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Encyclopedia > Karst topography

Karst topography is a three-dimensional landscape shaped by the dissolution of a soluble layer or layers of bedrock, usually carbonate rock such as limestone or dolomite. These landscapes display distinctive surface features and underground drainages, and in some examples there may be little or no surface drainage. Some areas of karst topography, such as southern Missouri and northern Arkansas in the USA, are underlain by thousands of caves. Solvation is the attraction and association of molecules of a solvent with molecules or ions of a solute. ... Bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the Earths surface. ... In inorganic chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid. ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Dolomite crystals from Touissite, Morocco Dolomite is the name of both a carbonate rock and a mineral consisting of calcium magnesium carbonate (formula: CaMg(CO3)2) found in crystals. ... Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,732 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico This article is about natural caves; for artificial caves used as dwellings, such as those in north China, see yaodong. ...


Different terms for karst topography exist in other languages - for example, yanrong in Chinese and tsingy in Malagasy - a notable exception being English[verification needed]. The international community has settled on karst, the German name for Kras, a region in Slovenia partially extending into Italy where the first scientific research of a karst topography was made. The name has Paleoeuropean origin (karra - stone) and in antiquity it used to be Carusardius. From 1177 the Slovenian form grast has been known and from 1230 the Croatian kras. Tsingy de Bemaraha Strict Nature Reserve is a nature reserve located in Madagascar close to that nations Western coast. ... An image of Italian Karst (Monfalcone). ...

Contents

Chemistry of karst landscapes

Karst lake (Doberdo' del Lago, Italy), from underground water springing into a depression. This lake has no surface inlet or outlet.
Karst lake (Doberdo' del Lago, Italy), from underground water springing into a depression. This lake has no surface inlet or outlet.

Karst landforms are generally the result of mildly acidic water acting on soluble bedrock such as limestone or dolostone. The carbonic acid that causes these features is formed as rain passes through the atmosphere picking up CO2, which dissolves in the water. Once the rain reaches the ground, it may pass through soil that may provide further CO2 to form a weak carbonic acid solution: H2O + CO2 → H2CO3. Recent studies of sulphates in karst waters suggests sulphuric and hydrosulphuric acid may also play an important role in karst formation. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1536, 530 KB) Summary Author: User:Alex brollo Location & time: Doberdò del Lago (Italian Karst), Dec 10,2005 Subject: Karst landscape: an Italian Karst lake (Lago di Doberdò). This very infrequent geological phenomenon is related to deep depressions, reaching the level... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1536, 530 KB) Summary Author: User:Alex brollo Location & time: Doberdò del Lago (Italian Karst), Dec 10,2005 Subject: Karst landscape: an Italian Karst lake (Lago di Doberdò). This very infrequent geological phenomenon is related to deep depressions, reaching the level... An acid (often represented by the generic formula HA) is traditionally considered any chemical compound that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution with a pH of less than 7. ... Bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the Earths surface. ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Dolostone is a sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite. ... Carbonic acid (ancient name acid of air or aerial acid) has the formula H2CO3. ... Rain falling Rain is a form of precipitation, other forms of which include snow, sleet, hail, and dew. ... Layers of Atmosphere (NOAA) Air redirects here. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Loess field in Germany Soil horizons are formed by combined biological, chemical and physical alterations. ...


This mildly acidic water begins to dissolve the surface and any fractures or bedding planes in the limestone bedrock. Over time these fractures enlarge as the bedrock continues to dissolve. Openings in the rock increase in size, and an underground drainage system begins to develop, allowing more water to pass through and accelerating the formation of underground karst features. An acid (often represented by the generic formula HA) is traditionally considered any chemical compound that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution with a pH of less than 7. ... Weathering is the process of breaking down of rocks, soils and their minerals through direct, or indirect contact with the atmosphere. ...


Somewhat less common than this limestone karst is gypsum karst, where the solubility of the mineral gypsum provides many similar structures to the dissolution and redeposition of calcium carbonate. Gypsum is a very soft mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. // Heating gypsum to between 100°C and 150°C (302°F) partially dehydrates the mineral by driving off exactly 75% of the water contained in its chemical structure. ... Gypsum is a very soft mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. // Heating gypsum to between 100°C and 150°C (302°F) partially dehydrates the mineral by driving off exactly 75% of the water contained in its chemical structure. ...


Karst formations

Surface karst.
Enlarge
Surface karst.

