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Encyclopedia > Kashmir region

Coordinates: 34.5° N 76° E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

for the Led Zeppelin song see Kashmir (song) Kashmir may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent shared by India, Pakistan, and China Kashmir (song), a song by Led Zeppelin from Physical Graffiti Kashmir (band), a Danish rock band Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute over the Kashmir region Jammu and Kashmir, an integral state... For the bands 1969 self-titled debut album, see Led Zeppelin (album). ... This article is about the song. ...

A physical map of the Kashmir region
Nanga Parbat, the 9th highest peak in the world and one of the most dangerous for climbers, is in the Northern Areas of the Kashmir Region, in Pakistan.


Kashmir (Urdu: کشمیر, IPA: [kəʃˈmiːr]) is the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Historically the term Kashmir was used to refer to the valley lying between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal range. Today Kashmir refers to a larger area that includes the Indian-administered regions of Kashmir valley, Jammu and Ladakh, the Pakistani administered regions Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir, and the Chinese administered region of Aksai Chin. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 597 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1616 × 1623 pixel, file size: 789 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a public domain image downloaded from the Perry-Casteneda Map Collection at the University of Texas, Austin, by Fowler&fowler«Talk... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 597 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1616 × 1623 pixel, file size: 789 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a public domain image downloaded from the Perry-Casteneda Map Collection at the University of Texas, Austin, by Fowler&fowler«Talk... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 836 KB) Nanga parbat, fairy medow pakistan auteur : gul791 There are no usage restrictions for this photo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 836 KB) Nanga parbat, fairy medow pakistan auteur : gul791 There are no usage restrictions for this photo. ... Nanga Parbat (also known as Nangaparbat Peak or Diamir) is the ninth highest mountain on Earth and the second highest in Pakistan-administered Kashmir. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ... The Great Himalayas lie north of the Lower Himalayan Range. ... The Pir Panjal Range is a range of mountains that form a part of the Middle Himalayas or the Himachal in India. ... This article is about the area controlled by India. ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ... Jammu   (Hindi: जम्मू, Urdu: جموں) is one of the three regions comprising the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... The State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Urdu: ), usually shortened to Azad Kashmir (free Kashmir), is part of the Pakistani-administered section of the Kashmir region, along with the Northern Areas; its official name is Azad Jammu and Kashmir. ... China - India western border showing Aksai Chin Aksai Chin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , Hindi: अकसाई चिन) is a region located at the juncture of China, Pakistan, and India. ...


Kashmir was originally an important centre of Hinduism and later of Buddhism. In 1349 Shah Mirza became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir and started the line Salatin-i-Kashmir.[1] For the next five centuries Kashmir had Muslim rulers, which included Sultan Sikandar (also known as Butshikan, or "iconoclast") who ascended the throne in 1398, Zain-ul-abidin, who became the ruler in 1420, the Mughals, whose rule lasted until 1751, and the Afghan Durranis, who ruled Kashmir from 1752 until 1820.[1] That year, the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir, and held it until 1846,[1] at which time, the Dogras, starting with Gulab Singh, became the rulers of Kashmir upon the purchase of the region from the British under the Treaty of Amritsar. The Dogra Rule (under the paramountcy, or tutelage, of the British Crown) lasted until 1947, when the former princely state became a disputed territory, now administered by three countries, India, Pakistan, and China. Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjabi: ), also called Sher-e-Punjab (The Lion of the Punjab) (1780-1839) was a Sikh ruler of the Punjab. ... Portrait of Gulab Singh Gulab Singh (1792-1857) was the founder and first Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir during the British Raj in India. ...


The Kashmir region has long been a Muslim majority region. In the 1901 Census of the British Indian Empire, Muslims constituted 74.16% of the total population of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu, Hindus, 23.72%, and Buddhists, 1.21%. The Hindus were found mainly in Jammu, where they constituted a little less than 50% of the population.[2] In the Kashmir Valley, Muslims constituted 93.6% of the population and Hindus 5.24%.[2] These percentages have remained fairly stable for the last 100 years.[3] Forty years later, in the 1941 Census of British India, Muslims accounted for 93.6% of the population of the Kashmir Valley and the Hindus for 4%.[3] In 2003, the percentage of Muslims in the Kashmir Valley was 95%[4] and those of Hindus 4%; the same year, in Jammu, the percentage of Hindus was 66% and those of Muslims 30%.[4] Among well-known people of Kashmiri lineage are Muhammad Iqbal, the Urdu poet, novelist Salman Rushdie, Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India, and Nawaz Sharif, former prime minister of Pakistan. Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ... Urdu poetry (Urdu: اردو شاعری, Urdu Shayari) is one of the most dominant and prominent poetries of times and has many different colours & types. ... Ahmed Salman Rushdie KBE (Hindi: Urdu: سلمان رشدی; born 19 June 1947) is a British-Indian novelist and essayist. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ... Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (Urdu: میاں محمد نواز شریف ) (born December 25, 1949 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan) is a Pakistani politician. ...

Contents

Etymology

The Nilamata Purana describes the Valley's origin from the waters, a fact corroborated by prominent geologists, and shows how the very name of the land was derived from the process of desiccation - Ka means "water" and Shimir means "to desiccate". Hence, Kashmir stands for "a land desiccated from water". There is also a theory which takes Kashmir to be a contraction of Kashyap-mira or Kashyapmir or Kashyapmeru, the "sea or mountain of Kashyapa", the sage who is credited with having drained the waters of the primordial lake Satisar, that Kashmir was before it was reclaimed. The Nilamata Purana gives the name Kashmira to the Valley considering it to be an embodiment of Uma and it is the Kashmir that the world knows today. The Kashmiris, however, call it Kashir, which has been derived phonetically from Kashmir, as pointed out by Aurel Stein in his introduction to the Rajatarangini. This article is about the Hindu god Kasyapa. ... UMA or Uma is a name or a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: // Ukrainian Museum-Archives, a museum in Cleveland, Ohio dedicated to Ukrainian culture Unidentified Mysterious Animal, in cryptozoology Unified Memory Architecture, a computer memory architecture that allows the graphics processing unit to share system... Rajtarangini (River of Kings), a book written in Sanskrit by Kalhana, contains an account of the life and history of Kashmir. ...


History

Main article: History of Jammu and Kashmir
Further information: History of the Kashmir conflict
1909 Map of the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu. The names of different regions, important cities, rivers, and mountains are underlined in red.

