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Encyclopedia > Kashrut
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The circled U indicates that this product is certified as kosher by the Orthodox Union (OU). The word "pareve" indicates that this product contains neither milk nor meat derived ingredients
The circled U indicates that this product is certified as kosher by the Orthodox Union (OU). The word "pareve" indicates that this product contains neither milk nor meat derived ingredients

Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus, כַּשְרוּת) refers to Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha (Jewish law) is termed kosher in English, from the Hebrew term kashér, meaning "fit" (in this context, fit for consumption by Jews according to traditional Jewish law). Jews may not consume non-kosher food (but there are no restrictions for non-dietary use, for example, injection of insulin of porcine origin). Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Several groups, sometimes called denominations, branches, or movements, have developed among Jews of the modern era, especially Ashkenazi Jews living in anglophone countries. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Haredi or chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... Modern Orthodox Judaism (or Modern Orthodox or Modern Orthodoxy) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize traditional observance and values with the secular, modern world. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ... Jewish Renewal is a new religious movement in Judaism which endeavors to reinvigorate modern Judaism with mystical, Hasidic, musical and meditative practices. ... Rabbinic Judaism (or in Hebrew Yahadut Rabanit - יהדות רבנית) is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the written Torah as well as the Oral Law (the Mishnah, Talmuds and subsequent rabbinic decisions) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish movement characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... For other uses, see Samaritan (disambiguation). ... Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... A minyan (Hebrew: plural minyanim) is traditionally a quorum of ten or more adult (over the age of Bar Mitzvah) male Jews for the purpose of communal prayer; a minyan is often held within a synagogue, but may be (and often is) held elsewhere. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... The Rainbow is the modern symbol of the Noahide Movement reminiscing the rainbow that appeared after the Great Flood of the Bible. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In Jewish messianism and eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... In Judaism, chosenness is the belief that the Jews are a chosen people: chosen to be in a covenant with God. ... Holocaust theology refers to a body of theological and philosophical debate, soul-searching, and analysis, with the subsequent related literature, that attempts to come to grips with various conflicting views about the role of God in this human world and the dark events of the European Holocaust that occurred during... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... Tzniut or Tznius (also Tzeniut) (Hebrew: צניעות modesty) is a term used within Judaism and has its greatest influence as a notion within Orthodox Judaism. ... Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). Judaism is very tied to the concept of tzedakah, or charity, and the nature of Jewish giving has created a North American Jewish community that is very philanthropic. ... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... Mussar movement refers to an Jewish ethics educational and cultural movement (a Jewish Moralist Movement) that developed in 19th century Orthodox Eastern Europe, particularly among the Lithuanian Jews. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... The Tosefta is a secondary compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah. ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... The Kuzari is the most famous work by the medieval Spanish Jewish writer Yehuda Halevi. ... The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ... Arbaah Turim (ארבעה טורים), often called simply the Tur, is an important Halakhic code, composed by Yaakov ben Asher (Spain, 1270 -c. ... The Shulkhan Arukh (Hebrew: Prepared Table), by Rabbi Yosef Karo is considered the most authoritative compilation of Jewish law since the Talmud. ... Mishnah Berurah (Hebrew: Clarified Teaching) is a work of halakha (Jewish law) by Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan, better known as The Chofetz Chaim (Poland, 1838 - 1933). ... The Chumash Chumash (IPA: ) (Hebrew: חומש; sometimes written Humash) is one name given to the Pentateuch in Judaism. ... A siddur (Hebrew: סידור; plural siddurim) is a Jewish prayer book over the world, containing a set order of daily prayers. ... A piyyut (plural piyyutim, Hebrew פיוט, IPA [pijút] and [pijutím]) is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services. ... The Zohar (Hebrew: זהר Splendor, radiance) is widely considered the most important work of Kabbalah, Jewish mysticism. ... Note: Tanya Rabbati, a 16th century Italian code of Jewish law, is an unrelated work with a similar name. ... Nineteenth century plaque, with Jerusalem occupying the upper right quadrant, Hebron beneath it, the Jordan River running top to bottom, Safed in the top left quadrant, and Tiberias beneath it. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Safed (Hebrew: צְפַת, Tiberian: , Israeli: Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas; Arabic: صفد ; KJV English: Zephath) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Arabic الخليل Government City Also Spelled al-Khalil (officially) al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 166,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city in the southern Judea... Hebrew טבריה (Standard) Teverya Arabic طبرية Government City District North Population 39 900 (a) Jurisdiction 10 000 dunams (10 km²) Tiberias (British English: ; American English: ; Hebrew: , Tverya; Arabic: , abariyyah) is a town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, Lower Galilee, Israel. ... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... Engraving of Sarah by Hans Collaert from c. ... Rebekah (Rebecca or Rivkah) (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ) is the wife of Isaac. ... This article is about the Biblical character. ... Look up Leah, לֵאָה in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... For information on the nurse of Rebeccah, mentioned in Genesis, see Deborah (Genesis) Deborah or Dvora (Hebrew: ‎ Bee, Standard Hebrew DÉ™vora, Tiberian Hebrew Dəḇôrāh) was a prophetess and the fourth Judge and only female Judge of pre-monarchic Israel in the Old Testament (Tanakh). ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Hillel (הלל) was a famous Jewish religious leader who lived in Jerusalem during the time of King Herod and Augustus;(year????) he is one of the most important figures in Jewish history, associated with the Mishnah and the Talmud. ... Shammai (50 BCE–30 CE) was a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, and an important figure in Judaisms core work of rabbinic literature, the Mishnah. ... Judah haNasi, or more accurately in Hebrew, Yehudah HaNasi, was a key leader of the Jewish community of Judea under the Roman empire, toward the end of the 2nd century CE. He was reputedly from the Davidic line of the royal line from King David, hence his title Prince (Nasi... Saadia Ben Joseph Gaon (892-942), the Hebrew name of Said al-Fayyumi, was a rabbi who was also a prominent Jewish exilarch, philosopher, and exegete. ... Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 13, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ... Rabbi Isaac ben Jacob Alfasi (1013 - 1103) - also Isaac Hakohen, Alfasi or the Rif (ריף) - was a Talmudist and posek (decisor in matters of halakha - Jewish law). ... Rabbi Abraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra (also known as Ibn Ezra, or Abenezra) (1092 or 1093-1167), was one of the most distinguished Jewish men of letters and writers of the Middle Ages. ... Tosafists were medieval rabbis who created critical and explanatory glosses on the Talmud. ... Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew: רבי משה בן מיימון; Arabic: Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Kurtubi al-Israili; March 30, 1135—December 13, 1204), commonly known by his Greek name Maimonides, was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... Nahmanides (1194 - c. ... Levi ben Gershon (Levi son of Gerson), better known as Gersonides or the Ralbag (1288-1344), was a famous rabbi, philosopher, mathematician and Talmudic commentator. ... Joseph Albo was a Spanish rabbi, and theologian of the fifteenth century, known chiefly as the author of the work on the Jewish principles of faith, Ikkarim. ... Yosef Caro (sometimes Joseph Caro) (1488 - March 24, 1575) was one of the most significant leaders in Rabbinic Judaism and the author of the Shulchan Arukh, an authoritative work on Halakhah (Jewish law). ... Asher ben Jehiel (or Rabeinu Osher ben Yechiel) (1250? 1259?-1328), an eminent rabbi and Talmudist often known by his Hebrew acronym the ROSH (literally Head), was born in western Germany and died in Toledo, Spain. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Israel ben Eliezer Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (about 1700 Okopy Świętej Tr jcy - May 22, 1760 Międzyborz) was a Jewish Orthodox mystical rabbi who is better known to most religious Jews as... Shneur Zalman of Liadi (‎) (September 4, 1745 – December 15, 1812 O.S.), was an Orthodox Rabbi, and the founder and first Rebbe of Chabad, a branch of Hasidic Judaism, then based in Liadi, Imperial Russia. ... Elijah Ben Solomon, the Vilna Gaon The Vilna Gaon (April 23, 1720 – October 9, 1797) was a prominent Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and Kabbalist. ... Leopold Zunz (1794-1886), Jewish scholar, was born at Detmold in 1794, and died in Berlin in 1886. ... Israel Jacobson (October 17, 1768, Halberstadt - September 14, 1828, Berlin) was a German philanthropist and reformer. