FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Kartids

The Kartid Dynasty (Karts, also known as Kurts) was a dynasty that ruled over a large part of Khurasan during the 13th and 14th centuries. Ruling from their capital at Herat, they were at first subordinates within the Mongol Ilkhanate, and upon the fragmentation of the Ilkhanate in 1335 they became de facto independent rulers up until the invasion of Timur in 1381. Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... Herāt (Persian هرات) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the valley of the Hari Rud river in the province also known as Herat, and was traditionally known for wine. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Events Abu Said dies and the Ilkhan khanate ends Slavery abolished in Sweden Charles I of Hungary allies with Poland against the Hapsburgs and Bohemians Carinthia and Carniola come under Habsburg rule. ... Reconstruction of Timur from exhumation of his tomb. ... Events June 12 - Peasants Revolt: In England rebels arrive at Blackheath. ...

Contents


Rise to Power

The first important Karts were two brothers, named Taju'd-Din 'Uthman-i-Marghini and 'Izzu'd-Din 'Umar-i-Marghini. Both served under the ruler of Ghor, Sultan Muhammad of Ghor. The former was given charge of the castle at Khaysar, while the latter served as Muhammad's wazir. Taju'd-Din's son, Malik Ruknu'd-Din Abu Bakr, married the Sultan's daughter some time after Taju'd-Din died. Malik Ruknu'd-Din had a son, Shamsu'd-Din, who succeeded his father in 1245 or 1246. The following year, he participated in an invasion of India led by Sali Noyan. Later, he met the ruler of the Mongol Empire, Mongke Khan, who granted Shamsu'd-Din authority over Herat, Jam, Bushanj, Ghor, Khaysar, Firuz-Kuh, Gharjistan, Farah, Sistan, Kabul, Tirah, and Afghanistan all the way to the Indus River. Following his subjugation of Sistan, Shamsu'd-Din visited the Ilkhan Hülegü Khan around 1263/4, and then met Hülegü's successor Abaqa three years later. In 1276/7 he met the Ilkhan again, but eventually Abaqa grew suspicious of Shamsu'd-Din and had him poisoned in January 1278 with a watermelon given to him while he was bathing in Tabriz. His body was buried in chains in Jam. Ghowr province (sometimes spelled Ghor) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Muhammad of Ghor or Muhammad Ghori (originally named Muizz-ad-din) (1162 - 1206) was a Persian conqueror and sultan between 1171 and 1206. ... Events Rebellion against king Sancho II of Portugal in favor of his brother Alphonso. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Saga of Japan. ... The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was the largest contiguous empire in world history. ... Möngke Khan (1208-1259, also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu) was the fourth khan of the Mongol Empire. ... Jam from berries Jam is a type of fruit preserve made by boiling fruit with sugar to make an unfiltered jelly. ... Farah Pahlavi ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Kabul (34°32′ N 69°10′ E, Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ... The Indus (Daria-e-Sindh) (known as Sindhu to Indians and in Sanskrit, as Sinthos in Greek, and Sindus in Latin) is the principal river of Pakistan. ... The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Events Detmold, Germany was founded. ... Events May 12 - The Battle of Lewes begins (ends May 14). ... Abaqa Khan reigned from 1265-1282, the son of Hulegu and Oroqina Khatun, a Mongol Christian, was the second Il_Khan emperor in Persia. ... Events January 21 - Innocent V elected Gregory Xs successor as Pope March 9 - Augsburg becomes an Imperial Free City June - Rudolph I of Germany declares war on Ottokar II, king of Bohemia July 11, Adrian V elected Innocent Vs successor as Pope John XXI succeeds Adrian V as... Events The philosophical doctrine Averroism is banned from Paris by bishop Etienne Tempier Burmas Pagan empire begins to disintegrate after being defeated by Kublai Khan at Ngasaungsyan, near the Chinese border. ... January is the first month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Events August 26 - Ladislaus IV of Hungary and Rudolph I of Germany defeat the Bohemians in the Battle of Marchfield. ... Tabriz City Hall, built in 1895, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ...


1278-1307

Shamsu'd-Din was succeeded by his son Ruknu'd-Din. The latter adopted the title of malik, which all succeeding Kartid rulers were to use. By the time of his death in Khaysar on September 3, 1305, effective power had long been in the hands of his son Fakhru'd-Din. Fakhru'd-Din was a patron of literature, but also extremely religious. He had previously been cast in prison by his father for seven years, until the Ilkhanid general Nauruz intervened on his behalf. When Nauruz's revolt faltered around 1296, Fakhru'd-Din offered him asylum, but when an Ilkhanid force approached Herat, he betrayed the general and turned him over to the forces of Ghazan. Three years later, Fakhru'd-Din fought against Ghazan's successor Oljeitu, who shortly after his ascension in 1306 sent a force of 10,000 to take Herat. The malik, however, tricked the invaders by letting them occupy the city, and then destroying them, killing their commander Danishmand Bahadur in the process. He died on February 26, 1307. September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years). ... Events Wenceslas III becomes king of Bohemia The Papacy removed to France following riots in the Papal State. ... Events April 27 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated by Edward I of England. ... Ghazan Khan was ruler of the Ilkhanate from 1295 to 1305. ... Events March 25 - Robert the Bruce becomes King of Scotland June 19 - Forces of Earl of Pembroke defeat Bruces Scottish rebels at the Battle of Methven Philip IV of France exiles all the Jews from France and confiscates their property In London, a city ordinance degrees that heating with... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events July - The Knights Hospitaller begin their conquest of Rhodes. ...