By the early 19th century, the Kashmir valley had passed from the control of the Durrani Empire of Afghanistan, and four centuries of Muslim rule under the Mughals and the Afghans, to the conquering Sikh armies. Earlier, in 1780, after the death of Ranjit Deo, the Raja of Jammu, the kingdom of Jammu (to the south of the Kashmir valley) was captured by the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh of Lahore and afterwards, until 1846, became a tributary to the Sikh power.[5] Ranjit Deo's grand-nephew, Gulab Singh, subsequently sought service at the court of Ranjit Singh, distinguished himself in later campaigns, especially the annexation of the Kashmir valley by the Sikhs army in 1819, and, for his services, was created Raja of Jammu in 1820. With the help of his able officer, Zorawar Singh, Gulab Singh soon captured Ladakh and Baltistan, regions to the east and north-east of Jammu.[5] In 1845, the First Anglo-Sikh War broke out, and Gulab Singh "contrived to hold himself aloof till the battle of Sobraon (1846), when he appeared as a useful mediator and the trusted advisor of Sir Henry Lawrence. Two treaties were concluded. By the first the State of Lahore (i.e. West Punjab) handed over to the British, as equivalent for (rupees) one crore of indemnity, the hill countries between Beas and Indus; by the second[6] the British made over to Gulab Singh for (Rupees) 75 lakhs all the hilly or mountainous country situated to the east of Indus and west of Ravi" (i.e. the Vale of Kashmir).[5] Soon after Gulab Singh's death in 1857, his son, Ranbir Singh, added the emirates of Hunza, Gilgit and Nagar to the kingdom. This article covers the history of Jammu and Kashmir from earliest recorded times to the present day. ... This article encapsulates the history of a border issue between India and Pakistan, generally termed as the Kashmir conflict. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 513 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1110 × 1296 pixel, file size: 457 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is the image of the map North West Frontier Province and Kashmir from the Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, Oxford University Press... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 513 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1110 × 1296 pixel, file size: 457 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is the image of the map North West Frontier Province and Kashmir from the Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, Oxford University Press... The Durrani Empire was a larger state that included modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of eastern Iran and western India. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... A Raja (Sanskrit ) is a king, or princely ruler from the Kshatriya / Rajput lineages. ... Jammu   (Hindi: जम्मू, Urdu: جموں) is one of the three regions comprising the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... The Sikh Empire could be defined as early as beginning as early as 1707 starting from the death of Aurangzeb and the downfall of the Mughal Empire. ... Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjabi: ), also called Sher-e-Punjab (The Lion of the Punjab) (1780-1839) was a Sikh ruler of the Punjab. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the province of Punjab, and is the second largest city in Pakistan. ... Portrait of Gulab Singh Gulab Singh (1792-1857) was the founder and first Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir during the British Raj in India. ... Zorawar Singh Kahluria was born in 1786 in a village of Kahlur State (also called Bilaspur from its capital) in modern Himachal Pradesh. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... Baltistan (Urdu: بلتستان) , also known as بلتیول (Baltiyul) in the Balti language, is a region to the north of Kashmir, bordering Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. ... The First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846), resulted in partial subjugation of the Sikh kingdom by the British East India Company. ... The Battle of Sobraon was fought on February 10, 1846 between British forces and the Sikhs. ... Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence (June 28, 1806 - July 4, 1857) was a British soldier and statesman in British India, who died defending Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... The Rupee (₨ or Rs. ... A crore is a unit in the Indian numbering system, still widely used in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan. ... Beas is a small town in the Punjab state of India, located between the cities of Amritsar and Jalandhar along the banks of the river Beas. ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... The Rupee (₨ or Rs. ... A lakh (also spelled lac) is a unit in a traditional number system, still widely used in India, equal to a hundred thousand. ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... Ravi may refer to: Ravi, a Hindu solar deity. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... Rambir Singh(Aug 1830-12 Sept 1885)GCSI, CIE was the son of Gulab Singh, Maharaja of Kashmir. ... This page is about the town of Hunza in northern areas of Pakistan. ... An afternoon scene in Gilgit Gilgit (Urdu: گلگت) is the capital city of Northern Areas, Pakistan. ... The ancient pre-Akkadian and Akkadian city of Nagar on the Khabur River in northeastern Syria, is now represented by the mound named Tell Brak, 40m high, one of the tallest archaeological mounds in the Middle East, and about a kilometer long, the remains of one of the largest urban...

Portrait of Maharaja Gulab Singh in 1847, a year after signing the Treaty of Amritsar, when he became Maharaja by purchasing the territories of Kashmir "to the eastward of the river Indus and westward of the river Ravi"[7] for 75 lakhs rupees from the British (Artist: James Duffield Harding).

The Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu (as it was then called) was constituted between 1820 and 1858 and was "somewhat artificial in composition and it did not develop a fully coherent identity, partly as a result of its disparate origins and partly as a result of the autocratic rule which it experienced on the fringes of Empire."[8] It combined disparate regions, religions, and ethnicities: to the east, Ladakh was ethnically and culturally Tibetan and its inhabitants practised Buddhism; to the south, Jammu had a mixed population of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs; in the heavily populated central Kashmir valley, the population was overwhelmingly Sunni Muslim, however, there was also a small but influential Hindu minority, the Kashmiri brahmins or pandits; to the northeast, sparsely populated Baltistan had a population ethnically related to Ladakh, but which practised Shi'a Islam; to the north, also sparsely populated, Gilgit Agency, was an area of diverse, mostly Shi'a groups; and, to the west, Punch was Muslim, but of different ethnicity than the Kashmir valley.[8] After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, in which Kashmir sided with the British, and the subsequent assumption of direct rule by Great Britain, the princely state of Kashmir came under the paramountcy of the British Crown. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 454 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (539 × 712 pixel, file size: 75 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Plate 1 from Recollections of India. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 454 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (539 × 712 pixel, file size: 75 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Plate 1 from Recollections of India. ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... Ravi may refer to: Ravi, a Hindu solar deity. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... The Kashmiri Pandits (Hindus) are the original inhabitants of the Valley of Kashmir. ... Baltistan (Urdu: بلتستان) , also known as بلتیول (Baltiyul) in the Balti language, is a region to the north of Kashmir, bordering Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Gilgit Agency was the name of most of the area of northern Kashmir which formed a de facto dependency of Pakistan from 1947 to 1970, which was then merged into Northern Areas. ... District Poonch or Punch popularly known as mini Kashmir, is the smallest in area and the remotest district of Azad Kashmir. ... Combatants Indian Freedom Fighters, Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of Oudh and Jhansi, Indian civilians in some areas. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince and is thus a principality taken in the broad sense. ... The term Paramount Ruler, or sometimes Paramount King, is a generic description, rarely an actual title, for a number of rulers position in relative terms, as the summit of a feudal-type pyramid of rulers of lesser polities (such as vassal princes) in a given historical and geographical context, often...

