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Encyclopedia > Kashubians
Kashubians
Kaszëbi
Kashubian flag
Total population

50,000 to 500,000 Image File history File links Kashubian_flag. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Poland Poland
Language(s)
Kashubian, Polish
Religion(s)
Catholicism
Related ethnic groups
Poles  · Sorbs  · Czechs  · Slovaks

Kashubians (Kashubian: Kaszëbi; Polish: Kaszubi), also called Kassubians or Cassubians, are a West Slavic ethnic group of north-central Poland. Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-sÅ‚owiÅ„skô mòwa) is one of the Lechitic languages, which are a group of Slavic languages. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Sorbs are a Slavic minority indigenous to the region known as Lusatia in the current German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory). ... Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-sÅ‚owiÅ„skô mòwa) is one of the Lechitic languages, which are a group of Slavic languages. ... Countries inhabited by West Slavs (in light green) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language Map showing an approximation location of Polish tribes West Slavs in 9th/10th century The West Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking West Slavic languages. ...


The Kashubian unofficial capital is Kartuzy (Kartuzë). Among larger cities, Gdynia (Gdiniô; (German: Gdingen (until 1939), Gotenhafen (1939-1945) contains the largest proportion of people declaring Kashubian origin. However, the biggest city of Cassubia region is Gdańsk (Gduńsk; German: Danzig), the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. The traditional occupations of the Kashubians were agriculture and fishing; today these are joined by the service and hospitality industry, and agrotourism. Kartuzy (Kashubian/Pomeranian: Kartuzë; see also Cities alternative names) is a town in the Kashubia or Eastern Pomerania region, northwestern Poland, with some 16,000 inhabitants. ... Gdynia (IPA: , German: (until 1939 and after 1945) / Gotenhafen (1939-1945); Kashubian: ) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and an important seaport at GdaÅ„sk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea. ... For alternative meanings of GdaÅ„sk and Danzig, see GdaÅ„sk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... Capital city GdaÅ„sk Area 18,293 km² Population (2004)  - Density 2,192,000 120/km² Powiats  - Urban counties  - Land counties 4 16 Communes 123 Logo of Pomeranian Voivodeship Sea port in GdaÅ„sk The Sea Towers in Gdynia will be the tallest building (138 m) in Poland outside Warsaw... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... Agritourism is a style of vacation in which hospitality is offered on farms. ...


The main organization that maintains the Kashubian identity is the Kashubian-Pomeranian Association. The recently formed "Odroda" is also dedicated to the renewal of Kashubian culture. The Kashubian-Pomeranian Association (Kashubian-Pomeranian: Kaszebsko-Pomorscze Zrzeszenie, Polish: Zrzeszenie Kaszubsko-Pomorskie) is the regional non-governmental organization of the Kashubians, Pomeranians and people interested in the regional affairs of Kashubia and Pomerania in northern Poland. ...

Contents

Population

Kashubian regional dress
Kashubian regional dress

The total number of Kashubians varies depending on one's definition. A common estimate is that over 300,000 people in Poland are of the Kashubian ethnicity. The most extreme estimates are as low as 50,000 or as high as 500,000 Image File history File links Dzewus_w_kaszebsczich_ruchnach. ... Image File history File links Dzewus_w_kaszebsczich_ruchnach. ...


In the Polish census of 2002, only 5,100 people declared Kashubian nationality, although 51,000 declared Kashubian as their native language. Most Kashubians declare Polish nationality and Kashubian ethnicity, and are considered both Polish and Kashubian. However, on the 2002 census there was no option to declare one nationality and a different ethnicity, or more than one nationality. Some claim that the census was misleading and inaccurate, or even falsified.[citation needed] In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa) is one of the Lechitic languages, which are a group of Slavic languages. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ...


History

Kashubian ethnic territory at the end of the twentieth century.
Kashubian ethnic territory at the end of the twentieth century.

Kashubians are the direct descendants of an early Slavic tribe of Pomeranians who took their name from the land in which settled, Pomerania (from Polish Pomorze, "the land along the sea"). It is believed that the ancestors of Kashubians came into the region between the Odra and Vistula Rivers during the Migration Period. The oldest known mention of the name dates from the 13th century (a seal of Duke Barnim I of Pomerania), when they ruled areas around Szczecin (Kashubian: Szczecëno). Image File history File links based on picture from polish wikipedia, user:Wames File links The following pages link to this file: Kashubians ... Image File history File links based on picture from polish wikipedia, user:Wames File links The following pages link to this file: Kashubians ... Pomeranians (Pomorzanie) are a group of Slavic tribes living in historical region of Pomerania along the shore of Baltic Sea between Oder and Vistula rivers. ... Pommern redirects here. ... The Oder (known in Czech, Slovak and Polish as Odra) is a river in Central Europe. ... For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Barnim I the Good (born ca. ... Stettin redirects here. ...


Another early mention of the Kashubians from the 13th century saw the Dukes of Pomerania including "Duke of Kashubia" in their titles. From the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, after the Thirty Years' War, parts of West Pomerania fell under Swedish rule, and the Swedish kings titled themselves "Dukes of Kashubia" from 1648 to the 1720s. The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, is the series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years War and officially recognized the United Provinces and Swiss Confederation. ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events and Trends Manufacture of the earliest surviving pianos. ...


