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The Kassites were a Near-Eastern mountain tribe which migrated to the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia (present Doroud) in 3000 and 4000 BC.[1] They spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. They conquered Mesopotamia, bringing the Old Babylonian era to an end and for the first time welding together the network of independent, feuding city-states into a territory that can be called "Babylonia." According to the conventionally used Middle Chronology, Kassite hegemony in Babylon, Nippur and other centers lasted from about 1595 to 1155 BC. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Iran is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... Zayandeh Rud civilization (تمدن زاینده رود) is a pre-historic era culture that were settled around Zayandeh Rud, in Iran. ... // The Jiroft Kingdom or Jiroft Civilization (تمدن جيرفت) was an ancient civilization that existed in what is now Iran from roughly 3000 BCE to? BCE. Research into this civilization is a relatively recent and ongoing multinational archaeological project that aims to uncover an unknown civilization in a series of newly discovered sites... Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with Proto-Elamite inscription on it. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Achaemenid Empire (Old Persian: Hakhāmanishiyan, هخامنشیان also frequently, the Achaemenid Persian Empire.) (559 BC–330 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: ṢāṣānÄ«yān) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abbasid Caliphate (Abbasid Khalifat) and contemporary states and empires in 820. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Alavids (سلسله علویان طبرستان in Persian) were a Shia emirate based in Tabaristan of Iran. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Ä€l-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... The Ghurids (or Ghoris; self-designation: ShansabānÄ«) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty in Khorasan, most likely of Eastern Iranian TājÄ«k[1][2] origin. ... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Khwarezmid Empire After Islamic Conquest  Modern (SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic) Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Khwarezmid Empire (Persian: , KhwārezmÅ¡hāḥīān, Kings of Khwarezmia) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled in Central Asia and Iran, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and later... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... The Chupanids, also known as the Chobanids, (سلسله امرای چوپانی, Amir Chupani), were descendants of a Mongol family that came to prominence in 14th century Persia. ... The Jalayirids were a Mongol dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia (or Ilkhanate) in the 1330s. ... Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... The Karakoyunlu or the Black Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: Qaraqoyunlular/Karakoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled what is today Azerbaijan, including present-day northwestern Iran and Iraq from 1375 to 1468. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1736) was founded by Afghans (Pashuns) from the Ghilzai clan. ... Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... The Interim Government of Iran (1979-1980) was the first government established in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... See Chronology of Babylonia and Assyria/1911 fpr the partly obsolete article of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ... Hegemony (pronounced or ) (Greek: ) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... The city of Nippur [nipoor] (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) was one of the most ancient of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god, Enlil, ruler of the cosmos subject to An alone. ... (Redirected from 1595 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1640s BC 1630s BC 1620s BC 1610s BC 1600s BC - 1590s BC - 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC 1550s BC 1540s BC Events and Trends 1595 BC - Mursilis I, king of the Hittites, sacks Babylon. ... Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1200s BC 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC 1100s BC Events and trends 1159 BC - Global tree ring event (period of arrested tree growth) lasting for 18...

History

The original homeland of the Kassites is obscure, but appears to have been located in the Zagros Mountains in Luristan [1] [2]. Their first historical appearance occurred in the 18th century BC when they attacked Babylonia in the 9th year of the reign of Samsu-Iluna (reigned 1749 BC - 1712 BC), the son of Hammurabi. Samsu-Iluna repelled them, but they subsequently gained control of northern Babylonia sometime after the fall of Babylon to the Hittites in 1595 BC, and conquered the southern part of the kingdom by about 1475 BC. The Hittites had carried off the idol of Marduk, but the Kassite rulers regained possession, returned Marduk to Babylon, and made him the equal of the Kassite Shuqamuna. The circumstances of their rise to power are unknown, due to a lack of documentation from this so-called "Dark Age" period of widespread dislocation. No inscription or document in the Kassite language has been preserved, an absence that cannot be purely accidental, suggesting a severe retraction of literacy in official circles. Babylon under Kassite rulers, who renamed the city Karanduniash, re-emerged as a political and military power in the Ancient Near East. hello A newly built capital city Dur-Kurigalzu was named to honour Kurigalzu I (ca. 1400 — ca. 1375). His successors Kadashman-Enlil I (c. 1375-c. 1360) and Burnaburiash II (c. 1360-c. 1333) were in correspondence with the Egyptian rulers Amenhotep III and Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV) (see Amarna letters). The Zagros Mountains (Persian: رشته كوه زاگرس), (Kurdish: Çîyayên Zagrosê), make up Iran and Iraqs largest mountain range. ... Falak-ol-aflak, built by the Sassanids, is almost 1800 years old. ... // Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: Queen Sobekneferu died. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Samsu-Iluna (Samsuiluna), was the King of Babylon, who reigned from 1749 BC to 1712 BC. He was son of Hammurabi. ... (19th century BC - 18th century BC - 17th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) // Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: End of Twelfth Dynasty, start of Thirteenth Dynasty, start of Fourteenth Dynasty 1766 BC -- Shang conquest of... This diorite head is believed to represent Hammurabi Hammurabi (Akkadian from Amorite ˤAmmurāpi, the kinsman is a healer, from ˤAmmu, paternal kinsman, and Rāpi, healer; 1810 BC?–1750 BC) also rarely transliterated Ammurapi, Hammurapi, or Khammurabi) was the sixth king of Babylon. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was... (Redirected from 1595 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1640s BC 1630s BC 1620s BC 1610s BC 1600s BC - 1590s BC - 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC 1550s BC 1540s BC Events and Trends 1595 BC - Mursilis I, king of the Hittites, sacks Babylon. ... (Redirected from 1475 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC 1490s BC 1480s BC - 1470s BC - 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC Events and Trends Significant People Hatshepsut of Egypt starts her rule Categories: 1470s... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... Dur-Kurigalzu was a city in southern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) near the confluence of the Tigris and Diyala rivers, at a site now known as Aqa Quf (coordinates 33º21N - 44º21E) about 30 km west of Baghdad. ... Kurigalzu is the name of at least two kings in the Kassite Dynasty of Babylonia. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... Burna-Buriash, Burna-BuriaÅ¡ or Burra-BuriaÅ¡, was the name of at least two kings of Babylon in the Kassite Dynasty (c. ... One of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet The designation Amarna letters (sometimes Amarna correspondence) denotes an archive of correspondence on clay tablets, mostly diplomatic, between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru. ...