The Treaty of Accession (Jammu and Kashmir) to the Union of India signed on 26 October 1947, and accepted the following day.
Page 2, Instrument of Accession (Jammu and Kashmir), with signatures of Maharaja Hari Singh of Jammu and Kashmir, and Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, Governor-General of India.

Ranbir Singh's grandson Hari Singh, who had ascended the throne of Kashmir in 1925, was the reigning monarch in 1947 at the conclusion of British rule of the subcontinent and the subsequent partition of the British Indian Empire into the newly independent Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. As parties to the partition process, both countries had agreed that the rulers of princely states would be given the right to opt for either Pakistan or India or—in special cases—to remain independent. In 1947, Kashmir's population "was 77 per cent Muslim and it shared a boundary with Pakistan. Hence, it was anticipated that the Maharaja would accede to Pakistan, when the British paramountcy ended on 14-15 August. When he hesitated to do this, Pakistan launched a guerilla onslaught meant to frighten its ruler into submission. Instead the Maharaja appealed to Mountbatten[9] for assistance, and the Governor-General agreed on the condition that the ruler accede to India."[10] Once the Maharaja signed the Instrument of Accession, which included a clause added by Mountbatten asking that the wishes of the Kashmiri people be taken into account, "Indian soldiers entered Kashmir and drove the Pakistani-sponsored irregulars from all but a small section of the state. India approached the United Nationssecurity council for cease fire and to mediate the quarrel. The UN Security Council passed the resolution that the opinion of Kashmiris must be ascertained. The Indian Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru promised a Plebiscite under UN supervision which never happened."[10] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 433 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1100 × 1522 pixel, file size: 307 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)This image was downloaded by me: Fowler&fowler«Talk» 17:23, 29 March 2007 (UTC) from the Government of India, Ministry of Home... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 433 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1100 × 1522 pixel, file size: 307 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)This image was downloaded by me: Fowler&fowler«Talk» 17:23, 29 March 2007 (UTC) from the Government of India, Ministry of Home... The Treaty of Accession (Jammu and Kashmir) which shows Maharaja Hari Singhs accession of the state of Jammu and Kashmir to India Page 2, Instrument of Accession (Jammu and Kashmir), with signatures of Maharaja Hari Singh of Jammu and Kashmir, and Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, Governor-General of India. ... ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 448 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1090 × 1459 pixel, file size: 234 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)This image was downloaded by me: Fowler&fowler«Talk» 17:26, 29 March 2007 (UTC) from the Government of India, Ministry of Home... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 448 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1090 × 1459 pixel, file size: 234 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)This image was downloaded by me: Fowler&fowler«Talk» 17:26, 29 March 2007 (UTC) from the Government of India, Ministry of Home... The Instrument of Accession is a legal document executed by Maharajah Hari Singh, ruler of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, on October 26, 1947. ... Hari Singh was the last maharaja of the kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas George Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, PC (25 June 1900–27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The Governor-Generals Flag (1885–1947) depicted the Star of India on a Union Flag. ... Hari Singh was the last maharaja of the kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir. ... This article is under construction. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... ... The Dominion of Pakistan was an entity that was established as a result of partition from India as a homeland for the Muslims in August 1947. ... Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas George Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, PC (25 June 1900–27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The Governor-Generals Flag (1885–1947) depicted the Star of India on a Union Flag. ... The Instrument of Accession is a legal document executed by Maharajah Hari Singh, ruler of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, on October 26, 1947. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


In the last days of 1948, a ceasefire was agreed under UN auspices; however, since the plebiscite demanded by the UN was never conducted, relations between India and Pakistan soured,[10] and eventually led to two more wars over Kashmir in 1965 and 1999. India has control of about half the area of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir; Pakistan controls a third of the region, the Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir. According to Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Although there was a clear Muslim majority in Kashmir before the 1947 partition and its economic, cultural, and geographic contiguity with the Muslim-majority area of the Punjab (in Pakistan) could be convincingly demonstrated, the political developments during and after the partition resulted in a division of the region. Pakistan was left with territory that, although basically Muslim in character, was thinly populated, relatively inaccessible, and economically underdeveloped. The largest Muslim group, situated in the Vale of Kashmir and estimated to number more than half the population of the entire region, lay in Indian-administered territory, with its former outlets via the Jhelum valley route blocked."[11] A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri Harbakhsh Singh Ayub Khan Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800 killed[2] (September 6 - 22) 4,000 - 8,000 killed/ captured[3][4][5] (July to September 6) The Indo-Pakistani War... Combatants India Pakistan, Kashmiri secessionists, Islamic militants (Foreign Fighters) Strength 30,000 5,000 Casualties Indian Official Figures: 527 killed,[1][2][3] 1,363 wounded[4] 1 POW Pakistani Estimates: 357–4,000+ killed[5][6] (Pakistan troops) 665+ soldiers wounded[5] 8 POWs. ... This article is about the area controlled by India. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... The State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Urdu: ), usually shortened to Azad Kashmir (free Kashmir), is part of the Pakistani-administered section of the Kashmir region, along with the Northern Areas; its official name is Azad Jammu and Kashmir. ...