The karstification of a landscape may result in a variety of large or small scale features both on the surface and beneath. On exposed surfaces, small features may include flutes, runnels, clints and grikes, collectively called karren or lapiez. Medium-sized surface features may include sinkholes or dolines (closed basins), vertical shafts, disappearing streams, and reappearing springs. Large-scale features may include limestone pavements, poljes and blind valleys. Mature karst landscapes, where more bedrock has been removed than remains, may result in karst towers or haystack/eggbox landscapes. Beneath the surface, complex underground drainage systems (such as karst aquifers) and extensive caves and cavern systems may form. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1333x904, 392 KB) Surface karst at Dent de Crolles, France. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1333x904, 392 KB) Surface karst at Dent de Crolles, France. ... Limestone pavement above Malham Cove A limestone pavement is a landform consisting of a horizontal surface of exposed limestone showing the effects of weathering. ... Devils Hole near Hawthorne, Florida Sinkholes, also known as sinks, shakeholes or dolina (in the Slovene language dolina means valleys), and cenotes, are formed by the collapse of cave roofs and are a feature of landscapes that are based on limestone bedrock. ... A special type of sinkhole - formed by rainwater leaking through the pavement and carrying dirt into a ruptured sewer pipe Sinkholes, also known as sinks, dolines, and cenotes, are formed by the collapse of cave roofs and are a feature of landscapes that are based on limestone bedrock. ... A natural spring on Mackinac Island in Michigan. ... Limestone pavement above Malham Cove A limestone pavement is a landform consisting of a horizontal surface of exposed limestone showing the effects of weathering. ... Livno karst field and mountain Dinara Karst field or karstic field is a large flat plain in karst territory with areas usually 5 to 400 km². Their Slavonic name is polje (lit. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ... Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico This article is about natural caves; for artificial caves used as dwellings, such as those in north China, see yaodong. ...

Erosion along limestone shores, notably in the tropics, produces karst topography that includes a sharp makatea surface above the normal reach of the sea and undercuts that are mostly the result of biological activity or bioerosion at or a little above mean sea level. Some of the most dramatic of these formations can be seen in Thailand's Phangnga Bay and Halong Bay in Vietnam. The Witchs Finger, a stalagmite in the Carlsbad Caverns. ... The Witchs Finger, a stalagmite in the Carlsbad Caverns. ... The Witchs Finger in the Carlsbad Caverns The Witchs Finger is a very tall thin stalagmite in the Carlsbad Cavern. ... Carlsbad Caverns National Park is a United States National Park located in the southeastern corner of New Mexico in Eddy County. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Bioerosion describes the erosion of hard ocean substrates by living organisms by a number of mechanisms. ... Phang Nga Bay is a 400 km² bay in the Andaman Sea between the island of Phuket and mainland of the Malay peninsula of southern Thailand. ... Halong Bay is a body of water of approximately 1,500 square kilometres in north Vietnam with a 120 kilometre coastline, in the Gulf of Tonkin near the border with China, and 170 kilometres east of Hanoi. ...


Calcium carbonate dissolved into water may precipitate out where the water discharges some of its dissolved carbon dioxide. Rivers which emerge from springs may produce tufa terraces, consisting of layers of calcite deposited over extended periods of time. In caves, a variety of features collectively called speleothems are formed by deposition of calcium carbonate and other dissolved minerals. Tufa is the name for an unusual geological formation. ... A speleothem (from the Greek for cave deposit) is a formal term for what is also known as a cave formation, or amongst cavers, collectively known as pretties. ...


Karst river on its way can disappears underground a number of times and springs again at different places, usually under a different name (like Ljubljanica, the river of seven names) The Ljubljanica is a river in Slovenia, Europe. ...


Water drainage and problems

Farming in karst areas must take into account the lack of surface water. The soils may be fertile enough, and rainfall may be adequate, but rainwater quickly moves through the crevices into the ground, sometimes leaving the surface soil parched between rains.

Source of the river Loue, a karst spring.
Source of the river Loue, a karst spring.

Water supplies from wells in karst topography may be unsafe, as the water may have run unimpeded from a sinkhole in a cattle pasture, through a cave and to the well, bypassing the normal filtering that occurs in a porous aquifer. Karst formations are cavernous and therefore have high rates of permeability, resulting in reduced opportunity for contaminants to be filtered out. Taken from German wikipedia: [1] on Sept 20, 2004. ... Taken from German wikipedia: [1] on Sept 20, 2004. ... The Loue is a river of eastern France. ... Cable tool water well drilling rig in Kimball, West Virginia. ... Devils Hole near Hawthorne, Florida Sinkholes, also known as sinks, shakeholes or dolina (in the Slovene language dolina means valleys), and cenotes, are formed by the collapse of cave roofs and are a feature of landscapes that are based on limestone bedrock. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ...


