing in the standing position. In the past several years kayak fishing has become a huge sport. The popularity has grown due to the ease of entry. Kayaks can be purchased inexpensively and have little maintenance costs. Kayaks can be stored in small spaces and launched quickly. Many kayak dealers across the U.S. have started customizing their kayaks for fishing.[citation needed] This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


Standing kayaks

While paddling in the standing position has been practiced for centuries in canoes (including Umiaks, Pirogues, native dugout canoes worldwide etc.) it is only recently that paddlers have begun to paddle standing in kayaks as a recreational activity. The first to have tried this activity are probably the brothers Jeff and Jim Snyder who paddled wide, inflatable kayaks down fast rivers while strapping their ankles to their kayaks - similarly to what is being done with skis in snow sports[citation needed] . They called their activity 'Striding'. In recent years new, more stable twinhull kayak designs have enabled kayaking in the standing position without any kind of strapping[citation needed]. This new kayaking activity is practiced on flat water as well as down rivers and at sea - including in the surf. 'Wavewalking' has become a popular term, and refers to paddling standing at sea. The term, however, is also used for paddling standing in other aquatic environments. Another term in use is 'Paddle Skiing'. Paddling standing is growing in popularity among people who practice kayak fishing since it allows for more effective scouting, and since standing has traditionally been a popular fishing position[citation needed].


Modern kayak design

Modern kayaks differ greatly from native kayaks in every aspect – from initial conception through design, manufacturing and usage. Today almost all kayaks are conceived as commercial products intended for sale and not necessarily just for the builders’ personal use. While native kayak builders used their personal experience in combination with knowledge they acquired from orally transmitted traditions, modern kayaks are designed with CAD (Computer Aided Design) software programs, often in combination with naval design software, and in some cases with special kayak design software.


Modern kayaks differ greatly from native kayaks in usage and therefore in shape: Nearly one of every three kayaks sold today is a sit-on-top (SOT), which is basically a paddleboard equipped with a seat. Unlike traditional kayaks many kayaks today are designed for whitewater and surf applications, and are extremely short (some measure less than 6 feet in length). Other modern designs are extremely wide (e.g. recreational, fishing). Some modern kayaks are equipped with one or two extra hulls (outriggers) to increase their stability, some have twin hulls (catamaran kayaks, W kayaks), some are inflatable, and some are no longer propelled by the traditional dual blade paddle (‘kayak paddle’) but by means of pedals that activate a propeller (‘pedal kayaks’). In fact, some modern kayaks are no longer using human powered propulsion at all but are sailed (‘sailing kayaks’) or propelled by a trolling motor – usually an electric one.


Even kayaks that copy traditional forms (e.g. monohull sea kayaks, touring kayaks) are considerably different from the original native designs that serve as inspiration for them: They are equipped with specially designed seats and foot braces that no native kayak ever featured, they are often equipped with a rudder system, which is totally alien to native kayak design, and they feature bulkheads, floatation, hatches and eyelets that native kayaks never had. Most kayaks today including the ones inspired by ancient forms are manufactured entirely from plastic resins or from such materials in combination with other materials (e.g. synthetic fibers, plywood, wood straps). This is why hardly any modern kayak features the traditional frame made of ‘ribs’ over which native kayak builders used to stretch sealskins sewn together. In sum, modern kayak designs reflect the diversity in usage as well as the advancement in design and manufacturing technologies.


Design of traditional style kayaks

The design of different types of kayak is largely a matter of trade-offs between directional stability ("tracking") and maneuverability, and between stability (both Primary stability and secondary stability) and overall speed.


Length: As a general rule, a longer kayak is faster while a shorter kayak may be turned more quickly - but the higher potential top speed of the longer kayak is largely offset by increased friction. Kayaks that are built to cover longer distances such as touring and sea kayaks are themselves longer, generally between 16 and 19 feet. A flat water racing K1's maximum length governed by the ICF is 17 feet. Whitewater kayaks, which generally depend upon river current for their forward motion, are built quite short, to maximize maneuverability. These kayaks rarely exceed eight feet in length, and some specialized boats such as playboats may be only six feet long. The design of recreational kayaks is an attempt to compromise between tracking and maneuverability, while keeping costs reasonable; their length generally ranges from nine to fourteen feet. The International Canoe Federation is the umbrella organization of all national canoe organizations worldwide. ...


Rocker: Length alone does not fully predict the maneuverability of a kayak: a second design element is rocker: the curvature of the kayak from bow to stern. A heavily "rockered" boat has more lengthwise curvature than a boat with little or no rocker, meaning that the effective waterline of the rockered boat is less than for a kayak with no rocker. For example, an 18 foot kayak with no rocker will be entirely in the water from end to end. In contrast, the bow and stern of an 18 footer with rocker will be out of the water, so its lengthwise waterline may be only 16 ft. Rocker is generally most evident at the ends, and in moderation improves handling. Similarly, although a whitewater boat may only be a few feet shorter than many recreational kayaks, because the whitewater boat is heavily rockered its waterline is far shorter and its maneuverability far greater.


Hull form: Kayak hull designs are divided into categories based on the shape from bow to stern and on the shape of the hull in cross-section. Bow-to-stern shapes include:

  • Symmetrical: the widest part of the boat is halfway between bow and stern.
  • Fish form: the widest part is forward of the midpoint.
  • Swede form: the widest part is aft (in back) of the midpoint.

The presence or absence of a V bottom at various points affects the kayak's tracking and maneuverability. A V tends to improve the kayak's ability to travel straight (track), but reduces the ease of turning. Most modern kayaks have steep Vee sections at the bow and stern, and a very shallow Vee amidships.