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Rabbi Ovadia Yosef (Hebrew: עובדיה יוסף) (b. ... Rabbi Moshe Feinstein (1895-1986) Moshe Feinstein (1895 - 1986) was a Lithuanian Orthodox rabbi and scholar, who was world renowned for his expertise in halakha and was the de facto supreme rabbinic authority for Orthodox Jewry of North America. ... Elazar Menachem Man Shach (אלעזר מנחם מן שך) (or Rav Leizer Shach, at times his name is written as Eliezer Schach in English publications) (January 22, 1898 - November 2, 2001), was a leading Haredi rabbi in modern Israel. ... Rabbi M.M. Schneerson The third Rebbe of the Chabad Lubavitch dynasty was also named Menachem Mendel Schneersohn (with a h) Menachem Mendel Schneerson (April 18, 1902-June 12, 1994), referred to by Lubavitchers as The Rebbe, was a prominent Orthodox Jewish rabbi who was the seventh and last Rebbe... Set of implements used in the performance of brit milah, displayed in the Göttingen city museum Brit milah (Hebrew: בְרִית מִילָה [bÉ™rÄ«t mÄ«lā] literally: covenant [of] circumcision), also berit milah (Sephardi), bris milah (Ashkenazi pronunciation) or bris (Yiddish) is a religious ceremony within Judaism to welcome infant Jewish... In Judaism, Bar Mitzvah (Hebrew: בר מצוה, one (m. ... Shidduch (Hebrew: שידוך, pl. ... Judaism considers marriage to be the ideal state of existence; a man without a wife, or a woman without a husband, are considered incomplete. ... Niddah (or nidah, nidda, nida; Hebrew:נִדָּה) is a Hebrew term which literally means separation, generally considered to refer to separation from ritual impurity[1]; Ibn Ezra argues that it is related to the term menaddekem, meaning cast you out[2]. The term niddah appears in the biblical description of the... Zeved habat (also written Zebed habat) (Hebrew זֶבֶד הַבָּת) is the mainly Sephardic naming ceremony for girls, corresponding in part to the non-circumcision part of the Brit milah ceremony for boys. ... Pidyon HaBen (Hebrew: פדיון הבן) is the redemption of the first-born, a ritual in Judaism. ... Bereavement in Judaism (אבלות aveilut; mourning) is a combination of minhag (traditional custom) and mitzvot (commandments) derived from Judaisms classical Torah and rabbinic texts. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... For the tanna, see Judah HaNasi. ... A hazzan or chazzan (Hebrew for cantor) is a Jewish musician trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the synagogue in songful prayer. ... Cohen (disambiguation) Position of the kohens hands and fingers during the Priestly Blessing A kohen (or cohen, Hebrew כּהן, priest, pl. ... A Rosh yeshiva (Hebrew: ראש ישיבה) (plural in Hebrew: Roshei yeshiva, but also referred to in the English form as Rosh yeshivas) is a rabbi who is the academic head, or rosh (ראש), of a yeshiva (ישיבה), a... A Gabbai (Hebrew: גבאי) is a person who assists in the running of a synagogue and ensures that the needs are met, for example the Jewish prayer services run smoothly, or an assistant to a rabbi (particularly the secretary or personal assistant to a Hassidic Rebbe). ... Dovber of Mezeritch (died 1772) was the primary disciple of Israel ben Eliezer, the Baal Shem Tov, the founder of Hasidic Judaism (now a form of Orthodox Judaism. ... A mohel (מוהל also moel) is a Jewish ritual circumciser who performs a brit milah ritual circumcision on the penis of a male who is to enter the Jewish covenant. ... A beth din (בית דין, Hebrew: house of judgment, plural battei din) is a rabbinical court of Judaism. ... Rosh yeshiva (Hebrew: ראש ישיבה) (pl. ... A synagogue (from , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; beit knesset, house of assembly; or beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... Mikvah (or mikveh) (Hebrew: מִקְוָה, Standard Tiberian  ; plural: mikvaot or mikvot) is a specially constructed pool of water used for total immersion in a purification ceremony within Judaism. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ( משכן Place of [Divine] dwelling). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Hebrews from the time they left ancient Egypt following the Exodus, through the time of the Book of Judges when they were engaged in conquering... The tallit (Modern Hebrew: ) or tallet(h) (Sephardi Hebrew: ), also called talles (Yiddish), is a prayer shawl cloak that is worn during the morning Jewish services (the Shacharit prayers) in Judaism, during the Torah service, and on Yom Kippur. ... Tefillin (Hebrew: תפלין), also called phylacteries, are two boxes containing Biblical verses and the leather straps attached to them which are used in traditional Jewish prayer. ... A yarmulke (also yarmulka, yarmelke) (Yiddish יאַרמלקע yarmlke) or Kippah (Hebrew כִּפָּה kippāh, plural kippot) is a thin, usually slightly rounded cloth cap worn by Jews. ... Sefer Torah being read during weekday service. ... Tzitzit or tzitzis (Ashkenazi) (Hebrew: Biblical ×¦×™×¦×ª Modern ×¦×™×¦×™×ª) are fringes or tassels worn by observant Jews on the corners of four-cornered garments, including the tallit (prayer shawl). ... Mezuzah (IPA: ) (Heb. ... This article is about the seven branched candelabrum used in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... A shofar made from the horn of a kudu, in the Yemenite Jewish style. ... The Four Species (note: in a kosher lulav, the aravah is placed on the left, the lulav in the center, and the hadassim on the right) The Four Species (Hebrew: ארבעה מינים) are three types of plants and one type of fruit which are held together and waved in a special ceremony... A kittel (Yiddish: קיתל, robe) is a white robe worn on special occasions by religious Jews. ... The Hasidic Gartel The Gartel is a belt used by Hasidic Jews during prayer. ... The word yad may also refer to the Yad ha-Chazaka, another name for Maimonides Mishneh Torah. ... Listed below are some Hebrew prayers and blessings that are part of Judaism that are recited by many Jews. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: תפלה, tefillah ; plural תפלות, tefillot ; Yinglish: davening) are the prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Shema Yisrael (or Shma Yisroel or just Shema) (Hebrew: שמע ישראל; Hear, [O] Israel) are the first two words of a section of the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... The Amidah (Standing), also called the Shemoneh Esrei (The Eighteen), is the central prayer in the Jewish liturgy that observant Jews recite each morning, afternoon, and evening. ... Aleinu (Hebrew: ‎, our duty) is a Jewish prayer found in the siddur, the classical Jewish prayerbook. ... () Kol Nidre (ashk. ... This article is about the Jewish prayer. ... Hallel (Hebrew: הלל Praise [God]) is part of Judaisms prayers, a verbatim recitation from Psalms 113-118, which is used for praise and thanksgiving that is recited by observant Jews on Jewish holidays. ... Ma Tovu (Hebrew for O How Good or How Goodly) is a prayer in Judaism, expressing reverence and awe for synagogues and other places of worship. ... Havdalah (הבדלה) is a Jewish religious ceremony that marks the symbolic end of Shabbat and holidays, and ushers in beginning of the new week. ... Judaism and Christianity are two closely related Abrahamic religions that in some ways parallel each other and in other ways fundamentally diverge in theology and practice. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... This article on relations between Catholicism and Judaism deals with the current relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and Judaism, focusing on changes over the last fifty years, and especially during the pontificate of Pope John Paul II. // The Second Vatican Council Throughout history accusations of anti-Semitism have resounded... In recent years there has been much to note in the way of reconciliation between some Christian groups and the Jewish people. ... map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... This article deals with Jewish views of religious pluralism. ... This article on Mormonism and Judaism describes the views of Latter-day Saints, commonly known as Mormons, with respect to Jews and Judaism, and includes comparisons of the Mormon and Jewish faiths. ... Jacob wrestling an angel, by Gustave Doré (1832-1883), a shared Judeo-Christian story. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ... Criticism of Judaism has existed since Judaisms formative stages, as with many other religions, on philosophical, scientific, ethical, political and theological grounds. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Philo-Semitism, Philosemitism, or Semitism is an interest in, respect for the Jewish people, as well as the love of everything Jewish, and the historical significance of Jewish culture and positive impact of Judaism in the history of the world. ... This article is about the Jewish male educational system. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 893 KB) Summary OU Kosher Symbol Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 893 KB) Summary OU Kosher Symbol Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... OU logo. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... Injection has multiple meanings: In mathematics, the term injection refers to an injective function. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... Species Sus barbatus Sus bucculentus Sus cebifrons Sus celebensis Sus domesticus Sus heureni Sus philippensis Sus salvanius Sus scrofa Sus timoriensis Sus verrucosus Pigs are ungulates native to Eurasia collectively grouped under the genus Sus within the Suidae family. ...