1307-1331

Fakhru'd-Din's brother Ghiyathu'd-Din succeeded him upon his death; almost immediately, he began to quarrel with another brother, 'Ala'u'd-Din. Taking his case before Oljeitu, who gave him a grand reception, he returned to Khurasan in 1307/8. Continuing troubles with his brother led him to visit the Ilkhan again in 1314/5. Upon returning to Herat, he found his territories being invaded by the Chagatai prince Yasa'ur, as well as hostility from Qutbu'd-Din of Isfizar and the populace of Sistan. A siege of Herat was set by Yasa'ur. The prince, however, was stopped by the armies of the Ilkhanate, and in August 1320 Ghiyathu'd-Din made a pilgramage to Mecca, leaving his son Shamsu'd-Din Muhammad in control during his absence. In 1327 the amir Coban fled to Herat following his betrayal by the Ilkhan Abu Sa'id, where he requested asylum from Ghiyathu'd-Din, whom he was friends with. Ghiyathu'd-Din initially granted the request, but when Abu Sa'id pressured him to execute Coban, he obeyed. Soon afterwards Ghiyathu'd-Din himself died, in 1329. He left four sons: Shamsu'd-Din, Hafiz, Mu'izzu'd-Din Husain, and Baqir. Shamsu'd-Din, who succeeded him, died shortly after; Hafiz, a scholar and the next person to take the throne, was murdered after two years. The succession therefore fell on Mu'izzu'd-Din. // Events July - The Knights Hospitaller begin their conquest of Rhodes. ... Events Henry VII is elected as king of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Events June 24 - Battle of Bannockburn. ... Events August 13 - Louis X of France marries Clemence dAnjou. ... Chagatai can refer to different things: Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan Chagatai language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Note: as an adjective (stressed on the second syllable instead of the first), august means honorable. ... Events January 20 - Duke Wladyslaw Lokietek becomes king of Poland April 6 - The Scots reaffirm their independence by signing the Declaration of Arbroath. ... This article is about the holy city in Saudi Arabia. ... Events January 25 - Edward III becomes King of England. ... Amir Coban (also known as Choban or Chupan) (d. ... Abu Said (1316 - 1335; also Abusaid Bahador Khan, Abu Sayed Behauder), was the ninth ruler of the Ilkhanate state in Iran. ... Events Antipope Nicholas V is excommunicated by Pope John XXII. Aimone of Savoy becomes Count of Savoy. ...


1331-1370

Four years after Mu'izzu'd-Din's ascension, the Ilkhan Abu Sa'id died, following which the Ilkhanate quickly fragmented. Mu'izzu'd-Din, for his part, allied with Togha Temur, a claimant to the Ilkhanid throne, and paid tribute to him. Up until his death, Mu'izzu'd-Din's main concern were the neighboring Sarbadars, centered in Sabzavar. As the Sarbadars were the enemies of Togha Temur, they considered the Kartids a threat and invaded. When the Kartids and Sarbadars met in battle at Zava on July 18, 1342, the battle was initially in the favor of the latter, but disunity within the Sarbadar army allowed the Kartids to emerge victorious. Thereafter, Mu'izzu'd-Din undertook several successful campaigns against the Chagatai Mongols to the northeast. During this time, he took a still young Timur into his service. In 1349, while Togha Temur was still alive, Mu'izzu'd-Din stopped paying tribute to him, and ruled as an independent sultan. Togha Temur's murder in 1353 by the Sarbadars ended that potential threat. Sometime around 1358, however, the Chagatai amir Qazaghan invaded Khurasan and sacked Herat. As he was returning home, Qazaghan was assasinated, allowing Mu'izzu'd-Din to reestablish his authority. July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... -1... Chagatai can refer to different things: Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan Chagatai language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Reconstruction of Timur from exhumation of his tomb. ... -1... Events The Decameron was finished by Giovanni Boccaccio. ... Events Jacquerie. ...