Their success was built upon the relative political stability that the Kassite monarchs achieved. They ruled Babylonia practically without interruption for over four hundred years— the longest rule by any dynasty in Babylonian history. Even after a minor revolt in 1333 BC and a seven-year Assyrian hiatus in the 13th century BC, the ruling Kassite family managed to regain the throne. (Redirected from 1333 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen... This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. ...


The transformation of southern Mesopotamia into a territorial state, rather than a network of allied or combatative temple-cities, made Babylonia an international power. Kassite kings established trade and diplomacy with Assyria, Egypt, Elam, and the Hittites, and the Kassite royal house intermarried with their royal families. There were foreign merchants in Babylon and other cities, and Babylonian merchants were active from Egypt (a major source of Nubian gold) to Assyria and Anatolia. Kassite weights and seals, the packet-identifying and measuring tools of commerce, have been found in Thebes in Greece, in southern Armenia, and even in a shipwreck off the southern coast of Turkey. Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ... An Elamite Man in Persepolis The ancient Elamite Empire (تمدن عیلام in Persian) lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was... Nubia is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... Thebes (in Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva, Katharevousa: — ThÄ“bai or Thíve) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ...


The Kassite kings maintained control of their realm through a network of provinces administered by governors. Almost equal with the royal cities of Babylon and Dur-Kurigalzu, the revived city of Nippur was the most important provincial center. Nippur, the formerly great city, which had been virtually abandoned about 1730 BC, was rebuilt in the Kassite period, with temples meticulously re-sited on their old foundations. In fact, under the Kassite government, the governor of Nippur, who took the Sumerian-derived title of Guennakku, ruled as a sort of secondary and lesser king. The city of Nippur [nipoor] (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) was one of the most ancient of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god, Enlil, ruler of the cosmos subject to An alone. ... // Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: Queen Sobekneferu died. ...


Other important centers during the Kassite period were Larsa, Sippar and Susa. Even after the Kassite dynasty was overthrown in 1155 BC, the system of provincial administration continued and the country remained united under the succeeding rule, the Second Dynasty of Isin. Comparisons of Kassite Babylonia with feudalism are now considered more misleading than useful, but the prestige of Nippur was enough for a series of 13th century Kassite kings to reassume the title 'governor of Nippur' for themselves. Larsa (the Biblical Ellasar, Genesis 14:1), was an important city of ancient Babylonia, the site of the worship of the sun-god, Shamash, represented by the ancient ruin mound of Senkereh (Senkera). ... Sippara (Zimbir in Sumerian, Sippar in Assyro-Babylonian) was an ancient Babylonian city on the east bank of the Euphrates, north of Babylon. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1200s BC 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC 1100s BC Events and trends 1159 BC - Global tree ring event (period of arrested tree growth) lasting for 18... See Chronology of Babylonia and Assyria/1911 fpr the partly obsolete article of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. ...


Documentation of the Kassite period depends heavily on the scattered and disarticulated tablets from Nippur, where thousands of tablets and fragments have been excavated. They include administrative and legal texts, letters, seal inscriptions, kudurrus (comparable to land grants and administrative prerogatives), private votive inscriptions, and even a literary text (usually identified as a fragment of a historical epic). Kudurru were stone sculptures used as boundary stones and as records of land grants to vassals by the Kassites in ancient Mesopotamia between the 16th and 12th centuries BCE. The word is Akkadian for frontier or boundary. ...


Kassite rulers in Babylon were also scrupulous to follow existing forms of expression, and the public and private patterns of behavior "and even went beyond that — as zealous neophytes do, or outsiders, who take up a superior civilization — by favoring an extremely conservative attitude, at least in palace circles." (Oppenheim 1964, p. 62). In the course of centuries, however, the Kassites were absorbed into the Babylonian population. Eight among the last kings of the Kassite dynasty have Akkadian names. Kudur-Enlil's name is part Elamite and part Sumerian. Kassite princesses married into the royal family of Assyria. A(dolph) Leo Oppenheim (7 June 1904 - 21 July 1974), one of the most distinguished Assyriologists of his generation was editor-in-charge of the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute 1955-1974 and John A. Wilson Professor of Oriental Studies at the University of Chicago. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ...