Groundwater in karst areas is just as easily polluted as surface streams. Sinkholes have often been used as farmstead or community trash dumps. Overloaded or malfunctioning septic tanks in karst landscapes may dump raw sewage directly into underground channels. Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations. ... Water pollution Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies (lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater) caused by human activities. ... A landfill compaction vehicle in operation A landfill, also known as a dump (US) or a tip (UK), is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment. ... A septic tank also known as a septic system is a small scale sewage treatment system common in areas with no connection to main sewerage pipes. ...


The karst topography itself also poses some difficuties for human inhabitants. Sinkholes can develop gradually as surface openings enlarge, but quite often progressive erosion is unseen and the roof of an underground cavern suddenly collapses. Such events have swallowed homes, cattle, cars, and farm machinery. Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) by the agents of wind, water or ice, by downward or down-slope movement in response to gravity or by living organisms (in the case of...


The Driftless Area National Wildlife Refuge in Iowa protects Discus macclintocki, a species of ice age snail surviving in air chilled by flowing over buried karst ice formations. Driftless Area National Wildlife Refuge is a United States National Wildlife Refuge in the northeastern corner of Iowa. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Discus macclintocki (F.C.Baker, 1928) The Iowa Pleistocene Snail (Discus macclintocki), or Pleistocene disc, is a tiny snail living in a few specialized locations in Iowa and Illinois. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... The name snail applies to most members of the molluscan class Gastropoda that have coiled shells. ...


Pseudokarst

Pseudokarst refers to landscape features that are similar in form or appearance to karst features, but are created by different mechanisms. Examples include lava caves and granite tors (for example Labertouche Cave in Victoria, Australia), and paleocollapse features. Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ... Hawks Tor, on Bodmin Moor Tor redirects here. ... Emblems: Pink heath (floral)Weedy Seadragon (Aquatic) helmeted honeyeater (bird) Leadbeaters possum (faunal) Motto: Peace and Prosperity Slogan or Nickname: Garden State, The Place To Be, On The Move Other Australian states and territories Capital Melbourne Government Const. ... Paleocollapse is a rock structure resembling the karst landform, but is formed by a different mechanism. ...


Partial list of karst areas

Africa

Anjajavy Forest is an element of the Madagascar dry deciduous forests situated on the Indian Ocean of northwest Madagascar. ... Ankarana Reserve is a small vegetated plateau in northern Madagascar with elevations that exceed 1220 meters (4000 feet) above sea level. ... Aerial photo of a portion of the Anjajavy Forest, inset by a swath of mangrove riparian forest. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Asia

position of Guilin in Guangxi Guilin in Guangxi Guilin (Chinese: æ¡‚æž—; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kuei-lin, Postal System Pinyin: Kweilin; Zhuang: Gveilinz) is one of Chinas most picturesque cities, with a population of 670,000, situated in the northeast of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of the Peoples... The town of Yangshuo from a nearby karst peak. ... Guangxi (Simplified Chinese: 广西; Traditional Chinese: 廣西; pinyin: Guǎngxī; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi) is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Ofra (Hebrew: עפרה) is an Israeli settlement located north-east of Jerusalem in the jurisdiction of the Mateh Binyamin Regional Council. ... Karst pinnacles at Akiyoshidai. ... Categories: Philippines geography stubs | Municipalities in the Philippines ... Palawan is an island province of the Philippines located in the Mimaropa region. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sagada is a 5th class municipality in the province of Mountain Province, Philippines. ... Mountain Province is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Bohol Region: Central Visayas (Region VII) Capital: Tagbilaran City Founded: March 25, 1565 Population: 2000 census—1,137,268 (18th largest) Density—276 per km² (25th highest) Area: 4,117. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Map of the Philippines showing the location of Negros. ... Vincent Chin Gigs Gigante (March 29, 1928 – December 19, 2005) was an Italian-American Mafioso who headed the Genovese crime family for years, at times while in prison. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Negros Oriental Region: Central Visayas (Region VII) Capital: Dumaguete City Founded: March 10, 1917 Population: 2000 census—1,126,061 (20th largest) Density—208 per km² (41st highest) Area: 5,402. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Vang Vieng is a town in Laos, located in Xaisomboun special zone. ... Gunung Mulu National Park in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, on the border with Brunei is a World Heritage Site that encompasses incredible caves and karst formations in a mountainous equatorial rainforest setting. ... Krabi (Thai กระบี่) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand, at the shore of the Andaman Sea. ... Phang Nga Bay is a 400 km² bay in the Andaman Sea between the island of Phuket and mainland of the Malay peninsula of southern Thailand. ... Halong Bay is a body of water of approximately 1,500 square kilometres in north Vietnam with a 120 kilometre coastline, in the Gulf of Tonkin near the border with China, and 170 kilometres east of Hanoi. ...