The UN Security Council on 20 January 1948 passed Resolution 39, establishing a special commission to investigate the conflict. Subsequent to the commission's recommendation, the Security Council ordered in its Resolution 47, passed on 21 April 1948, that the invading Pakistani army retreat from Jammu & Kashmir and that the accession of Kashmir to either India or Pakistan be determined in accordance with a plebiscite to be supervised by the UN. In a string of subsequent resolutions, the Security Council took notice of the continuing failure to hold the plebiscite. January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Government of India holds that the Maharaja signed a document of accession to India October 26, 1947. Pakistan has disputed whether the Maharaja actually signed the accession treaty before Indian troops entered Kashmir. Furthermore, Pakistan claims the Indian government has never produced an original copy of this accession treaty and thus its validity and legality is disputed. However, India has produced the instrument of accession with an original copy image on its website. Alan Campbell-Johnson, the press attache to the Viceroy of India states that "The legality of the accession is beyond doubt."[12]


The eastern region of the erstwhile princely state of Kashmir has also been beset with a boundary dispute. In the late 19th- and early 20th centuries, although some boundary agreements were signed between Great Britain, Afghanistan and Russia over the northern borders of Kashmir, China never accepted these agreements, and the official Chinese position did not change with the communist takeover in 1949. By the mid-1950s the Chinese army had entered the north-east portion of Ladakh.[11] : "By 1956–57 they had completed a military road through the Aksai Chin area to provide better communication between Xinjiang and western Tibet. India's belated discovery of this road led to border clashes between the two countries that culminated in the Sino-Indian war of October 1962."[11] China has occupied Aksai Chin since 1962 and, in addition, an adjoining region, the Trans-Karakoram Tract was ceded by Pakistan to China in 1965. China - India western border showing Aksai Chin Aksai Chin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , Hindi: अकसाई चिन) is a region located at the juncture of China, Pakistan, and India. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Political division of Kashmir The Trans-Karakoram Tract is an area of nearly 5,800 sq. ...


Meanwhile, elections were held in Indian Jammu & Kashmir, which brought up the popular Muslim leader Sheikh Abdullah, who with his party National Conference, by and large supported India. The elected Constituent Assembly met for the first time in Srinagar on October 31, 1951.[1] Then The State Constituent Assembly ratified the accession of the State to the Union of India on February 6, 1954 and the President of India subsequently issued the Constitution (Application to J&K) Order under Article 370 of the Indian Constitution extending the Union Constitution to the State with some exceptions and modifications. The State’s own Constitution came into force on January 26, 1957 under which the elections to the State Legislative Assembly were held for the first time on the basis of adult franchise the same year. This Constitution ratified the State’s accession to Union of India.[2] However, these tidings were not recognized by Pakistan, which has continued to press for a plebiscite to ascertain the wishes of the people. Pakistan set up its own Kashmir, called Azad Kashmir (sic) in a tiny Western chunk that it had occupied. The much larger chunk of Pakistani Kashmir in the North-West, which was a province named Northern Areas in the erstwhile state, by and large bore no mention in Pakistani laws and Constitution as being of any status, till in 1982 the Pakistani President General Zia ul Haq proclaimed that the people of the Northern Areas were Pakistanis (sic) and had nothing to do with the State of Jammu and Kashmir.[3] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Jammu & Kashmir National Conference is the largest political party in Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... A constituent assembly is a body elected with the purpose of drafting, and in some cases, adopting a constitution. ... The State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Urdu: ), usually shortened to Azad Kashmir (free Kashmir), is part of the Pakistani-administered section of the Kashmir region, along with the Northern Areas; its official name is Azad Jammu and Kashmir. ... Gen. ...


Current status and political divisions

Shown in green are the regions Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir, under Pakistani administration. The buff-coloured region is Jammu and Kashmir (including Ladakh) under Indian administration, while the beige-and-khaki striped region is Aksai Chin, under Chinese administration.
A political map of Kashmir showing the different districts.

The region is divided among three countries in a territorial dispute: Pakistan controls the northwest portion (Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir), India controls the central and southern portion (Jammu and Kashmir) and Ladakh, and China controls the northeastern portion (Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract). India controls the majority of the Siachen Glacier (higher peaks), whereas Pakistan controls the lower peaks. India controls 101,387 km² of the disputed territory, Pakistan 85,846 km² and China, the remaining 37,555 km². Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 510 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1029 × 1209 pixel, file size: 287 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a public domain image downloaded from the Perry-Casteneda Map Collection at the University of Texas, Austin, by Fowler&fowler«Talk... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 510 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1029 × 1209 pixel, file size: 287 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a public domain image downloaded from the Perry-Casteneda Map Collection at the University of Texas, Austin, by Fowler&fowler«Talk... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... The State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Urdu: ), usually shortened to Azad Kashmir (free Kashmir), is part of the Pakistani-administered section of the Kashmir region, along with the Northern Areas; its official name is Azad Jammu and Kashmir. ... For other uses of the term, see Buff Buff is a pale yellow-brown colour that got its name from the colour of buffalo leather. ... This article is about the area controlled by India. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... For the album by The Arrogant Worms, see Beige (album). ... The color khaki comes from the Persian word khak meaning dust, and khaki meaning dusty, dust covered or earth colored. ... China - India western border showing Aksai Chin Aksai Chin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , Hindi: अकसाई चिन) is a region located at the juncture of China, Pakistan, and India. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article encapsulates the history of a border issue between India and Pakistan, generally termed as the Kashmir conflict. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... The State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Urdu: ), usually shortened to Azad Kashmir (free Kashmir), is part of the Pakistani-administered section of the Kashmir region, along with the Northern Areas; its official name is Azad Jammu and Kashmir. ... This article is about the area controlled by India. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... China - India western border showing Aksai Chin Aksai Chin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , Hindi: अकसाई चिन) is a region located at the juncture of China, Pakistan, and India. ... Political division of Kashmir The Trans-Karakoram Tract is an area of nearly 5,800 sq. ... The Siachen Glacier is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya Mountains along the disputed India-Pakistan border at approximately . ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ...


Though these regions are in practice administered by their respective claimants, India has never formally recognised the accession of the areas claimed by Pakistan and China. India claims those areas, including the area "ceded" to China by Pakistan in the Trans-Karakoram Tract in 1963, are a part of its territory, while Pakistan claims the region, excluding Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract. Political division of Kashmir The Trans-Karakoram Tract is an area of nearly 5,800 sq. ...


Pakistan argues that Kashmir is culturally and religiously aligned with Pakistan (Kashmir is a Muslim region), while India bases its claim to Kashmir off Maharaja Hari Singh's decision to give Kashmir to India during the India-Pakistan split. Kashmir is considered one of the world's most dangerous territorial disputes due to the nuclear capabilities of India and Pakistan. Major-General H.H. Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh- al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh, Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI , GCIE , GBE The word Mahārāja (also spelled maharajah) is Sanskrit for great king or high king (a karmadharaya from mahānt great... Hari Singh was the last maharaja of the kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ...