Food that is not in accord with Jewish law is called treif, (טרייף or treyf, Hebrew טְרֵפָה trēfáh). Treif meat is meat from a non-kosher animal or a kosher animal that has not been properly slaughtered according to Jewish law.


Many of the basic laws of kashrut are in the Torah's Book of Leviticus, with their details set down in the oral law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) and codified by the Shulchan Aruch and later rabbinical authorities. Many varied reasons have been offered for these laws, ranging from philosophical and ritualistic, to practical and hygienic. Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... An oral law is a code of conduct in use in a given culture, religion or other regroupement, by which a body of rules of human behaviour is transmitted by oral tradition and effectively respected, or the single rule that is orally transmitted. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... The Shulkhan Arukh (Hebrew: Prepared Table), by Rabbi Yosef Karo is considered the most authoritative compilation of Jewish law since the Talmud. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ...


By extension, the word kosher means legitimate, acceptable, permissible, genuine or authentic, in a broader sense.[1]


The Islamic equivalent for Muslims is halal, which overlaps with kosher, but is not identical. Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Halal (حلال, alāl, halaal) is an Arabic term meaning permissible. In the English language it most frequently refers to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ...

Contents

Principles

The laws of kashrut derive from various passages in the Torah, and are numerous and complex, but the key principles are as follows: Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ...

  • Only meat from particular species is permissible:
    • Only mammals that chew their cud (ruminate) and have cloven hooves are kosher.
    • Birds must fit certain criteria; birds of prey are not kosher. There must be an established tradition that a bird is kosher before it can be consumed.
    • Fish must have fins and scales to be kosher. Shellfish and non-fish water fauna are not kosher.
    • Insects are not kosher, except for certain species of kosher locust (unrecognized in most communities).
  • Meat and milk (or derivatives) cannot be mixed, i.e. meat and dairy products are not
    served at the same meal, served or cooked in the same utensils, or stored together. Observant Jews have separate sets of dishes for meat and milk.
  • Mammals and fowl must be slaughtered in specific fashion: slaughter is done by a trained individual (a shochet) using a special method of slaughter, shechita. Among other features, shechita slaughter severs the jugular vein, carotid artery, esophagus and trachea in a single cut with an unserrated, sharp knife. Failure of one of these criteria renders the meat of the animal unsuitable. The body must be checked post-slaughter so as to be certain that the animal had no medical condition or defect that would have caused it to die of its own accord.
  • Blood must be removed as much as possible through the kashering process. However, if a minute amount remains after it is halachically schected (slaughtered) and salted and cooked, it is permissible. Removing the blood is often accomplished through soaking and salting the meat, by broiling it, or grilling it over an open flame.
  • Utensils used for non-kosher foods are rendered non-kosher, and will transfer that non-kosher status to kosher foods. Some utensils, depending on the material they are made from, can be made kosher again by immersion in boiling water.
  • Food that is prepared by Jews in a manner which violates the Shabbat (Sabbath) may not be eaten.
  • Passover has special dietary rules, the most important of which is the prohibition on eating leavened bread (chametz). Utensils used in preparing and serving chametz are also forbidden on Passover. Observant Jews traditionally have separate sets of meat and dairy utensils for Passover use only.
  • Certain foods must have been prepared in whole or in part by Jews, including:
  • Biblical rules control the use of agriculture produce: for produce grown in the Land of Israel a modified version of the Biblical tithes must be applied, including Terumat HaMaaser, Maaser Rishon, Maaser Sheni, and Maaser Ani (untithed produce is called tevel); the fruit of the first three years of a tree’s growth or replanting are forbidden for eating or any other use as orlah [2]; produce grown in the Land of Israel on the seventh year is Shviis, and unless managed carefully is forbidden as a violation of the Shmita (Sabbatical Year).

The following rules of kashrut are not universally observed: It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ruminantia. ... A cloven-hoof is a type of hoof that is found on some animals. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life of any particular region or time. ... While most insects are considered to be forbidden by Kosher dietary laws, four varieties of locust are nonetheless considered by some to be permissible. ... Shechita Shechita (Hebrew ) is the ritual slaughter of animals, as prescribed for slaughter of mammals and birds according to Jewish dietary laws. ... Shechita Shechita (Hebrew:שחיטה) is the ritual slaughter of animals, as prescribed for slaughter of mammals and birds according to Jewish dietary laws. ... For other uses, see Sabbath. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... Chametz or Chometz (חמץ) is the Hebrew term for leavened bread. The word is used generally in regard to the Jewish holiday of Passover. ... A bottle of Kosher wine, pasteurised to be Yayin Mevushal Kosher wine (Hebrew: ) is wine produced according to Judaisms religious law, specifically, the Jewish dietary laws regarding wine. ... Bishul Yisrael is a Hebrew term, for one of the laws of kashrut (kosher food) in Orthodox Judaism. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Cholov Yisroel (Hebrew: חלב ישראל) refers to all dairy products, including cheese and non-fat dry milk powder, which have been under constant Rabbinical supervision. ... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ... Terumat HaMaaser, which along with Teruma Gedola was known in the Talmud simply as Terumah, refers to a tithe on produce grown in the Land of Israel of a tenth of a tenth (one percent), that was given to and could be eaten by Kohanim (priests) in the days of... The Maaser Rishon (first tithe) or Levite Tithe, also known as Terumat Hamaaser or simply Maaser, based on the Hebrew word eser (tenth), was the tithe of produce due the Levites from produce grown in the land of Israel. ... Maaser Sheni or second tithe} refers to a tithe of a tithe which Levites, who received Maaser Rishon, were obligated to give to Kohanim (Jewish priests) from the 10% tithe (the Maaser Rishon) on produce grown in the land of Israel. ... Maaser Ani, or the Poor tithe, reflects an obligation to set aside one tenth of produce grown in the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemita (Sabbatical year) agricultural cycle for the poor, in the days of the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Tevel is a village in Tolna county, Hungary. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ... The Shemitah (in Hebrew: שְׁמִטָּה -- [Year of] Remission) or Sabbatical Year, promulgated in the Torah, is a practice of contemporary Orthodox Judaism with Biblical roots. ...