Caribbean

Partial list of National parks in Dominican Republic. ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... , Viñales Valley is an karstic depression in Cuba. ...

Europe

Herzegovina (natively Hercegovina/Херцеговина) is a historical region in the Dinaric Alps that composes the southern part of present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... Map of Dalmatia, in present day Croatia highlighted Dalmatia (Croatian: Dalmacija, Italian: Dalmazia) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, in modern Croatia, spreading between the island of Rab in the northwest and the Gulf of Kotor (Boka Kotorska) in the southeast. ... Lika is a mountainous region in central Croatia, roughly bound by the Velebit mountain from the southwest and the PljeÅ¡evica mountain from the northeast. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ... The Kvarner bay (Croatian kvarnerski zaljev, Italian Golfo del Quarnero/Quarnaro/Carnaro; sometimes also Kvarner gulf) is a bay in northern Adriatic Sea, located between the Istria peninsula and the northern Croatian seacoast. ... The Moravian Karst (in Czech Moravský Kras) is a karst (cave system) area to the north of Brno in the eastern part of the Czech Republic. ... The Apuseni Mountains is a mountain range in Transylvania, Romania, which belongs to the Western Carpathians. ... Slovak Paradise, Stratenská píla Slovak Paradise (in Slovak: Slovenský raj) is a mountain range in central Slovakia. ... The Slovak Karst (Slovak Slovenský kras) is one of the mountain ranges of the Slovak Ore Mountains in the Carpathians in southern Slovakia. ... Inner Carniola (Slovenian: Notranjska; German: ) is a traditional region of Slovenia. ... An image of Italian Karst (Monfalcone). ... This article is about the Italian region. ... Basilicata is a region in the south of Italy, bordering on Campania to the west, Puglia to the east, Calabria to the south, it has one short coastline on the Tyrrhenian Sea and another of the Gulf of Taranto in the Ionian Sea to the south-east. ... The Picos de Europa is a range of mountains some 20km far inland from the northern coast of Spain. ... Typical limestone mountain of the Basque range. ... Karst in the Torcal de Antequera El Torcal de Antequera is a nature reserve in the Sierra del Torcal mountain range located south of the city of Antequera, in the province of Málaga in Andalusia, Spain. ... The White Peak is the lower, southern part of the Peak District in England. ... The Peak District is an upland area in central and northern England, mainly spanning Derbyshire, but also covering bits of Cheshire, Staffordshire and South and West Yorkshire. ... Matlock is the county town of Derbyshire, UK. It is situated at the south eastern edge of the Peak District, and is twinned with Eaubonne in France. ... This article is about the English village. ... Thors Cave from the Manifold Way Thors Cave (also known as Thors House Cavern and Thyrsiss Cave) is a natural cavern in the Manifold Valley of the White Peak in Staffordshire, England. ... A village in the Yorkshire Dales The Yorkshire Dales lie in an area of high ground in North and West Yorkshire, England. ... Malham Cove and Malham Beck Malham Cove is a natural limestone formation, known as a national beauty spot, near Malham, North Yorkshire, England. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... A road winds down Corkscrew Hill towards Ballyvaughan. ... Parish in West Sutherland, North West Highlands, Scotland, north of Ullapool. ... The Old Man of Storr, Skye The Isle of Skye, usually known simply as Skye (Scottish Gaelic: An t-Eilean Sgiathanach) is the largest and most northerly island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... Part of the Brecon Beacons National Park, looking from the highest point Pen Y Fan, 886 m (2907 feet), to Corn Du, 873 m (2864 feet) The Brecon Beacons National Park is one of three national parks in Wales. ... Motto: (Welsh for Wales forever) Anthem: Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff Official language(s) Welsh, English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Rhodri Morgan AM Unification    - by Gruffudd ap Llywelyn 1056  Area    - Total 20,779... The Hönne is a tributary river to the Ruhr, flowing through the northern Sauerland hills in Germany. ... Map of Germany showing Balve Balve is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ...