The two countries have fought several declared wars over the territory. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 established the rough boundaries of today, with Pakistan holding roughly one-third of Kashmir, and India two-thirds. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 began with a Pakistani attempt to seize the rest of Kashmir, erroneously banking on support from then-ally the United States. Both resulted in stalemates and UN-negotiated ceasefires. Combatants India Pakistan Commanders General K M Cariappa, Lt Gen S M Shrinagesh, Maj Gen K S Thimayya, Maj Gen Kalwant Singh Maj Gen Akbar Khan Casualties 1,104 killed[1](Indian army) 684 KIA(State Forces)[2] [3] 3,152 wounded [1] 1,500 killed[4] (Pakistan army) The... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri Harbakhsh Singh Ayub Khan Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800 killed[2] (September 6 - 22) 4,000 - 8,000 killed/ captured[3][4][5] (July to September 6) The Indo-Pakistani War...


More recent conflicts have resulted in success for India; it gained control of the Siachen glacier after a low-intensity conflict that began in 1984, and Indian forces repulsed a Pakistani/Kashimir guerrilla attempt to seize positions during the Kargil War of 1999. This led to the coup d'etat of Pervez Musharraf in Pakistan. Combatants India Pakistan Casualties 1344 [2]  : Main article: Siachen Glacier Main article: Siachen Glacier The Siachen Conflict, sometimes referred to as The Siachen War is the name for the military conflict between the armies of India and Pakistan over the disputed Siachen Glacier region in Kashmir. ... Combatants India Pakistan, Kashmiri secessionists, Islamic militants (Foreign Fighters) Strength 30,000 5,000 Casualties Indian Official Figures: 527 killed,[1][2][3] 1,363 wounded[4] 1 POW Pakistani Estimates: 357–4,000+ killed[5][6] (Pakistan troops) 665+ soldiers wounded[5] 8 POWs. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... General Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: پرويز مشرف) (born August 11, 1943) is the President of Pakistan, the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army and had become the leader of the country in wake of a coup. ...


Demographics

In the 1901 Census of the British Indian Empire, the population of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu was 2,905,578. Of these 2,154,695 were Muslims (74.16%), 689,073 Hindus (23.72%), 25,828 Sikhs, and 35,047 Buddhists.

A Muslim shawl making family shown in Cashmere shawl manufactory, 1867, chromolith., William Simpson.

Among the Muslims of the princely state, four divisions were recorded: "Shaikhs, Saiyids, Mughals, and Pathans. The Shaikhs, who are by far the most numerous, are the descendants of Hindus, but have retained none of the caste rules of their forefathers. They have clan names known as krams ..."[2] It was recorded that these kram names included "Tantre," "Shaikh,", "Batt", "Mantu," "Ganai," "Dar," "Damar," "Lon" etc. The Saiyids, it was recorded "could be divided into those who follow the profession of religion and those who have taken to agriculture and other pursuits. Their kram name is "Mir." While a Saiyid retains his saintly profession Mir is a prefix; if he has taken to agriculture, Mir is an affix to his name."[2] The Mughals who were not numerous were recorded to have kram names like "Mir" (a corruption of "Mirza"), "Beg," "Bandi," "Bach," and "Ashaye." Finally, it was recorded that the Pathans "who are more numerous than the Mughals, ... are found chiefly in the south-west of the valley, where Pathan colonies have from time to time been founded. The most interesting of these colonies is that of Kuki-Khel Afridis at Dranghaihama, who retain all the old customs and speak Pashtu."[2] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Sayyid (Arabic: سيد ) Sayyid is an honorific title often given to claimed descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Husayn and Hasan, the sons of his daughter Fatima Zahra and his son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib (who was Muhammads younger cousin and had been raised in his... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun (Persian: پختون) (Urdu: پشتون ), or Pathan) or ethnic Afghans[4] are an ethno-linguistic group living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ...


The Hindus were found mainly in Jammu, where they constituted a little less than 50% of the population.[2] In the Kashmir Valley, the Hindus represented "524 in every 10,000 of the population (i.e. 5.24%), and in the frontier wazarats of Ladhakh and Gilgit only 94 out of every 10,000 persons (0.94%)."[2] In the same Census of 1901, in the Kashmir Valley, the total population was recorded to be 1,157,394, of which the Muslim population was 1,083,766, or 93.6% and the Hindu population 60,641.[2] Among the Hindus of Jammu province, who numbered 626,177 (or 90.87% of the Hindu population of the princely state), the most important castes recorded in the census were "Brahmans (186,000), the Rajputs (167,000), the Khattris (48,000) and the Thakkars (93,000)."[2] Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... A Rajput (possibly from Sanskrit rāja-putra, son of a king) is a member of a prominent caste who live throughout northern and central India, primarily in the northwestern state of Rajasthan. ... Khatri (Punjabi: , ) is the Punjabi adaptation of Sanskrit word Kshatriya (Hindi: , ). The Khatri is a distinct warrior caste and are the actual one and only true Kshatriyas. ...

In the 1911 Census of the British Indian Empire, the total population of Kashmir and Jammu had increased to 3,158,126. Of these, 2,398,320 (75.94%) were Muslims, 696,830 (22.06%) Hindus, 31,658 (1%) Sikhs, and 36,512 (1.16%) Buddhists. In the last census of British India in 1941, the total population of Kashmir and Jammu (which as a result of the second world war, was estimated from the 1931 census) was 3,945,000. Of these, the total Muslim population was 2,997,000 (75.97%), the Hindu population was 808,000 (20.48%), and the Sikh 55,000 (1.39%).[13]


According to 2001 Census of India[14], the total population of the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir was 10,143,700. Of these, 6,793,240 (66.97%) were Muslims; 3,005,349 (29.63%) were Hindus; 207,154 (2.04%) were Sikhs; and 113,787 (1.12%) were Buddhists. This article is about the area controlled by India. ...