The Landtag parliament of the Kingdom of Prussia in Königsberg changed the official church language from Polish to German in 1843, but this decision was soon repealed. In 1858 Kashubians emigrated to Upper Canada and created the settlement of Wilno, in Renfrew County, Ontario, which still exists today. Kaszub immigrants founded St. Josaphat parish in Chicago's Lincoln Park community in the late 19th century. In the 1870s a fishing village was established in Jones Island in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, by Kashubian and German immigrants. The two groups did not hold deeds to the land, however, and the government of Milwaukee evicted them as squatters in the 1940s, with the area soon after turned into industrial park. A Landtag (Diet) is a representative assembly or parliament in German speaking countries with some legislative authority. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Former German name of the city of Kaliningrad. ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council... The village of Wilno, Ontario in Renfrew County, Ontario, is the oldest Polish settlement in Canada. ... Renfrew is a county in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... St. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... Lincoln Park may refer to several towns, neighborhoods, parks, and census-designated places in the United States, as well as a national park in Australia and a public park in Mexico City. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... Memorial plaque at Kaszubes Park Jones Island is an industrialized peninsula in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. ... For other places with the same name, see Milwaukee (disambiguation). ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


Many Pomeranians in the former Duchy of Pomerania, most of them Lutheran Protestants (including the Slovincians), were Germanised between the 14th and 19th centuries in the wake of the Prussian political program of Germanisation. Some communities in Pomerelia (Eastern Pomerania) have survived and today regard themselves as Kashubians in modern Poland, although others were expelled by Poland's Communist government as "Germans" after World War II. Most Kashubians in Eastern Pomerania, unlike Slovincians and Pomeranian Slavic Wends, remain Roman Catholic. During the Treaty of Versailles, Kaszub activist Antoni Abraham in agitating for Cassubia's integration into Poland issued his famous quote Nie ma Kaszub bez Polonii a bez Kaszub Polski" which translates into English as- There is no Cassubia without Poland, and no Poland without Cassubia. West Pomeranian voivodship since 1999 West Pomerania (Polish: Pomorze Zachodnie, German: West Pommern; Latin Pomerania Occidentalis) or West Pomeranian Voivodship (Polish: województwo zachodniopomorskie) is an administrative region or voivodship in the northwestern part of Poland. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Slovincian is an extinct dialect of the Pomeranian language, spoken between the lakes Gardno and Lebsko in Pomerania. ... Germanisation (also spelled Germanization; German Germanisierung) is either the spread of the German language, people and culture either by force or assimilation, or the adaptation of a foreign word to the German language in linguistics, much like the Romanisation of many languages which do not use the Latin alphabet. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pomerelia (German: ) is a historical region in northern Poland. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Vend redirects here. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ...


During Second World War thousands of Kashubians were mass murdered by German forces, particulary those of higher education[1]. The main place of executions was Piaśnica. PiaÅ›nica is a river and a village in Pomerania in Northern Poland. ...

Flag
Flag
Coat of Arms
Coat of Arms

Image File history File links Kashubian_flag. ... Image File history File links Kashubian_flag. ...

Kashubian language

Main article: Kashubian language

About 50,000 Kashubians speak Kashubian, a West Slavic language belonging to the Lechitic group of languages in northern Poland. Many Polish linguists formerly considered Kashubian to be a Polish dialect, though most now believe it is a separate Slavic language. Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa) is one of the Lechitic languages, which are a group of Slavic languages. ... Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa) is one of the Lechitic languages, which are a group of Slavic languages. ... This article or section should be merged with List of West Slavic languages The West Slavic languages is a subdivision of the Slavic language group (q. ... The Lechitic languages include three languages spoken in Central Europe, principally in Poland and historically also in eastern part of today Germany. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ...


There are other traditional Slavic ethnic groups inhabiting Pomerania, such as the Kociewiacy, Borowiacy, Krajniacy and others. These dialects tend to fall between Kashubian and the Polish dialects of Greater Poland and Mazovia. This might indicate that they are not only descendants of ancient Pomeranians, but also of settlers who arrived to Pomerania from Greater Poland and Masovia in the Middle Ages. However, this is only one possible explanation. Pommern redirects here. ... The Kociewiacy are a Polish ethnic group. ... The Borowiacy are a Polish ethnic group who traditionally inhabit the area of the Tuchola forests near Tuchola in eastern Pomerania. ... Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ... Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital in Warsaw. ... Pomeranians (Pomorzanie) are a group of Slavic tribes living in historical region of Pomerania along the shore of Baltic Sea between Oder and Vistula rivers. ... Historical division of Masovia Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital at Warsaw. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


The earliest surviving example of written Kashubian is Martin Luther's 1643 Protestant catechism (with new editions in 1752 and 1828). Scientific interest in the Kashubian language was sparked by Mrongovius (publications in 1823, 1828) and the Russian linguist Hilferding (1859, 1862), later followed by Biskupski (1883, 1891), Bronisch (1896, 1898), Mikkola (1897), Nitsch (1903). Important works are S. Ramult's, Słownik jezyka pomorskiego, czyli kaszubskiego, 1893, and F. Lorentz, Slovinzische Grammatik, 1903, Slovinzische Texte, 1905, and Slovinzisches Wörterbuch, 1908. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Codex Manesse, fol. ... Christoph Coelestin Mrongovius. ...