  • The rule against eating new grain (yoshon) outside the Land of Israel
  • In addition, some groups follow various eating restrictions on Passover which go beyond the rules of kashrut, such as the eating of gebrochts or garlic.[3]

Conservative Judaism follows a number of leniencies, including: Yoshon is a concept within Kashrut, the dietary regulations of Judaism. ... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... Gebruchts (Yid געברוחטס, lit. ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ...

  • Permitting kashering with less than boiling water under certain circumstances (which permits a dishwasher to be used for meat and dairy dishes, although not at the same time, provided the dishwasher will not absorb particles of the food)
  • Classifying various chemical additives derived from non-kosher meat products as nonfood and permissible (for example, permitting rennet from cow's stomachs to be used in cheese and horse-hoof gelatin in foods)
  • A variety of additional details.[specify]

Although Reconstructionist Judaism and some perspectives within Reform Judaism encourage individuals to follow some or all aspects of the kashrut rules required by the more traditional branches, these branches do not require their observance and do not maintain their own sets of required rules. Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ...


Types of foods

For more details on this topic, see Kosher foods.

Foods are kosher when they meet all criteria that Jewish law applies to food and drinks. Invalidating characteristics may range from the presence of a mixture of meat and milk, to the use of produce from Israel that has not been tithed properly, or even the use of cooking utensils which had previously been used for non-kosher food. Kosher foods are those that meet certain criteria of Jewish law. ...


Identification of kosher foods

Kosher meat dishes in the Jüdisches Museum (Berlin)- 18th and early 20th century.
Kosher meat dishes in the Jüdisches Museum (Berlin)- 18th and early 20th century.
Dairy dishes in the Jüdisches Museum (Berlin)- 19th century
Dairy dishes in the Jüdisches Museum (Berlin)- 19th century
For more details on this topic, see Hechsher.

Store-bought foods can be identified as kosher by the presence of a hechsher (plural hechsherim), a graphical symbol that indicates that the food has been certified as kosher by a rabbinical authority. (This might be an individual rabbi, but is more often a rabbinic organization.) One of the most common symbols in the United States is the "OU", a U inside a circle, standing for the Union of Orthodox Congregations (or "Orthodox Union"). Many rabbis and organizations, however, have their own certification mark, and the other symbols are too numerous to list. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 855 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 855 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 689 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 689 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Hechsher (הכשר Hebrew: kosher approval , plural: hechsherim) is the formal granting of certification, usually by an authorized rabbi, that a product is certified as kosher (meaning fit [for consumption].) A hechsher is usually conveyed to the public by a special marking on products (generally foods) certifying that the item is certified... Hechsher (הכשר Hebrew: kosher approval , plural: hechsherim) is the formal granting of certification, usually by an authorized rabbi, that a product is certified as kosher (meaning fit [for consumption].) A hechsher is usually conveyed to the public by a special marking on products (generally foods) certifying that the item is certified... The Orthodox Union or Union of Orthodox Congregations is a Jewish organization that primarily serves the North American Jewish community. ... A certification mark on a commercial product indicates five things: The existence of a legal follow-up or product certification agreement between the manufacturer of a product and an organisation with national accreditation for both testing and certification, Legal evidence that the product was successfully tested in accordance with a...


Many kashrut certification symbols are accompanied by additional letters or words to indicate the category of the food. In common usage is "D" for Dairy, "M" for Meat or poultry, "Pareve" for food that is neither meat nor dairy, "Fish" for foods containing such, and "P" for Passover (not to be confused with Pareve). Note that many foods meet the US FDA standard for "Non-Dairy" while they do not meet the Jewish standard for "Pareve" and are labeled with the "D" next to the kosher symbol.


A single K is sometimes used as a symbol for kosher, but as a letter cannot be trademarked (the method by which other symbols are protected from misuse) in many countries, it only indicates that the company producing the food claims it is kosher. “(TM)” redirects here. ...


The hechsheirim of certain authorities are sometimes considered invalid by certain other authorities. [citation needed]


It is not sufficient to read the list of ingredients on a product label in order to determine a food's kosher status, as many things are not included in this list, such as pan lubricants and release agents (which may be derived from lard), flavorings ("natural flavorings" are more likely to be derived from non-kosher substances than others) and others. Reading the label can, however, identify obviously unkosher ingredients. This article is about the fat. ... Flavouring (CwE) or flavoring (AmE) is a product which is added to food in order to change or augment its taste. ...


Producers of foods and food additives can contact Jewish authorities to have their products certified as kosher: a committee will visit their facilities to inspect production methods and contents, and issue a certificate if everything is in order. In many cases constant supervision is required.


For various reasons, such as changes in manufacturing processes, products which were kosher may cease to be so; for example, a kosher lubricating oil may be replaced by one containing tallow. Such changes are often coordinated with the supervising rabbi or organization to ensure that new packaging, which will not suggest any hechsher or kashrut, is used for the new formulation. But in some cases existing stocks of preprinted labels with the hechsher may continue to be used on the now non-kosher product; for such reasons, there is an active "grapevine" among the Jewish community, as well as newspapers and periodicals, identifying which products are now questionable, as well as products which have become kosher but whose labels have yet to carry the hechsher. Tallow is rendered beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. ... Look up Grapevine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Grapevine can refer to several things. ...


Attempts to explain the laws of kashrut

There continues to be a debate among various theories about the purposes and meaning of the laws regarding kashrut.


Jewish religious explanations

Traditional Jewish philosophy divides the 613 mitzvot into mishpatim (laws which can be explained rationally) and chukim (laws which cannot be explained rationally). Those categorized as chukim include such laws as the Red Heifer (Numbers 19). There are three basic points of view regarding these laws: Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... Main article: Mitzvah 613 Mitzvot or 613 Commandments (Hebrew: ‎ transliterated as Taryag mitzvot; TaRYaG is the acronym for the numeric value of 613) are a list of commandments from God in the Torah. ... In Judaism, the red heifer (Hebrew parah adumah) is a heifer that is sacrificed and whose ashes are used for the ritual purification of people who came into contact with a corpse. ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ...

  • One view is that these laws were ordained for the protection and health of God's people in a time where basic hygiene was not yet understood. For example, carrion was against Jewish law. As we know today many such animals are ridden with diseases as they begin to decompose. Also, shellfish can be easily contaminated with hepatitis and other diseases if they are not cared for properly, these were also against Jewish law.[specify]
  • A second view holds that these laws do have a reason, but it is not understood because the ultimate explanation for mitzvot is beyond the human intellect; [citation needed][specify] and
  • A third view [specify] holds that these laws have no meaning other than to instill obedience. [citation needed]
Some Jewish scholars have held that these dietary laws should simply be categorized with a group of laws that are considered irrational in that there is no particular explanation for their existence. The reason for this is that there are some of God's regulations for mankind that the human mind is not necessarily capable of understanding. Related to this is the idea that the dietary laws were given as a demonstration of God's authority and that man should obey without asking for a reason. [citation needed]

This last view, however, has been rejected by most classical and modern Jewish authorities [citation needed]. For example, Maimonides holds that we are permitted to seek out reasons for the laws of the Torah.[8] Mitzvah מצוה is Hebrew for commandment (plural mitzvot; from צוה, tzavah - command). ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ...


There is also the view that the obedience to the laws of kashrut are a necessary precondition for a Jew to be able to reach his utmost spiritual capacity. According to this understanding, the laws are meant to say that one must first have obedience in his base, animalistic sectors of life in order to achieve obedience and spirituality in the more lofty pursuits of Judaism. [citation needed]


Hasidic view of the laws of kashrut

According to the teachings of Hasidism, when a Jew manipulates any object for a holy reason (which includes eating, if it is done with a proper intention—to provide strength to follow laws of Torah), he releases "sparks of Holiness" which are found in every object. [4] These "sparks" are actually channels of connection with the Divinity, and their "activation" allows the drawing of the Divine Presence into the physical world. [5] This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Shekinah (שכינה - alternative transliterations Shechinah, Shekhina, Shechina) is the English spelling of the Hebrew language word that means the glory or radiance of God, or God resting in his house or Tabernacle amongst his people. ...