North America

Nahanni National Park Reserve in the Northwest Territories of Canada, approximately 600 km west of Yellowknife, protects a portion of the Mackenzie Mountains Natural Region. ... Motto: none Official languages Chipewyan, Cree, English, French, Gwich’in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey, Tåîchô [1] Flower Mountain avens Tree Tamarack Bird Gyr Falcon Capital Yellowknife Largest city Yellowknife Commissioner Tony Whitford Premier Joe Handley (Consensus government (no party affiliations)) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... , Viñales Valley is an karstic depression in Cuba. ... Sacred Cenote, Chichén Itzá Cenote in Quintana Roo, Mexico Cenote (pronounced in Spanish seh-no-teh and in English say-no-tay, plural: cenotes) is the name given in Central America and southern Mexico to a type of freshwater-filled limestone sinkhole. ... The Yucatán Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... Nickname: Rocket City Watercress Capital of the World Coordinates: Country United States State Alabama County Madison, Limestone Mayor Loretta Spencer Area    - City 174. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... // The Coulee Region, as it is colloquially known (officially designated the Driftless Area by the USGS and popularly referred to as the Driftless Zone, or Driftless Region since the 1980s) is an area of about 20,000 square miles (52,000 km²) in western Wisconsin, northeastern Iowa, southeastern Minnesota, and... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Mammoth Caves Mammoth Cave National Park is a U.S. National Park in south-central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave, the most extensive cave system known in the world. ... Bluegrass and rock fence of local limestone in central Kentucky. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Ozark redirects here. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,732 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The Texas Hill Country, as seen from near Interstate 10. ... Texas is the gayest motherfucking state out there they can suck my big black balls. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Official language(s) None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 160 miles (255 km)  - Length 280 miles (455 km)  - % water 2. ... Presque Isle County is a county located in the state of Michigan. ... Rogers City is the county seat of Presque Isle County in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ...

Oceania

The Lucas Cave at Jenolan Caves The Jenolan Caves are a series of remarkable caverns in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia; 175 kilometres west of Sydney. ... Waitomo is a district-type municipality in the southwest of the Waikato region in the North Island of New Zealand. ... East New Britain is a province of Papua New Guinea. ...

See also

Livno karst field and mountain Dinara Karst field or karstic field is a large flat plain in karst territory with areas usually 5 to 400 km². Their Slavonic name is polje (lit. ... A karst landscape that was glaciated during the cold periods of the Pleistocene and displays major landforms of glacial influence. ... A speleothem (from the Greek for cave deposit) is a formal term for what is also known as a cave formation, or amongst cavers, collectively known as pretties. ... Grotte des Faux-Monnayeurs, Switzerland Speleology is the scientific study of caves and other karst features, their make-up, structure, physical properties, history, life forms, and the processes by which they form (speleogenesis) and change over time (speleomorphology). ... Simple scheme of a foiba. ... Limestone pavement above Malham Cove A limestone pavement is a landform consisting of a horizontal surface of exposed limestone showing the effects of weathering. ...

References

Jennings, J.N. Karst MIT Press 1971

    External links

    • Speleogenesis and Karst Aquifers - a large glossary of Karst related terms.
    • Acta Carsologica - research papers and reviews in all the fields related to karst.
    • Karst Almighty - photos of surface karst.

      Results from FactBites:
     
    karst topography: Information from Answers.com (1536 words)
    Karst topography is a landscape of distinctive dissolution patterns often marked by underground drainages.
    Karst landforms are generally the result of mildly acidic rainfall acting on soluble limestone or dolostone bedrock.
    Water supplies from wells in karst topography are inherently hazardous, as the well water may simply run from a sinkhole in a cattle pasture through a cave and to the well, bypassing the normal filtering that occurs in a porous aquifer.
    USGS Geology in the Parks (2879 words)
    Understanding caves and karst is important because ten percent of the Earth's surface is occupied by karst landscape and as much as a quarter of the world's population depends upon water supplied from karst areas.
    Although karst processes sculpt beautiful landscapes, karst systems are very vulnerable to ground water pollution due to the relatively rapid rate of water flow and the lack of a natural filtration system.
    Caves in karst areas often have stalactites (icicle-like masses of chemical limestone) that hang from cave ceilings and stout stalagmites protruding from the cave floor.
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