The Elamites conquered Babylonia in the 12th century BC, thus ending four hundred years of Kassite rule. The last Kassite king, Anllil-nadin-akhe, was taken to Susa and imprisoned there, where he also died. Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... (13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC - other centuries) (1200s BC - 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC - 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC - 1130s BC - 1120s BC - 1110s BC - 1100s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1200 BC - Ancient Pueblo Peoples... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ...


Culture

Artifacts obtained from this region display the taste, arts and civilization of this mountain-dwelling tribe.


Kassite like other groups of Asianiques, had provided for themselves by hunting and fishing. They gradually directed their way towards farming and herding They were familiar with pottery, slings, maces and javelins. They used sharpened stones for ploughing and had knives made of flint. Metal had not been discovered at that time. [2] The art of using metal started from the Cassites era in Zagros region.[3]


Later on, arts of Cassites were imitated by other tribes, living on Iranian plateau. Attractive bronze objects, discovered in their tombs, show that they used to inter the weapons of the deceased together with their owners.


Kassite survivals

The contributions that Kassites brought to native Babylonian culture are still being debated, partly through identifying the few hundred later Akkadian words of Kassite origin; about ten percent of them are names of gods.


The Kassite tribe of Khabira seems to have settled in the Babylonian plain. Remnants of Kassite tribes were living in the mountains northwest of Elam, immediately south of Holwan, when Sennacherib attacked them in 702 BC. They are doubtless the "Kossaeans" of Ptolemy, who divides Susiana between them and the Elymaeans. Alexander the Great battled Kossaeans in the winter of 323 BC on his way from Ecbatana to Babylon; according to Strabo (xi. 13,3,6) the Kossaeans were the neighbours of the Medes. Theodor Nöldeke (Gott. G. G., 1874, pp. 173 seq.) has shown that they are the Kissians of the older Greek authors who are identified with the Susians by Aeschylus (Choephorae 424, Persians 17, 120) and by Herodotus (v. 49, 52). It has been proposed that Sennacherib be renamed and moved to Sin-ahhe-eriba. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and Trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... The ancient Elamite Empire, تمدن عیلام in Farsi, lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... On his way from Ecbatana to Babylon, Alexander the Great fights and crushes the Cossaeans. ... Golden Rhyton from Irans Achaemenid period. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Theodor Nöldeke (March 2, 1836 - 1930), German Semitic scholar, was born at Harburg, and studied at Göttingen, Vienna, Leiden and Berlin. ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Language

Like the other languages of the non-Semitic tribes of Elam, that of the Kassites was agglutinative; a fragment of Kassite vocabulary has survived in a single Cuneiform tablet. There is also a list of Kassite names with their Semitic equivalents, and a few technical terms. Some of the Kassite deities were introduced into the Babylonian pantheon. Nothing else remains. Kassite is not descended from Indo-European languages, as had once been supposed.[citation needed] The study of Kassite is hindered by the fact that the Kassite bureaucracy conducted business in Akkadian. Consequently, lists of Kassite names have assumed a prominent importance. In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... Cuneiform script The Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... Onomastics (Onomatology) is the study of proper names of all kinds and the origins of names. ...


References

  1. ^ http://www.salamiran.org/IranInfo/Culture/Arts/history/index.html
  2. ^ http://www.salamiran.org/IranInfo/Culture/Arts/history/index.html
  3. ^ http://www.salamiran.org/CT/Culture/Arts/metalwork/index.html
  • Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911.
  • A. Leo Oppenheim, Ancient Mesopotamia: portrait of a dead civilization, 1964.
  • K. Balkan, Die Sprache der Kassiten, (The Language of the Kassites, in German), American Oriental Series, vol. 37, New Haven, Conn., 1954.

The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general encyclopedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kassites - Crystalinks (849 words)
The Kassites had settled by 1800 BC in what is now western Iran in the region of Hamadan-Kermanshah.
The Kassite upper class, always a small minority, had been largely "Babylonianized." Babylonian names were to be found even among the royalty, and they predominated among the civil servants and the officers.
The Kassitic nobility, however, maintained the upper hand in the rural areas, their wealthiest representatives holding very large landed estates.
Kassites - Wikinfo (2551 words)
Kassite kings established trade and diplomacy with Assyria, Egypt, Elam, and the Hittites, and the royal house intermarried with their royal families.
Kassite seals and weights, the packet-identifying and measuring tools of commerce, have been found in Thebes in Greece, in southern Armenia, and even in a shipwreck off the southern coast of Turkey.
Kassite rulers in Babylon were also scrupulous to follow existing forms of expression, and the public and private patterns of behavior 'and even went beyong that — as zealous neophytes do, or outsiders, who take up a superior civilization — by favoring an extremely conservative attitude, at least in palace circle.' (Oppenheim, p.
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