However, there are some types of animals, whose products are not applicable for performance of commandments, because the "sparks of holiness" cannot be released from their matter. [6] Therefore, we are provided with "signs" of the animals whose sparks can be released [7]. These signs are split hooves (hooves symbolize connection with the material world which, however, is not so complete as to lose connection with the spiritual world), and rechewing of food (food symbolizes Torah or in more general terms, holiness; rechewing of food symbolizes ability to penetrate deeper into some holy concepts or penetrate deeped into holiness, as is necessary to separate sparks from their matter). For fish (which symbolize sages), these signs are scales (protection from water, which is a symbol of intellectual influence) and fins (that gives fish ability to move in water better, which symbolizes ability to move from one area of Torah or holiness to another).


It must be noted that these signs are not the causes of these animals not being kosher (so, according to Talmud, if a camel is born with completely split hooves, it does not become kosher), they are merely signs that alert us to spiritual characteristics of these animals' products (namely, whether it's possible to activate their "sparks of Divinity") which cannot be seen from the physical perspective.[8] The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ...


Contemporary academic opinions

Ritual purity and holiness

Cultural anthropologist Mary Douglas has written on just how the Israelites may have used the idea of distinction as a way to create holiness. Her work, Purity and Danger (1966), is still studied today. One theory is that the laws serve as a distinction between the Israelites and the non-Israelite nations of the world. Gordon Wenham writes: "The laws reminded Israel what sort of behaviour was expected of her, that she had been chosen to be holy in an unclean world." Dame Mary Douglas, DBE, (born March 25, 1921 - died 16 May 2007) was a British anthropologist, known for her writings on human culture and symbolism. ... The word gentile is an anglicised version of the Latin word gentilis, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe. ... Gordon Wenham is a theologian and author of several books about the Bible. ...


Similarly, according to this theory, the practice of kashrut serves as a daily exercise in self-discipline and self-control, strengthening the practitioner's ability to choose other difficult paths. The ability to rationally curb one's most basic appetites can be seen as the prerequisite to living in a civilized society. Also, Jews consider the aspects of kosher slaughter which emphasize and incorporate the need to avoid unnecessary suffering of the animal a reminder to the believer that having the power of life and death or to cause suffering, even to a farm animal born and bred to be eaten, is a serious responsibility rather than a pleasure to be sought after; and that to actually indulge in pleasure in the power to cause suffering, even in so common a practice as hunting, is to damage our own moral sensibilities. [citation needed]


The prohibition against eating the fruits of a tree for the first three years also represents a capacity for self-discipline and self-denial, as well as a lengthy period of appreciation for the bounty of God, prior to losing oneself in its enjoyment. Similarly, the requirement to tithe one's harvest, aside from the social justice aspect, serves as a reminder that this material wealth is not purely the result of one's own efforts, but represents a gift from God; and as such, to share the gift with one's fellows does not represent a real loss to anyone, even oneself. [citation needed]


Symbolic purpose

During the first few centuries of the Common Era some philosophers held that the laws of kashrut were symbolic in character. In this view, kosher animals represent virtues, while non-kosher animals represent vices. The first indication of this view can be found in the 1st century BC Letter of Aristeas (par. 145-148, 153). It later reappears in the writings of Philo of Alexandria, and in the writings of some of the early Church Fathers. BCE redirects here. ... Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... Vice is a practice or habit that is considered immoral, depraved, and/or degrading in the associated society. ... The so-called Letter of Aristeas is a Hellenistic Jewish forgery or pseudepigrapha. ... Philo (20 BC - 50 AD), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judaeus And as Yedidia, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers...


This hypothesis has long since been rejected by most Jewish and Christian scholars. Modern Biblical criticism also has found nothing to support this hypothesis, although the concept of the pig as a particularly 'unclean' animal persists among Jews.


Although the symbolic explanation for kashrut has been largely rejected, a number of authorities maintain that the laws are intended to promote ethical and moral behaviour. A recent authority who has reexamined the symbolic/ethical meaning of kashrut is Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch (Germany, 19th century). For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Rabbi S.R. Hirsch Rabbi Dr. Samson Raphael Hirsch (June 20, 1808 – December 31, 1888) was the intellectual founder of the Torah im Derech Eretz school of contemporary Orthodox Judaism. ...


To some degree, the prohibition on combining milk with meat represents a symbolic separation between death, represented by the flesh of a dead animal, and life, represented by the milk required to sustain a newborn creature. The often-quoted humane component to this law is also of symbolic value; the Torah prohibits 'seething the kid (goat, sheep, calf) in its mother's milk', a practice cruel only in concept, which would not be understood as cruelty by either the kid or its mother and would not cause them additional suffering; but which could still potentially inflame a human's taste for ultimate power over those creatures who are weaker. Thus, kashrut prohibits the practice itself, even if the resulting mixture is to be discarded. Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ...


Similarly, the prohibition against consuming carnivorous mammals and birds, 'loathsome crawling creatures', and scavengers, as well as the prohibition against consuming sick or diseased animals, would seem to rely, at least in part, on their perceived symbolic character.


Maintenance of a separate culture

According to Christian theologian Gordon J. Wenham, the purpose of kashrut is to help maintain Jews as a separate people. The laws of kashrut had the effect of preventing socialization and intermarriage with non-Jews, helping the Jewish community maintain its identity. Wenham writes that "circumcision was a private matter, but the food laws made one's Jewish faith a public affair. Observance of the food laws was one of the outward marks of a practising Jew, and this in turn enhanced Jewish attachment to them as a reminder of their special status."[9] Gordon Wenham is a theologian and author of several books about the Bible. ... This article is about male circumcision. ...


Hygiene

There have been attempts to provide empirical support for the view that kashrut laws have hygienic benefits.


It was believed by some people [specify] that kosher animals were healthier to eat than non-kosher animals. It was also noted that the laws of purity (Leviticus 11–15) not only describe the difference between clean and unclean animals, but also describe other phenomena that appear to be related to health. For instance, glatt, the requirement that lungs be checked to be free of adhesions, would prevent consumption of animals who had been infected with tuberculosis; similarly, the ban on slaughtering of an unconscious animal would eliminate many sick and possibly infectious animals from being consumed. Such a rationale seems reasonable when considering the laws prohibiting the consumption of carrion birds or birds of prey (which are advantageous scavengers), as they may carry disease from the carrion they consume; shellfish, which as filter feeders can accumulate harmful parasites or toxins; or pork, which can harbor trichinosis if not properly cooked. Thus, it was natural for many to assume that all the laws of kashrut were merely hygienic in intent and origin. One of the rabbinical authorities that mention the hygiene hypothesis is Maimonides in his Guide for the Perplexed. An American Black Vulture feeding on squirrel carrion For other uses, see Carrion (disambiguation). ... Trichinosis, also called trichinellosis, or trichiniasis, is a parasitic disease caused by eating raw or undercooked pork and wild game products infected with the larvae of a species of roundworm Trichinella spiralis, commonly called the trichina worm. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... The Guide for the Perplexed (Hebrew:מורה נבוכים, translit. ...


For a number of reasons, however, this idea has fallen out of favor among Biblical scholars. Fruits and vegetables may be eaten without prohibition even though there are many poisonous herbs, seeds, berries, and fruits. Additionally, this hypothesis does not explain other parts of the Jewish dietary laws; for instance forbidding the consumption of fish without true scales, such as sharks and swordfish (though see kosher foods for discussion on kashrut of swordfish), fruit from trees which are less than four years old, or residual blood in meat. Kosher foods are those that meet certain criteria of Jewish law. ...