In Pakistan-administered Kashmir (containing Gilgit, Baltistan and Azad Kashmir) 99% of the population is Muslim.[citation needed] Baltistan is mainly Shia, with a few Buddhist households as well, while Gilgit is Ismaili. AJK is majority Sunni. Many merchants in Poonch are Pashtuns; however, these individuals are not legally considered to be Kashmiris. For other uses, see Gilgit (disambiguation). ... Baltistan (Urdu: بلتستان) , also known as بلتیول (Baltiyul) in the Balti language, is a region to the north of Kashmir, bordering Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. ... The State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Urdu: ), usually shortened to Azad Kashmir (free Kashmir), is part of the Pakistani-administered section of the Kashmir region, along with the Northern Areas; its official name is Azad Jammu and Kashmir. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


China-administered Kashmir (Aksai Chin) contains an extremely small population of Tibetan origins numbering less than 10,000 inhabitants. China - India western border showing Aksai Chin Aksai Chin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , Hindi: अकसाई चिन) is a region located at the juncture of China, Pakistan, and India. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...


According to political scientist Alexander Evans, approximately 95% of the total population of 160,000-170,000 of Kashmir brahmins, also called Kashmiri Pandits, (i.e. approximately 150,000 to 160,000) left the Kashmir Valley in 1990 as militant violent engulfed the state.[15] According to an estimate by the Central Intelligence Agency, about 300,000 Kashmiri Pandits from the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir have been internally displaced due to the ongoing violence. [16] Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... The Kashmiri Pandits (Hindus) are the original inhabitants of the Valley of Kashmir. ... “CIA” redirects here. ...

Occupied by Area Population  % Muslim  % Hindu  % Buddhist  % Other
India Jammu ~3 million 30% 67% 3%
Kashmir Valley ~4 million 95% 4%
Ladakh ~0.25 million 49% 50% 1%
Pakistan Northern Areas ~0.9 million 99%
Azad Kashmir ~2.6 million 99%
China Aksai Chin
Statistics from the BBC In Depth report

For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...

Culture and cuisine

Further information: Cuisine of Kashmir
Further information: Kashmiri literature
Further information: Kashmiri music
Women from the Muslim town of Kargil, northern Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India in local costumes

Kashmiri lifestyle is essentially, irrespective of the differing religious beliefs, slow paced. Generally peace-loving people, the culture has been rich enough to reflect the religious diversity as tribes celebrate festivities that divert them from their otherwise monotonous way of life. Kashmiris are known to enjoy their music in its various local forms, and the dress of both sexes is quite colourful. However, the rise of Islamic fundamentalism in Muslim-dominated Kashmir, Hindu-dominated Jammu and Buddhist-dominated Ladakh poses a grave danger to the security of the region where mixed populations live in regions such as Doda and Kargil. The Cuisine of Kashmir as we know it today has eveloved over hundres of years. ... Kashmiri literature (Kashmiri: कॉशुर साहित्‍य) has a history of at least 2,500 years, going back to its glory days of Sanskrit. ... The historic region of Kashmir, an area disputed by India and Pakistan, encompasses the modern regions of Kashmir, Ladakh and Jammu. ... Image File history File links Kashmir_Ladakh_women_in_local_costume. ... Image File history File links Kashmir_Ladakh_women_in_local_costume. ... Kargil is a town, which serves as the headquarters of Kargil District in Jammu and Kashmir of India. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... This article is about the area controlled by India. ... Jammu   (Hindi: जम्मू, Urdu: جموں) is one of the three regions comprising the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... Doda District, Jammu and Kashmir, India Doda is also a byname of Dorota Rabczewska Doda, was the wife of St Arnulf, bishop of Metz, and is thus an ancestor of Charlemagne Category: ... Kargil was a part of Gilgit-Baltistan before 1947, but now is a town in the Indian-controlled Kashmir. ...


The Dumhal is a famous dance in Kashmir, performed by men of the Wattal region. The women perform the Rouff, another folk dance. Kashmir has been noted for its fine arts for centuries, including poetry and handicrafts.


The practice of Islam in Kashmir has heavy Sufi influences, which makes it unique from orthodox Sunni and Shiite Islam in the rest of South Asia. Historically, Kashmir was renowned for its culture of tolerance, embodied in the concept of "Kashmiriyat", as evidenced by the 1969 NATO nuclear disarmament peace treaty.[clarify] Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Kashmiriyat (Kashmiri-ness) is the ethno-national and social consciousness and cultural values of the Kashmiri people. ...


The Kasmiri cuisine is famous for its delectable vegetarian as well as non-vegetarian dishes. The style of cooking is different for Hindus and Muslims although with a lot of similarities. Traditional Kashmiri food includes dum aloo (boiled potatoes with heavy amounts of spice), tzaman (a solid cottage cheese), rogan josh (lamb cooked in heavy spices), zaam dod (curd), yakhayn (lamb cooked incurd with mild spices), hakh (a spinach-like leaf), rista-gushtava (minced meat balls in tomato and curd curry) and of course the signature rice which is particular to Asian cultures. The Cuisine of Kashmir as we know it today has eveloved over hundres of years. ... Rogan Josh is a tomato/red pepper based lamb curry dish. ...


Economy

Tourism is one of the main sources of income for vast sections of the Kashmiri population. However, the tourism industry in Kashmir was badly hit after insurgency intensified in 1989. Shown here is the famous Dal Lake in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Kashmir's economy is centred around agriculture. Traditionally the staple crop of the valley is rice, which forms the chief food of the people. Indian corn comes next; wheat, barley and oats are also grown. Blessed with a temperate climate unlike much of the Indian subcontinent, it is suited to crops like asparagus, artichoke, seakale, broad beans, scarletrunners, beetroot, cauliflower and cabbage. Fruit trees are common in the valley, and the cultivated orchards yield pears, apples, peaches, cherries, etc. are of fine quality. The chief trees are deodar, firs and pines, chenar or plane, maple, birch and walnut. Image File history File links Kashmir_Dal_lake_boat. ... Image File history File links Kashmir_Dal_lake_boat. ... Jammu and Kashmir has been the target of a campaign of terrorism and other propagated against India, Muslims and Hindus (see Kashmiri Pandits) by all sides of the conflict. ... sab bakwas hai Categories: India geography stubs | Jammu and Kashmir | Kashmir ... For Srinagar in Uttarakhand, see Srinagar, Uttarakhand. ... This article is about the area controlled by India. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...

A Kashmiri man sells an original pashmina shawl from Kashmir in a Delhi market (India).

