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Encyclopedia > Kartir
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Zoroastrianism

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Zoroastrianism (Avestan Daēnā Vañuhi the good religion)[1][2] is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Faravahar, The depiction of the Human soul before birth and after death. ...

Primary Topics

Zoroastrianism / Mazdaism
Ahura Mazda
Zarathustra (Zoroaster)
aša (asha) / arta Zoroastrianism (Avestan DaÄ“nā Vañuhi the good religion)[1][2] is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Ahura Mazda is the Avestan language name for an exalted divinity of ancient proto-Indo-Iranian religion that was subsequently declared by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) to be the one uncreated creator of all (God). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In Vedic Sanskrit, Rta literally means the course of things. ...

Angels and Demons

Overview of the Angels
Amesha Spentas · Yazatas
Ahuras · Daevas
Angra Mainyu Zoroastrian angelology is branch of Zoroastrian doctrine that deals with the hierarchical system of divinities introduced by the reforms of Zarathustra (Zoroaster). ... In Zoroastrianism, Amesha Spentas are the Holy Immortals, the equivalent of Archangels in Christian theology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Zoroastrian angelology. ... Ahura is the Avestan language designation for a class of divinity, adopted by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) from prehistoric proto-Indo-Iranian religion. ... The Daeva are a fictional clan of vampires in the role-playing game Vampire: The Requiem, published by White Wolf Game Studio . ... Angra Mainyu (Avestan) or Ahriman (Middle Persian اهريمن) is the evil counterpart of the deity Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrianism. ...

Scripture and Worship

Avesta · Gathas
Vendidad
The Ahuna Vairya Invocation
Fire Temples
See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... The Gathas (Gāθās) are the most sacred of the texts of the Zoroastrian faith, and are traditionally believed to have been composed by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) himself. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Faravahar, believed to be a depiction of a Farvashi, as mentioned in the Yasna, Yashts and Vendidad The Avesta is a collection of the sacred texts of the Mazdaist (Zoroastrian) religion. ... Ahuna Vairya is the Avestan language name of the most sacred of the Gathic hymns of the Avesta, the revered texts of Zoroastrianism. ... A Zoroastrian Fire Temple is a place of worship for Zoroastrians. ...

Accounts and Legends

Dēnkard · Bundahišn
Book of Arda Viraf
Book of Jamasp
Story of Sanjan
The Denkard is the largest encyclopedia of Zoroastrianism written in 9th century. ... Category: ... The Book of Arda Viraf is a Zoroastrian religious text which describes the dream-journey of a devout Zoroastrian through the next world. ... The Jamasp Nameh (var: Jāmāsp Nāmag, Jāmāsp Nāmeh, Story of Jamasp) is a Middle Persian book of revelations. ... The Qissa-i Sanjan (or Kisse-i Sanjan, the Story of Sanjan) is an account of the early years of Zoroastrian settlers on the Indian subcontinent. ...

History and Culture

Zurvanism
Calendar · Festivals
Marriage
Eschatology
Zurvan is the Persian god of infinite time, space and fate. ... The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith, and it is an approximation of the (tropical) solar calendar. ... Zoroastrianism has numerous festivals and holy days, all of which are bound to the Zoroastrian calendar. ... In the Zoroastrian faith marriage is encouraged, an institution greatly favoured by the religious texts[1]. As of such, a Zoroastrian Wedding is a cause for celebration. ... Zoroastrianism eschatology is the oldest eschatology in recorded history. ...

Adherents

Parsis · Iranis
Zoroastrians in Iran
• • •
Persecution of Zoroastrians A Parsi (Gujarati: Pārsī, IPA: ), sometimes spelled Parsee, is a member of the close-knit Zoroastrian community based in the Indian subcontinent. ... Irani is a term used to denote Indian Zoroastrians whose ancestors emigrated from Iran within the last two centuries, as opposed to the longer residing Parsis. ... Zoroastrian Fire Temple in Yazd Zoroastrians in Iran have had a long history, being the oldest religious community of that nation to survive to the present-day. ... The persecution of Zoroastrians has been common since the fall of the Sassanid Empire and the rule of Umayyad Arab empire that replaced it. ...

See Also

Index of Related Articles

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Kartir Hangirpe (alternatively, Karder or Kirdir) was a highly influential Zoroastrian high-priest of the late 3rd century CE and served as advisor to at least three Sassanid emperors. Zoroastrianism (Avestan Daēnā Vañuhi the good religion)[1][2] is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: Ṣāṣānīyān) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ...


Kartir was probably instrumental in promoting the cause of Mazdaism (as opposed to Zurvanism, the other - now extinct - branch of Zoroastrianism), for in his inscription at Naqsh-e Rajab, Kartir makes plain that he has "decided" that "there is a heaven and there is a hell", thus putting himself at odds with the principles of (fatalistic) Zurvanism. Nonetheless, it was during the reign of Shapur I (r. 241-272) - to whom Kartir was first appointed advisor - that Zurvanism appears to have developed as a cult, and this contradiction remains an issue of scholastic dispute. Zurvan is the Persian god of infinite time, space and fate. ... A coin of Shapur I. Shapur I, son of Ardashir I (226–241), was King of Persia from 241 to 272. ...