In 1953, Dr. David I. Macht, a Johns Hopkins University researcher, performed experiments on many different kinds of animals and fish, and concluded that the concentration of zoological toxins of the "unclean" animals was higher than that of the "clean" animals, and that the correlation with the description in Leviticus was 100%.[10] In addition, Dr. Macht's research indicated harmful physiological effects of mixtures of meat and milk, and ritually slaughtered meat appeared to be lower in toxins than meat from other sources[11] The conclusions of the paper published in Johns Hopkins Bulletin of the History of Medicine were challenged in a paper by biologists written at the request of a Seventh-day Adventist Church publication.[12] David Israel Macht (January 14, 1882 - October 14, 1961) was a Pharmacologist and Doctor of Hebrew Literature, responsible for many contributions to pharmacology during the first half of the 20th century. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... Kosher foods are those that meet certain criteria of Jewish law. ... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[1]) Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week, as the Sabbath. ...


Other reasons

Others have hypothesized that there are multiple reasons for the laws of kashrut, with each law serving one or more than one purpose.


Sociologist Marvin Harris has proposed that the Jewish prohibition of pork results from the fact that in arid countries such as Israel, it is possible to raise pork only by feeding it grains that are also eaten by people, since the pigs cannot forage in nonexistent forests. In bad harvest years, there would be a social conflict between those who could afford to raise and eat pork and those who would be at risk of starvation due to the scarcity of edible grains. Thus, in the interest of social survival, the prohibition entered the Jewish religion. Harris in Cows, Pigs, Wars and Witches cites worldwide examples of similar ecologically determined religious practices, including other prohibitions of pork for similar reasons. According to Harris, pork requires too much salt to guarantee the elimination of the carcass liquids due to high fat content. The reverse process of washing out the preserving salt when it came to eating the meat also made it difficult to justify. This same reason would apply to many other forbidden foods either because salting preservation was impossible or because the salting process was not reversible. Marvin Harris Marvin Harris (August 18, 1927 – October 25, 2001) was an American anthropologist. ...


U.S. laws regarding use of the word 'kosher'

In some states in the U.S. (Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, and Virginia, as well as local ordinances in two counties in Florida and the Independent City of Baltimore), statutes defined "kosher" and made it a crime to sell a product which was called "kosher" if, in general, it was not processed in accordance with the Jewish religion. Earlier court decisions upheld some of these laws. Courts have since determined that because this represents a state establishment of a religious practice, when such laws have been challenged, they have been struck down. Those who oppose the above rulings argue that kashrut is simply a set of standards for food preparation, nothing more; there is no difference between labelling something "low sodium", "high-fiber", "pasteurized", "kosher", "calcium-enriched", or "contains no cholesterol". Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Largest metro area Little Rock Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the state. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Greater Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... An independent city is a city that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... In Lemon vs. ...

  • Baltimore's City ordinance creating a kosher law was found to be unconstitutional: Barghout v. Bureau of Kosher Meat & Food Control, 66 F. 3d 1337 (4th Cir. 1995).
  • New Jersey's Kosher laws were found to violate the Establishment clauses of both the New Jersey state constitution and the First Amendment: Perretti v. Ran-Dav's County Kosher Inc., 289 N.J. Super 618, 674 A. 2d 647 (Superior Ct. Appellate Div 1996). The opinion was affirmed by the New Jersey Supreme Court in which it found that the State's use of "Orthodox Jewish law" as a basis for the definition of kosher was an adoption of substantive religious standards which violated the State and Federal constitutions. 129 N.J. 155. The State's response was to create a new law which avoids any definition of a standard for what is or is not considered kosher. Instead, establishments which claim to be kosher must publicize what they mean by that, and the State will check to ensure that this standard is adhered to. For example, kosher restaurants must display a poster (provided by the Kosher Food Enforcement Bureau) on which they display the name of their rabbinic certifier, how often he inspects the place, whether or not he requires all ingredients to be kosher-supervised, and so on. In this manner, government enforcement becomes a consumer-protection issue, and avoids the problems of advancing any particular religious view.
  • The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit found that the challenged provisions of New York's Kosher Fraud law "on their face violate the Establishment Clause because they excessively entangle the State of New York with religion and impermissibly advance Orthodox Judaism." Commack Self-Serv. Kosher Meats, Inc. v. Weiss, 294 F.3d 415 (2d Cir. 2002), 45 ATLA L. Rep. 282 (October 2002). The Supreme Court refused to hear the case, and denied certiorari (123 S. Ct. 1250 (mem.) (2003)). The statute has since been revised and a new statute, The McKinney's Agriculture and Markets Law Sec. 201-a has since been passed.

// The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States Case citation is the system used in common law countries such as the United States, England and Wales, Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Australia and India to uniquely identify the location of past court... // The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States Case citation is the system used in common law countries such as the United States, England and Wales, Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Australia and India to uniquely identify the location of past court... The New Jersey Supreme Court is the highest court in the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... // The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States Case citation is the system used in common law countries such as the United States, England and Wales, Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Australia and India to uniquely identify the location of past court... // The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States Case citation is the system used in common law countries such as the United States, England and Wales, Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Australia and India to uniquely identify the location of past court... Certiorari (pronunciation: sər-sh(ē-)ə-ˈrer-ē, -ˈrär-ē, -ˈra-rē) is a legal term in Roman, English and American law referring to a type of writ seeking judicial review. ...

How kashrut is viewed by contemporary society

In contemporary Judaism

Orthodox Judaism and Conservative Judaism hold that Jews should follow the laws of kashrut as a matter of religious obligation. Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism hold that these laws are no longer binding. Historically, Reform Judaism actively opposed kashrut as an archaism inhibiting the integration of Jews in the general society. More recently, some parts of the Reform community have begun to explore the option of a more traditional approach.[citation needed] This tradition-leaning faction agrees with mainstream Reform that the rules concerning kashrut are not obligatory, but believe that Jews should consider keeping kosher because it is a valuable way for people to bring holiness into their lives. Thus Jews are encouraged to consider adopting some or all of the rules of kashrut on a voluntary basis. The Reconstructionist movement advocates that its members accept some of the rules of kashrut, but does so in a non-binding fashion; their stance on kashrut is the same as the tradition-leaning wing of Reform. Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ...


Many Jews who do not meet the complete requirements of kashrut nevertheless maintain some subset of the laws; for instance, abstaining from pork or shellfish. Many Jews will likewise avoid drinking milk with a meat dish. Similarly, many keep a degree of kashrut at home while having no problems eating in a non-kosher restaurant, or will follow leniencies when eating out that they would not follow at home.


In common vernacular

In English and Hebrew, the term kosher is frequently used in a metaphorical sense to mean "fitting" or "correct". This is also its conventional meaning in Hebrew. For example, a mezuzah, a tefillin, a Torah scroll or even an etrog can be kosher (if it is fit for ritual use) or non-kosher (if it is unfit for ritual use), but their "kashrut" has nothing to do with food. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Mezuzah (IPA: ) (Heb. ... Tefillin (Hebrew: תפלין), also called phylacteries, are two boxes containing Biblical verses and the leather straps attached to them which are used in traditional Jewish prayer. ... Sefer Torah (in Hebrew: Book [of] Torah) (plural: sifrei Torah) is a specially hand-written copy of the Torah or Pentateuch being the holiest book within Judaism and venerated by Jews. ... Trinomial name Citrus medica var. ...


It is also part of some common product names. For example, "kosher salt" (technically "koshering salt") is a form of salt which has irregularly-shaped crystals, making it particularly suitable for preparing meat in accordance with kashrut law because the increased surface area of the crystals absorbs blood more effectively. Likewise, a "kosher" dill pickle is usually not kosher in the sense that it was prepared under rabbinical supervision, which would ensure that no utensil in contact with the pickles had been in contact with food that was not kosher. Rather, it is a pickle made in the traditional manner of Jewish New York City pickle makers with generous addition of garlic to the brine.[13][14] This is the same reason why the usage of the term "kosher-style" became frequently used in the food industry, from delis to restaurants, and even street vendors. Kosher salt (sodium chloride) (or more correctly, Koshering Salt), is one of the most commonly used varieties of salt in commercial kitchens today. ... A deli pickle. ...