Beam profile: Hull shapes are categorized by the roundness (or flatness) of the bottom, whether the bottom comes to a "V" at various points on the hull, and by the presence, absence, and severity of a chine, where the side and bottom of a hull meet at an angle, creating another edge below the gunwales. This design choice determines the tradeoff between primary and secondary stability. The hull design determines the relative primary stability and secondary stability of a kayak, the resistance of the boat to tipping and to ultimate capsize, respectively. For other uses, see Chine (disambiguation). ... The gunwale, pronounced gunnel to rhyme with tunnel, is a nautical term describing the top edge of the side of a boat. ...


Primary and secondary stability: Although every kayak will rock from side-to-side, wider kayaks with more buoyancy away from the centerline will present more resistance to tipping and thus feel less likely to capsize than a narrow one with less buoyancy away from the centerline. Flat-bottomed boats that push their volume away from the centerline will also feel more stable than rounded or V-shaped hull shapes that distribute buoyancy more evenly.


While flat-bottomed boats have more primary (sometimes called "initial") stability, and feel more stable to the beginner they usually have less secondary stability. Once they do begin to tip, they capsize quickly and suddenly. Rounder-bottomed boats are quite the opposite — having lower initial or primary stability and (usually) greater secondary stability. The chine in some boats increases secondary stability by effectively widening the beam of the boat when it is heeled (tipped).


Secondary stability refers to final stability, or additional resistance to capsizing as a kayak approaches capsizing. Rounder-bottomed boats present a greater cross-section to the water as they are tipped from level ("heeled"), while very flat-bottomed boats present less. Sea kayaks, designed for open water and rough conditions, are generally narrower (22-25 inches) and have more secondary stability than recreational kayaks, which are wider (26-30+ inches), have a flatter hull shape, and more primary stability. Kayaks with only moderate primary, but excellent secondary are, in general, considered more seaworthy, especially in challenging conditions. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Until recently, whitewater kayaks had very rounded and rockered hulls, but changes in design philosophy have led to whitewater kayaks with very flat planing hulls that allow them to surf on top of moving water rather than float in the water (displacement hull).


References

  1. ^ Made in Anglesey, paddled in the Arctic: the Inuits' plastic kayak rules the waves TimesOnline December 2006
  2. ^ D.C. Hutchinson, "The Complete Book of Sea Kayaking", 5th ed., Falcon Guides, Connecticut.
  3. ^ Cockle Mark II

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

See also

This article is about the boat. ... Canoe polo (called kayak polo in some countries) is a competitive ball sport played on water, in a defined field, between two teams of 5 players, each in a kayak. ... Canyoning in the Rocky Mountains Canyoning via packraft in the U.S. southwest deserts. ... Creeking (or Steep Creeking) referes to a branch of kayaking that involves decending very steep low-volume white water. ... The Flyak lifts above the water with a hydrofoil The Flyak is a hydrofoil adaptation to the conventional kayak. ... Freeboating (or freeride Kayking) is a branch of kayaking. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Sea Kayaking at Wilsons Promontory in Victoria, Australia Kayaking is the use of a kayak for moving across water. ... Playboat Playboating is a discipline of kayaking or canoeing where the paddler performs various technical moves in one place (a playspot), as opposed to whitewater canoeing or kayaking where the objective is to travel the length of a section of river (although whitewater canoeists will often stop and play en... A Recreational Kayak is a special type of Kayak that is marketed toward the more casual paddler. ... A Royak is a Sit-on-top Kayak, as it is called today, integrated the features of a surf board with a kayak that has revolutionized paddlesports. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Squirt Boating is a form of Whitewater kayaking or canoeing where the boat is designed to be as low in volume as possible while still allowing the paddler to float. ... ... Whitewater kayaking is the sport of paddling a kayak on a moving body of water, typically a river. ... Waveski / Air-ski / Airski / Waveskier / Waveskiing Waveskiing is a dynamic sport combining the paddle power of a kayak with the manoeuvrability and performance of a surfboard. ...

External links

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Three human powered vehicles: the Gossamer Albatross II and two bicycles. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ... A Torker unicycle A unicycle is a one-wheeled human-powered vehicle. ... Antique tricycle 19th century tricycle used in Iran A tricycle (often abbreviated to trike) is a three-wheeled vehicle. ... A modern touring quadricycle - a 2007 model Rhoades Car 4W2PCP Coupe two seater Rhombus layout quadricycle (1886) Coventry Rotary quadricycle (1885) A Quadricycle is a four-wheeled human-powered vehicle. ... A velomobile or bicycle car is a human-powered vehicle, enclosed for protection from weather and collisions. ... Kick scooter A kick scooter or push scooter is a small, 2 or more-wheeled platform that is propelled by a rider pushing off the ground. ... Blading redirects here. ... A standard skateboard An old-school skateboard 1970s surfer print fiberglass skateboard A skateboard is a four wheeled platform used for the activity of skateboarding. ... The Trikke works by shifting body weight. ... Wheelchair seating in a theater. ... A longboard is a skateboard with a longer and sometimes wider shape used for longboarding. ... This article is about the boat. ... A Punt Pedalo Look up Pedalo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rowing in the Amstel River by a student rowing club. ... Cross-country skiing (aka XC skiing) is an adventure and fitness activity as well as a competitive winter sport popular in many countries with large snowfields, primarily in Europe and Canada. ... Modern skates Ice skates are boots with blades attached to the bottom, used to propel ones self across ice surfaces. ... // Kicksled on ice Kicksled is a translation of the Swedish and Norwegian sparkstötting, commonly called spark. Some other possible translations are kicker and chair-sled. The kicksled is a small sled consisting of a chair mounted on a pair of flexible metal runners which extend backward to about twice... Three human powered vehicles: the Gossamer Albatross II and two bicycles. ...

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