Simultaneously, Kartir is also considered to have been a significant force in an iconoclastic movement that would result in the loss of favour of the shrine cults, an alien (to Indo-Iranian religious tradition) form of worship inherited from the Babylonians and instituted six centuries earlier by Artaxerxes II as an instrument for tax collection. It was during Kartir's time as high-priest that the shrines were - by law - stripped of their statues, and then either abandoned or converted into fire temples (see Atar). Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... Artaxerxes II (c. ... See also Atar, Mauritania. ...

Kartir's inscription at Naqsh-e Rajab.

According to his own inscriptions, Kartir rose to power during the reign of Shapur I (r. 241-272), to whom he served as advisor and accompanied on travels. Shapur's son Hormizd I (r. 272-273) appointed Kartir Moabadan-Moabad, 'priest of priests', a position Kartir ruthlessly used to promote his own position and to punish lower-ranking priests whose opinions he considered contrary to his own. Under subsequent kings, Kartir called for the persecution of adherents of other religions, in particular Manichaeans, whose prophet Mani was sentenced to death by Bahram I (r. 273–276), very likely on the instigation of Kartir and even though Shapur I had previously been a patron of the prophet. The persecution ceased during the reign of Narseh (r. 293–302), probably after the death of the high-priest. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 588 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 753 pixel, file size: 145 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kartir ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 588 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 753 pixel, file size: 145 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kartir ... Shapurs Parade at Naqsh-e Rajab Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Naqsh-e Rajab Naqsh-e Rajab (alt: NaqÅ¡-e Rajab) is an archaeological site just east of Istakhr and about 12 km north of Persepolis. ... A coin of Shapur I. Shapur I, son of Ardashir I (226–241), was King of Persia from 241 to 272. ... Hormizd I, king of Persia, (272-273) was the son of Shapur I, under whom he was governor of Khorasan, and appears in his wars against Rome (Trebellius Pollio, 2, where Noldeke has corrected the name Odomastes into Oromastes, i. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... Mani (in Persian & Arabic مانی) was born in Babylon, Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) which was a part of Persian Empire about 210-276 CE. He was a religious preacher and the founder of Manichaeism, an ancient Persian gnostic religion that was once prolific but is now extinct. ... Bahram I, was king of Persia (AD 274-277). ... Narseh (also known as Narses, Narseus) was king of Persia (292 - 303), and son of Shapur I. He rose as pretender to the throne against his grand-nephew Bahram III in AD 292, and soon became sole king. ...


Kartir is not well attested in sources other than his own inscriptions on the Ka'ba-i Zartosht (at Naqsh-e Rustam) and at Naqsh-e Rajab. Kaba-i Zartosht The Kaba-i Zartosht (alt: Kaba-i Zardusht, Kaba-ye Zardosht), meaning the Cube of Zoroaster, is a 5th century BC Achaemenid-era edifice at Naqsh-e Rustam, an archaeological site just northwest of Persepolis, Iran. ... Næqš-e Rostæm, near Shiraz A rock relief at Naqsh-e Rostam, depicting the triumph of Shapur I over three Roman Emperors Valerian, Gordian III and Philip the Arab. ... Shapurs Parade at Naqsh-e Rajab Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Naqsh-e Rajab Naqsh-e Rajab (alt: Naqš-e Rajab) is an archaeological site just east of Istakhr and about 12 km north of Persepolis. ...


Bibliography

  • Boyce, Mary (1957). "Some reflections on Zurvanism". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 19/2: 304-316. 
  • Boyce, Mary (1975). "On the Zoroastrian Temple Cult of Fire". Journal of the American Oriental Society 95/3: 454-465. 
  • Boyce, Mary. (1975). "Iconoclasm among Zoroastrians". Studies for Morton Smith at sixty: 93-111. Leiden: Neusner. .
  • Huyse, Philip. (1998). "Kerdir and the first Sasanians". Proceedings of the Third European Conference of Iranian Studies 1: 109–120. Ed. Nicholas Sims-Williams (ed.). 
  • Sprengling, Martin (1940). "Kartir. Founder of Sassanian Zoroastrianism". American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literature (57): 197–228. 
  • Zaehner, Richard Charles (1955). Zurvan, a Zoroastrian dilemma. Oxford: Clarendon. ISBN 0-8196-0280-9 (1972 Biblo-Moser ed). 

Further reading

  • Kartir's inscription on the Ka'ba-i Zartosht and the inscription at Naqsh-e Rajab from
    MacKenzie, David Niel (trans.). (1970). "The Kartir Inscriptions". Henning Memorial Volume. London: Lund Humphries. ISBN 0-85331-255-9. 

 
 

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