Historically, Kashmir came into the economic limelight when the world famous Cashmere wool was exported to other regions and nations (exports have ceased due to decreased abundance of the cashmere goat and increased competition from China). Kashmiris are well adept at knitting and making shawls, silk carpets, rugs, kurtas, and pottery. Kashmir is home to the finest saffron in the world. Efforts are on to export the naturally grown fruits and vegetables as organic foods mainly to the Middle East. Srinagar is also celebrated for its silver-work, papier mache and wood-carving, while silkweaving continues to this day. The Kashmir valley is a fertile area that is the economic backbone for Indian-controlled Kashmir. The area is famous for cold water fisheries. The Department of Fisheries has made it possible to make trout available to common people through its 'Trout Production and Marketing Programme'.[17] Many private entrepreneurs have adopted fish farming as a profitable venture. The area is known for its sericulture as well as other agricultural produce like apples, pears and many temperate fruits as well as nuts. Aside from being a pilgrimage site for centuries, around the turn of the 20th century it also became a favourite tourist spot until the increase in tensions in the 1990s. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1544 pixel, file size: 779 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1544 pixel, file size: 779 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Kashmiri (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Cashmere wool is wool obtained from the Cashmere goat and is also known as Pashmina. ... For the record label, see Knitting Factory. ... Hesquiat woman keeping warm with a thick shawl A shawl is an extremely simple item of clothing, loosely worn over the shoulders, upper body and arms, sometimes also over the head. ... A kurta (or sometimes kurti, for women) is a traditional piece of clothing worn in Afghanistan, northern India, and Pakistan. ... Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ... Organic vegetables at a farmers market in Argentina. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Papier-mâché (French, chewed-up paper) is a construction material that consists of pieces of paper, sometimes reinforced with textiles, stuck together using a wet paste (e. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Biwa trout (or Biwa salmon), Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus Trout is the common name given to a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the salmon family, Salmonidae. ... For the magazine, see Marketing (magazine). ... Sericulture is the rearing of silkworms for the production of raw silk. ...


The economy was badly damaged by the 2005 Kashmir earthquake which, as of October 17, 2005, resulted in over 70,000 deaths in the Pakistan-controlled part of Kashmir and around 1,500 deaths in Indian controlled Kashmir. The Kashmir earthquake (also known as the South Asia earthquake or the Great Pakistan earthquake) of 2005, was a major earthquake, of which the epicentre was the Pakistan-administered Kashmir. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Tourism

Amarnath is one of the holy shrines of the Hindus. Every year thousands of Hindu pilgrims from all over the world visit this shrine.

Tourism forms an integral part of the Kashmiri economy. Often dubbed "Paradise on Earth," Kashmir's mountainous landscape has attracted tourists for centuries. Image File history File links Rohin_amarnath1. ... Image File history File links Rohin_amarnath1. ... Amarnath is one of the most famous of Hindu temples, dedicated to Lord Shiva, located in Jammu and Kashmir, Republic of India. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... This article is about a particular group of seventeenth-century European colonists of North America. ...


There are many mosques serving the largely Muslim population, such as the Hazratbal Mosque, situated on the banks of the Dal Lake. The sacred hair of the Prophet Muhammad is said to have been brought to this part of the world by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb and this relic lies in the Hazratbal shrine. The shrine was built in white marble in contemporary times and bears a close resemblance to the holy shrine of Medina in Saudi Arabia where the prophet rests. The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: ), also known as Alamgir I (Persian: ), (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until his death. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...


The Vaishno Devi cave shrine is nestled in the Trikuta mountain at a height of 5,200 feet (1,580 m) above the sea level in Indian Kashmir. Vaishno Devi is the most important holy shrine of Shaktism denomination of Hinduism. In 2004, more than 6 million Hindu piligrims visited Vaishno Devi, making it one of the most visited religious sites in the world.[18] The other prominent Hindu shrine in Kashmir is the Amarnath cave shrine devoted to Lord Shiva. Like the Vaishno Devi shrine, this is visited by thousands of visitors every year, especially in the months of July and August. Vaishno Devi Mandir (Hindi: ) is one of the holiest Hindu temples dedicated to Shakti, located in the hill of Vaishno Devi, Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Shiva and Shakti as One Shaktism is a denomination of Hinduism that worships Shakti, or Devi Mata -- the Hindu name for the Great Divine Mother -- in all of her forms whilst not rejecting the importance of masculine and neuter divinity (which are however deemed to be inactive in the absence... Amarnath is one of the most famous of Hindu temples, dedicated to Lord Shiva, located in Jammu and Kashmir, Republic of India. ... This article is about the Hindu God. ...


Nature has lavishly endowed Kashmir with certain distinctive favours which hardly find a parallel in any alpine land of the world. A spell on a houseboat on Dal Lake has always been one of the real treats, and Kashmir also offers some delightful trekking opportunities and unsurpassed scenery. sab bakwas hai Categories: India geography stubs | Jammu and Kashmir | Kashmir ...


Srinagar City is centred around Dal Lake and this huge lake attracts millions of tourists, both domestic and foreign. A drive along the Boulevard (the road along the banks of the lake) has been a favourite with locals and tourists alike mainly because of the scenic beauty of the boulevard and the shikaras. Srinagar City also has a lot of gardens along the banks of Dal Lake. Nishat, Cheshma-i-Shahi, Shalimar and Harven gardens all were built by the Moghuls and are absolutely breathtaking in view all through the year. These gardens have the famed Chinar trees. These majestic trees resemble Maples but are much bigger and more graceful. For Srinagar in Uttarakhand, see Srinagar, Uttarakhand. ... sab bakwas hai Categories: India geography stubs | Jammu and Kashmir | Kashmir ... Shikhara on Dal Lake, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India. ... Species See text The genus Platanus is a small genus of trees native to the Northern Hemisphere. ...


Long ago, Dal Lake was renowned for its vastness, which stretched for more than 50 square miles (130 km²). Unfortunately, today, due partly to unabated tourist influx that largely has been unorganized for some years now, this lake has shrunk to less than 10 square kilometres largely due to the abundance of residential and tourist sectors along its banks. Government mismanagement and apathy have also been contributing factors to the shrinking of the lake.


Pahalgam is at the junction of the streams flowing from Sheshnag Lake and the Lidder River. Pahalgam (2,130 meters) once was a humble shepherd's village with astounding views. Today, Pahalgam is Kashmir's prime tourist resort. It is cool even during the height of summer when the maximum temperature does not exceed 25 °C.