Protection of the term

Consumer-protection laws in many jurisdictions prohibit use of the term "kosher" unless it is shown to conform to Jewish dietary laws, however this will be defined differently for different jurisdictions and situations. For example, in some places the law may require that a rabbi certify the kashrut, and in others it is sufficient that the manufacturer believes the product to be kosher. Most packaged food products that are labelled "kosher" will therefore have some level of certification of compliance with the laws of kashrut, though individuals must determine if that level is adequate for themselves. More detail on the "legal" usage of the term "kosher" can be found in the section above entiled "U.S. Laws regarding use of the word Kosher"


Israeli usage of the term

A new movement in Israel[15] demands that an establishment — a grocery store or restaurant — will only be considered fully kosher if its employees are paid a decent wage and treated fairly, and there is access for the handicapped. This will require a second certificate of kashrut in addition to the standard one.


Ethical eating

The translation of the root כ ש ר (K-Sh-R, Kaf-Shin-Resh) when used in this context is generally accepted to be about the "fitness" or "kosherness" of the food for consumption. There are two major strains of thought on alternative ways that "kashrut" should be practiced in order to more broadly categorize food as fit for consumption. In addition to these two major strains of thought, some, especially in the United Kingdom, have taken the fitness of the food they eat as directly dependent on how ethically it was produced, specifically in relation to its impact on the world and its people. For instance only Fairtrade teas and coffees are served in some synagogues and community centers and eggs used are organic or free range. Kaph (also spelled Kap or Kaf) is the eleventh letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its value is IPA . ... Shin (also spelled Å in or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Resh is the twentieth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... The fair trade movement promotes international agreements to enforce price supports for commodities, particularly those exported from poor countries to the industrialised West. ...


Vegetarianism

Since there are few laws of kashrut restricting the consumption of plant products, many people assume that a strictly vegetarian meal would usually be inherently kosher. In practice, however, those who follow the laws of kashrut do not automatically regard all restaurants or prepared or canned food which claim to be vegetarian as kosher, due to the likelihood that the utensils were used previously with non-kosher products, as well as the concern that there may be non-kosher ingredients mixed in, which, although they may still be considered vegetarian, would make the food not kosher. Additionally, kashrut does provide special requirements for some vegetarian products, such as wine and bread. For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ...


Many vegetarian restaurants and producers of vegetarian foods do in fact acquire a hechsher, certifying that a Rabbinical organization has approved their products as being kosher. In addition to the above concerns, the hechsher will usually certify that certain suspect vegetables have been checked for insect infestation, and that steps have been taken to ensure that any cooked food meets the requirements of bishul Yisrael. Hechsher (הכשר Hebrew: kosher approval , plural: hechsherim) is the formal granting of certification, usually by an authorized rabbi, that a product is certified as kosher (meaning fit [for consumption].) A hechsher is usually conveyed to the public by a special marking on products (generally foods) certifying that the item is certified... Bishul Yisrael is a Hebrew term, for one of the laws of kashrut (kosher food) in Orthodox Judaism. ...


Most vegetables, particularly leafy vegetables (lettuce, cabbage, parsley, dill, etc.), must be thoroughly checked for insect infestation (see link below for video instruction on proper checking procedure from the OU). The consumption of insects involves between three and six violations of Torah law;[16] so, according to Jewish Law, it is a greater sin than the consumption of pork. The proper procedure for inspecting and cleaning will vary by species, growing conditions, and the views of any particular rabbi. For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... Fresh Swiss chard Fresh water spinach Creamed spinach Steamed kale Leaf vegetables, also called greens or leafy greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... This article is about the herb. ... For other uses, see Dill (disambiguation). ...


The situation is not always reversible, however; although pareve food can contain neither meat nor dairy, that label on a product cannot be always used by vegetarians as a reliable indication, since kashrut considers fish to be parev. Because of potential issues of mixing meat and fish (see Fish and seafood) some kashrut supervising authorities specifically indicate the presence of fish products when they are found in pareve foods. Kosher foods are those that meet certain criteria of Jewish law. ... Kosher foods are those that meet certain criteria of Jewish law. ...


People who have specific dietary needs should be aware that their standards for certain concepts may differ from the halachic standards for similar concepts.

  • Many coffee creamers currently sold in the United States are labeled as "non-dairy", yet also have a "D" alongside their hechsher, which indicates a dairy status. This is because of an ingredient (usually sodium caseinate) which is derived from milk. The rabbis categorize it as dairy that cannot be mixed with meat, but the US government considers it to lack the nutritional value of milk. Such products are also unsuitable for vegans and other strict dairy abstainers.
  • On the other hand, kashrut does recognize some processes as capable of converting a meat or dairy product into a pareve one. For example, rennet is sometimes made from stomach linings, yet is acceptable for making kosher cheese,[17] but such cheeses might not be acceptable to some vegetarians, who would eat only cheese made from a vegetarian rennet. The same applies to kosher gelatin which in some cases is an animal product, despite its parev status.
  • Kashrut has procedures by which equipment can be cleaned of its previous non-kosher use, but that might be inadequate for vegetarians or other religions. For example, dairy manufacturing equipment can be cleaned well enough that the rabbis will grant pareve status to products manufactured afterward. Nevertheless, someone with a strong allergic sensitivity to dairy products might still react to the dairy residue, and that is why some products will have a "milk" warning on a product which is legitimately pareve.

Hens kept in cramped conditions — the avoidance of animal suffering is the primary motivation of people who become vegans A vegan is a person who avoids the ingestion or use of animal products. ... Rennet (IPA pronunciation: ) is a natural complex of enzymes produced in any mammalian stomach to digest the mothers milk. ... For the art collective, see Gelitin. ... Animal products are either produced by an animal or taken from the body of an animal. ...

Kashrut and animal welfare

Kashrut prohibits slaughter of an unconscious animal, and the slaughtering is done by cutting the front of the throat first. Some animal rights groups object to kosher slaughter, claiming that it can take several minutes for the animal to die and can often cause suffering. Since the spinal cord is not severed completely at the first cut, it is thought that the slaughtered animal's nervous system continues to function during the initial moments of the slaughter, causing the animal to undergo a slow and painful death. Jewish groups point to studies showing that the technique is no more painful than conventional techniques, and in most cases much quicker and less painful; the idealized emphasis on flawless procedure and tools contrasts with the often sloppy production line methodology of the slaughterhouse resulting in failure to stun the animal, as often described by animal rights advocates in other contexts. Animal liberation redirects here. ... The Human Nervous System. ...


Specific kashrut laws counter some of the rituals of ancient times, such as eating only one leg of a live animal so that people would not have to deal with eating the entire animal at one time (Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 56b); this law applies even to non-Jews and is part of the Noahide Laws. Some authorities have ruled that any unnecessary suffering by the animal can render otherwise kosher meat treife. The Rainbow is the ancient symbol of the Noahide Movement reminiscing the seven coloured rainbow that appeared after the Great Flood of the Bible. ...