The first activist of the Kashubian/East Pomeranian national movement was Florian Ceynowa. Among his accomplishments, he documented the Kashubian alphabet and grammar by 1879 and published a collection of ethnographic-historic stories of the life of the Kashubians (Skórb kaszébsko-slovjnckjé mòvé, 1866-1868). Another early writer in Kashubian was Hieronim Derdowski. The Young Kashubian movement followed, led by author Aleksander Majkowski, who wrote for the paper "Zrzësz Kaszëbskô" as part of the "Zrzëszincë" group. The group would contribute significantly to the development of the Kashubian literary language. Florian Ceynowa (died in 1880) was the pioneer of the nationalist movement among the Kashubian people in the mid-19th century. ... The Kashubian alphabet is the script of the Kashubian language. ...


Today

In 2005, Kashubian was for the first time made an official subject on the Polish matura exam (roughly equivalent to the English A-Level and French Baccalaureat). Despite an initial uptake of only 23 students,[citation needed] this development was seen as an important step in the official recognition and establishment of the language. Matura (Matur, Maturità, Maturität) is the word commonly used in Austria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine for the final exams young adults (aged 18 or 19) take at the end of their secondary education. ...


Today, in some towns and villages in northern Poland Kashubian is the second language spoken after Polish, and it is taught in regional schools.


Kashubian presently enjoys legal protection in Poland as an official minority language.

Kashubian Landscape Park, View from Tamowa Mountain, near Kartuzy and Lakes Kłodno, Białe, and Rekowo.
Kashubian Landscape Park, View from Tamowa Mountain, near Kartuzy and Lakes Kłodno, Białe, and Rekowo.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2700x600, 372 KB) View from Tamowa moutain, you can see 3 lakes from left: Klodno, Biale, Rekowo, villages Chmielenko and Chmielno. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2700x600, 372 KB) View from Tamowa moutain, you can see 3 lakes from left: Klodno, Biale, Rekowo, villages Chmielenko and Chmielno. ... Kartuzy (Kashubian/Pomeranian: Kartuzë; see also Cities alternative names) is a town in the Kashubia or Eastern Pomerania region, northwestern Poland, with some 16,000 inhabitants. ...

Notable Kashubians

Günter Wilhelm Grass (born October 16, 1927) is a Nobel Prize-winning German author and playwright. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... Gerard Labuda (b. ... Donald Franciszek Tusk (IPA: [], born 22 April 1957, Gdańsk) is a liberal Polish politician, co-founder and chairman of the Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska), and the Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland. ... Citizens Platform (Platforma Obywatelska) is a Polish conservative- liberal political party, modelled after the two main American parties. ... Johann David Ludwig Graf Yorck von Wartenburg (September 26, 1759 - October 4, 1830) was a Prussian Field Marshal of alleged English ancestry. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Kashubians

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa) is one of the Lechitic languages, which are a group of Slavic languages. ... The Kashubian alphabet is the script of the Kashubian language. ...

Further reading

  • Synak, Brunon (December 1997). "The Kashubes during the post-communist transformation in Poland". Nationalities Papers 25 (4): 715-728.

External links

  • (Polish) http://www.zk-p.pl/
  • (in Kashubian, Polish, German) http://www.kaszubia.com/
  • (Polish) (German) (English) http://www.republika.pl/modraglina/kaszlink.html
  • http://www.cassubia-slavica.com/

  Results from FactBites:
 
Muzeum Kaszubskie (1610 words)
The individual character of the Kashubian character and language was first described by the Russian scholar Aleksander Hilferding, to whom we are indebted for the first data about the range of Kashubian dialects.
Kashubian ceramics is characterised by the unique motifs of the Kashubian star, fish-scales, tulips, lilies, wreaths, lilac branches, all complemented by wavy lines and dots.
The most characteristic for Kashubian bands is a percussion instrument - the devil's fiddle, composed of a stick and a board in the shape of a violin, capped with a coloured demon in a spangled hat.
Syrena Polish Folk Dance Ensemble - Kaszuby (3113 words)
The Kashubian people make their living from sea and fresh water fishing, farming, cattle breeding, hunting, collecting the honey of wild bees and working with amber which is so plentiful on the Baltic Sea shores.
The Kashubian way of speaking differs so much from the rest of Poland that, for instance, a Polish goral [GOO-rahl], a mountaineer from the Tatra mountains whose "gwara" is influenced by the Carpathian shepherds' culture and a polish rybak [RIH-bahk], a fisherman from the Baltic Sea, might not be able to understand each other.
The costume illustrated is typical of the Kashubian Lake district in the early nineteenth century.
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