See also

Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... This article is about the area controlled by India. ... The State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Urdu: ), usually shortened to Azad Kashmir (free Kashmir), is part of the Pakistani-administered section of the Kashmir region, along with the Northern Areas; its official name is Azad Jammu and Kashmir. ... Political division of Kashmir The Trans-Karakoram Tract is an area of nearly 5,800 sq. ... China - India western border showing Aksai Chin Aksai Chin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , Hindi: अकसाई चिन) is a region located at the juncture of China, Pakistan, and India. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... Combatants India Pakistan, Kashmiri secessionists, Islamic militants (Foreign Fighters) Strength 30,000 5,000 Casualties Indian Official Figures: 527 killed,[1][2][3] 1,363 wounded[4] 1 POW Pakistani Estimates: 357–4,000+ killed[5][6] (Pakistan troops) 665+ soldiers wounded[5] 8 POWs. ... This article encapsulates the history of a border issue between India and Pakistan, generally termed as the Kashmir conflict. ... The following is a timeline of the Kashmir conflict. ... Rajatarangini of Kalhana is a rare chronicle that gives us a fairly direct insight into how things happened in pre-Islamic India. ... The Kashmir earthquake (also known as the South Asia earthquake or the Great Pakistan earthquake) of 2005, was a major earthquake, of which the epicentre was the Pakistan-administered Kashmir. ... This is the List of topics on the land and the people of “Jammu and Kashmir”: Kashmir region Kashmir (disambiguation) Kashmir (song) - Signature song from album Physical Graffiti by band Led Zeppelin Kashmiri literature Kashmiri music History of Jammu and Kashmir - History post partition is covered on this page. ...

Further reading

  • Blank, Jonah. "Kashmir–Fundamentalism Takes Root," Foreign Affairs, 78,6 (November/December 1999): 36-42.
  • Drew, Federic. 1877. “The Northern Barrier of India: a popular account of the Jammoo and Kashmir Territories with Illustrations; 1st edition: Edward Stanford, London. Reprint: Light & Life Publishers, Jammu. 1971.
  • Evans, Alexander. Why Peace Won’t Come to Kashmir, Current History (Vol 100, No 645) April 2001 p170-175
  • Hussain, Ijaz. 1998. "Kashmir Dispute: An International Law Perspective", National Institute of Pakistan Studies
  • Irfani, Suroosh, ed "Fifty Years of the Kashmir Dispute": Based on the proceedings of the International Seminar held at Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir August 24-25, 1997: University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, AJK, 1997.
  • Joshi, Manoj Lost Rebellion: Kashmir in the Nineties (Penguin, New Delhi, 1999)
  • Khan, L. Ali The Kashmir Dispute: A Plan for Regional Cooperation 31 Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 31, p.495 (1994)
  • Knight, E. F. 1893. Where Three Empires Meet: A Narrative of Recent Travel in: Kashmir, Western Tibet, Gilgit, and the adjoining countries. Longmans, Green, and Co., London. Reprint: Ch'eng Wen Publishing Company, Taipei. 1971.
  • Lamb, Hertingfordbury, UK: Roxford Books,1994, "Kashmir: A Disputed Legacy
  • Moorcroft, William and Trebeck, George. 1841. Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Panjab; in Ladakh and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz, and Bokhara... from 1819 to 1825, Vol. II. Reprint: New Delhi, Sagar Publications, 1971.
  • Neve, Arthur. (Date unknown). The Tourist's Guide to Kashmir, Ladakh, Skardo &c. 18th Edition. Civil and Military Gazette, Ltd., Lahore. (The date of this edition is unknown - but the 16th edition was published in 1938)
  • Schofield, Victoria. 1996. Kashmir in the Crossfire. London: I B Tauris.
  • Stein, M. Aurel. 1900. Kalhaṇa's Rājataraṅgiṇī – A Chronicle of the Kings of Kaśmīr, 2 vols. London, A. Constable & Co. Ltd. 1900. Reprint, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1979.
  • Younghusband, Francis and Molyneux, Edward 1917. Kashmir. A. & C. Black, London.
  • Norelli-Bachelet, Patrizia. "Kashmir and the Convergence of Time, Space and Destiny", 2004; ISBN 0-945747-00-4. First published as a four-part series, March 2002 - April 2003, in 'Prakash', a review of the Jagat Guru Bhagavaan Gopinath Ji Charitable Foundation. [4]
  • Muhammad Ayub. An Army; Ita Role & Rule (A History of the Pakistan Army from Independence to Kargil 1947-1999) Rosedog Books, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania USA 2005. ISBN 0-8059-9594-3

Manoj Joshi is an Indian journalist and author. ... William Moorcroft (c. ... George Trebeck (1800-1825) ...was born in Middlesex, England in the year 1800. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 15. 1908. Oxford University Press, Oxford and London. pages 93-95.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 15. 1908. Oxford University Press, Oxford and London. pages 99-102.
  3. ^ a b Rai, Mridu. 2004. Hindu Ruler, Muslim Subjects: Islam and the History of Kashmir. Princeton University Press. 320 pages. ISBN 0691116881. page 37.
  4. ^ a b BBC. 2003. The Future of Kashmir? In Depth.
  5. ^ a b c Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 15. 1908. "Kashmir: History." page 94-95.
  6. ^ Treaty of Amritsar, March 16, 1846.
  7. ^ From the text of the Treaty of Amritsar, signed March 16, 1846.
  8. ^ a b Bowers, Paul. 2004. "Kashmir." Research Paper 4/28, International Affairs and Defence, House of Commons Library, United Kingdom.
  9. ^ Viscount Louis Mountbatten, the last Viceroy of British India, stayed on in independent India from 1947 to 1948, serving as the first Governor-General of the Union of India.
  10. ^ a b c Stein, Burton. 1998. A History of India. Oxford University Press. 432 pages. ISBN 0195654463. Page 368.
  11. ^ a b c Kashmir. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 27, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  12. ^ Rediff: Legality of Accession Unquestionable
  13. ^ Brush, J. E. 1949. "The Distribution of Religious Communities in India" Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 39(2):81-98.
  14. ^ Census of India. 2001. profile by religion
  15. ^ Evans, Alexander. 2002. "A departure from history: Kashmiri Pandits, 1990-2001" Contemporary South Asia, 11(1):19-37.
  16. ^ https://cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/in.html
  17. ^ The Official Website of Jammu & Kashmir, India: Adventure Sports in J&K
  18. ^ Record number of pilgrims visit Vaishno Devi

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


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