Another campaign by the Sarbadars against Mu'izzu'd-Din in 1362 was aborted due to their internal disunity. Shortly afterwards, the Kartid leader welcomed Shi'i dervishes fleeing from the Sarbadar ruler 'Ali-yi Mu'ayyad, who had killed their leader during the aborted campaign. In the meantime, however, relations with Timur became tense when the Kartid launched a raid into his territory. Upon Mu'izzu'd-Din's death in 1370, his son Ghiyas al-Din Pir 'Ali inherited most of the Kartid lands, except for Sarakhs and a portion of Quhistan, which Ghiyas al Din's stepbrother Malik Muhammad gained. Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 - 1362 - 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 See also: 1362 state leaders Events Under Edward III, French as Englands national language, for the first time... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ...


Fall, 1370-1383

Ghiyas al-Din, a grandson of Togha Temur through his mother Sultan Khatun, attempted to destabalize the Sarbadar state by stirring up the refugee dervishes within his country. 'Ali-yi Mu'ayyad countered by conspiring with Malik Muhammad. When Ghiyas al-Din attempted to remove Malik Muhammad, 'Ali-yi Mu'ayyad flanked his army and forced him to abort the campaign, instead compromising with his stepbrother. The Sarbadars, however, soon suffered a period of internal strife, and Ghiyas al-Din took advantage of this by seizing the city of Nishapur around 1375 or 1376. In the meantime, both Ghiyas al-Din and Malik Muhammad had asked for the assistance of Timur regarding their conflict: the former had sent an embassy to him, while the latter had appeared before Timur in person as a requester of asylum, having been driven out of Sarakhs. Timur responded to Ghiyas al-Din by proposing a marriage between his niece Sevinj Qutluq Agha and the Kartid ruler's son Pir Muhammad, a marriage which took place in Samarkand around 1376. Tomb of Omar Khayyam, Neishabur Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ... Events October 24 - Valdemar IV of Denmark dies and is succeeded by his grandson Olaf III of Denmark. ... Events March – The treaty between England and France is extended until April of 1377. ... Samarkand (Samarqand or Самарқанд in Uzbek, in Persian سمرقند) (population 400,000) is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan, capital of Samarqand Province. ...


Later on, Timur invited Ghiyas al-Din to a council so that the latter could submit to him, but when the Kartid attempted to excuse himself from coming by claiming he had to deal with the Shi'i population in Nishapur, Timur decided to invade. He was encouraged by many Khurasanis, included Mu'izzu'd-Din's former vizier Mu'in al-Din Jami, who sent a letter inviting Timur to intervene in Khurasan, and the shaikhs of Jam, who, being very influential persons, had convinced many of the Kartid dignitaries to welcome Timur as the latter neared Herat. In April 1381 Timur arrived before the city, whose citizens were already demoralized and also aware of Timur's offer not to kill anyone that did not take part in the battle. The city fell, its fortifications were dismantled, theologians and scholars were deported to Timur's homeland, a high tribute was enacted, and Ghiyas al-Din and his son were carried off to Samarkand. Ghiyas al-Din was made Timur's vassal, until he supported a rebellion in 1382 by the maliks of Herat. Ghiyas al-Din and his family were executed around 1383, and Timur's son Miran Shah destroyed the revolt. That same year, a new uprising led by a Shaikh Da'ud-i Khitatai in Isfizar was quickly put down by Miran Shah. The remaining Kartids were murdered in 1396 at a banquet which Miran Shah had invited them to. The Kartids therefore came to an end, having been the victims of Timur's first Persian campaign. April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. ... Events June 12 - Peasants Revolt: In England rebels arrive at Blackheath. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Enyu of Japan, fifth and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Emperor Go-Komatsu ascends to the throne of Japan John Wyclifs teachings are condemned by the Synod of London. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Chokei of Japan Emperor Go-Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan Births Pope Eugenius IV Deaths March 1 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (b. ... Miran Shah (1366-1408) was a son of Timur, and a Timurid governor during his fathers lifetime. ... Events September 25 - Bayezid I defeats Sigismund of Hungary and John of Nevers at the Battle of Nicopolis. ...


References

  • Peter Jackson (1986). The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume Six: The Timurid and Safavid Periods. ISBN 0521200946
  • Edward G. Browne (1926). A Literary History of Persia: The Tartar Dominion. ISBN 0-936347-66-X

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kartids - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1323 words)
The Kartid Dynasty (Karts, also known as Kurts) was a dynasty that ruled over a large part of Khurasan during the 13th and 14th centuries.
When the Kartids and Sarbadars met in battle at Zava on July 18, 1342, the battle was initially in the favor of the latter, but disunity within the Sarbadar army allowed the Kartids to emerge victorious.
The remaining Kartids were murdered in 1396 at a banquet which Miran Shah had invited them to.
Miran Shah - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (489 words)
That same year, he destroyed a rebellion against Timurid authority by the Kartids, then vassals of Timur in Khurasan under their leader Ghyas al-Din.
To solidify control over the area, in 1396 he invited the remaining Kartid princes to a banquet and slew them.
In the winter of 1386 Miran Shah defeated an invading force of the Golden Horde that was on its way to Persia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m