Kashrut and working conditions

Heksher Tzedek, a proposed certification that food was produced under safe and just working conditions, has been endorsed by the Rabbinical Assembly, the national association of Conservative rabbis, but specific requirements for implementation of certification remain under development.[18] It would be an additional certification, not a replacement for kosher certification.
One counterargument is that an entity certifying Kashrut should remain outside political issues of labor. In particular, the laws of labor, as dictated by Torah, are being addressed by the laws of the United States of America as noted by Rabbi A. Zeilingold in an interview.[19] The Government of the United States of America provides many means for individuals to report and prosecute employers that violate the law,[20] however this information is never made transparent to consumers through certification or product markings, such as Kosher labeling.
Some questions posed by critics remain open in the matter of the Tzedek Heksher: A Heksher Tzedek, Heckscher Tzedek, or Justice Certification is a proposed certification for food produced in a way that meets standards of social justice for workers and animals. ... It has been suggested that Occupational_Safety_and_Health_Act be merged into this article or section. ... Originally set up as the alumni association of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America (JTS), the Rabbinical Assembly (RA) is the official, international body of Conservative rabbis, with some 1400 members. ...

  • If there is an accident in a meat plant certified by the Heksher Tzedek as safe, will the rabbinical group that certified the plant be liable to a lawsuit?
  • How are the people certifying the Heksher Tzedek going to oversee that a plant is fair to workers or not?
  • How are the people certifying the Heksher Tzedek determine what is fair or not fair in matters of labor?

See also

Kosher foods are those that meet certain criteria of Jewish law. ... Kosher style usually refers to food that is not strictly Kosher, but either adheres to the laws of Kashrut very loosely and/or is traditional Ashkenazic Jewish food. ... Jewish cuisine isnt one unified cuisine, but rather a collection of international cookery traditions, loosely linked by kashrut, the Jewish dietary laws. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Clean animals are listed in the book of Leviticus in the Torah. ... This article presents religious views on unclean animals. ... Halal (حلال, alāl, halaal) is an Arabic term meaning permissible. In the English language it most frequently refers to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ... Muslim dietary laws provide a set of rules as to what Muslims eat in their diet. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Kosher tax (or Jewish tax) is a canard or urban legend spread by anti-Semitic, white supremacist and other extremist organizations such as the National Alliance and Ku Klux Klan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about practices and beliefs in relation to various animals as food. ...

Notes

  1. ^ For example, The Babylonian Talmud refers to King Daryavesh (Darius the Great of Persia), who assisted in building the Second Temple, as a "kosher king". The translation refers to 'kosher' being used in the sense of 'virtuous'. Tractate Rosh Hashanah 3a, Schottenstein Edition, Mesorah Publications Ltd.
  2. ^ http://www.koltorah.org/RAVJ/13-7%20Chalav%20Yisrael%20-%20Part%201.htm
  3. ^ http://www.koltorah.org/RAVJ/13-8%20Chalav%20Yisrael%20-%20Part%202.htm
  4. ^ http://www.koltorah.org/RAVJ/13-9%20Chalav%20Yisrael%20-%20Part%203.htm
  5. ^ http://www.koltorah.org/RAVJ/14-2%20Pat%20Akum%201.htm
  6. ^ http://www.koltorah.org/RAVJ/14-3%20Pat%20Akum%202.htm
  7. ^ http://www.koltorah.org/RAVJ/14-4%20Pat%20Akum%203.htm
  8. ^ Mishneh Torah Korbanot, Temurah 4:13 (in eds. Frankel; "Rambam L'Am")
  9. ^ Gordon J. Wenham, "The Theology of Unclean Food," The Evangelical Quarterly 53, January March 1981, p.6-15
  10. ^ Macht, Dr. David I.. "An Experimental Pharmalogical Appreciation of Leviticus XI and Deuteronomy XIV" (pdf). Bulletin of the History of Medicine 27:444-450.
  11. ^ David I. Macht, Medical Leaves 1940; 3:174-184
  12. ^ Ministry Magazine, March 1953, p37-38 "This Question of Unclean Meats" Responses to Macht's study from heads of biology depts.
  13. ^ Brief note on kosher pickles in "The Pickle Wing" of nyfoodmuseum.org
  14. ^ Kashrut: Jewish Dietary Laws "Judaism 101"
  15. ^ Chicago Jewish Star, September 30, 2005, front page.
  16. ^ Rambam, Mishne Torah, Maacholoth Asuroth, 2:23-24
  17. ^ The rennet must be kosher, either microbial or from special productions of animal rennet using kosher calf stomachs.[1] Retrieved August 10, 2005.
  18. ^ "Rabbis Move Ahead With New Certification Plan" article by Nathaniel Popper in The Forward May 18, 2007
  19. ^ "Does Kosher Extend beyond the Treatment of Animals", by Pamela Miller in the New York Times, June 18, 2007
  20. ^ "America's Workers: Paying For Protection", Counterbias, January 22

The first page of the Talmud, in the standard Vilna edition. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... A stone (2. ... ArtScroll is an imprint of translations, books and commentaries from an Orthodox Jewish, more specifically a Haredi, perspective published by Mesorah Publications, Ltd. ... The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ... Korban (Hebrew: sacrifice קרבן) (plural: Korbanot קרבנות) refers to any one of a variety of sacrificial offerings described and commanded in the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that were offered in a variety of settings by the ancient Israelites, and then by the Kohanim (the Jewish priests only) in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Temurah ( Hebrew: תמורה) in Halakha is the prohibition against attempting to switch the sanctity of an animal that has been sanctified for the Temple. ... The Forward is a Jewish-American newspaper published in New York. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Yacov Lipschutz, Kashruth: A Comprehensive Background and Reference Guide to the Principles of Kahruth. New York:Mesorah Publications Ltd, 1989
  • Binyomen Forst, The Laws of Kashrus, Mozniam, 1999
  • James M. Lebeau, The Jewish Dietary Laws: Sanctify Life, United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism, New York, 1983
  • Samuel Dresner, Seymour Siegel and David Pollock The Jewish Dietary Laws, United Synagogue, New York, 1982
  • Isidore Grunfeld, The Jewish Dietary Laws, London: Soncino, 1972
  • Isaac Klein, A Guide to Jewish Religious Practice, JTSA, 1992
  • Shechita: Religious, Historical and Scientific Perspectives, Munk, Feldheim Publishers, New York, 1976

The United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism (or USCJ; until 1992, it was the United Synagogue of America) is the official organization of synagogues practicing Conservative Judaism in North America. ... Isaac Klein (1905-1979). ...

External links

Look up kosher in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

Resources on keeping kosher

On ritual slaughter

Dr. Temple Grandin, one of the more successful adults with autism. ...

Miscellaneous

  • Kosher.com
  • Traditional Kosher foods recipes
  • The Torah and vegetarianism
  • Second Jewish Encyclopaedia's excerpt on kashrut and Jewish dietary laws
  • Video tutorial on checking some of the most problematic vegetables for insects (not kosher) from the Orthodox Union
  • Kashrut certification agencies (partial list) from around the world, and their symbols which are found on all food that they have been deemed kosher.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Judaism 101: Kashrut: Jewish Dietary Laws (4250 words)
Kashrut is the body of Jewish law dealing with what foods we can and cannot eat and how those foods must be prepared and eaten.
In addition, some of the health benefits to be derived from kashrut were not made obsolete by the refrigerator.
A Jew who observes the laws of kashrut cannot eat a meal without being reminded of the fact that he is a Jew.
Kashrut:  Jewish Dietary Laws / Torah 101 / Mechon Mamre (790 words)
The shochet is not simply a butcher; he must be a pious man, well-trained in Jewish law, particularly as it relates to kashrut.  In smaller, more remote communities, the rabbi and the shochet were often the same person.
Dishwashers are a kashrut problem.  If you are going to use a dishwasher in a kosher home, you either need to have separate dish racks or you need to run the dishwasher in between meat and dairy loads.
The symbols at right are all widely-accepted kashrut certifications commonly found on products throughout the United States.  With a little practice, it is very easy to spot these marks on food labels, usually near the product name, occasionally near the list of ingredients.  There are many other certifications available, of varying degrees of strictness.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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