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Encyclopedia > Karnak

Coordinates: 25.71874° N 32.6574° E Karnak could be referring to: The village and temple complex of Karnak in Egypt. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Map of Karnak, showing major temple complexes
Map of Karnak, showing major temple complexes

The Karnak temple complex, universally known only as Karnak, describes a vast conglomeration of ruined temples, chapels, pylons and other buildings. It is located near Luxor in Egypt. This was ancient Egyptian Ipet-isut ("The Most Selected of Places"), the main place of worship of the Theban Triad with Amun as its head, in the monumental city of Thebes. The complex retrieves its current name from the nearby and partly surrounding modern village of el-Karnak, some 2.5km north of Luxor. Few places in Egypt makes a more overwhelming and lasting impression, then this apparent chaos of walls, obelisks, columns, statues, stelaes and decorated blocks. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (714x820, 69 KB) Summary Map of the reconstructed Karnak temple, in modern Luxor, Egypt Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (714x820, 69 KB) Summary Map of the reconstructed Karnak temple, in modern Luxor, Egypt Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Luxor on Nile, at Luxor Temple with mosque. ... The Theban Triad are the three Egyptian gods that were the most powerful in the area of Thebes, in Egypt. ... Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Ἄμμων Ammon, and Ἅμμων Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt, before fading into obscurity. ... Thebes Thebes (, Thēbai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome...

Contents

Overview

The complex is a vast open-air museum and the largest ancient religious site in the world. It is probably the second most visited historical site in Egypt, second only to the Giza Pyramids near Cairo. It consists of four main parts (precincts) of which only one is accessible for tourists and the general public. This is the Precinct of Amun-Re, and this it is also the main part of the complex and by far the largest part. The term Karnak is often understood as being the Precinct of Amun-Re only, as this is the only part most visitors normally see. The three other parts, the Precinct of Montu, the Precinct of Mut and the Temple of Amenhotep IV (dismantled), are closed to the public. There also are a few smaller temples and sanctuaries located outside the enclosing walls of the four main parts, as well as several avenues of human and ram-headed sphinxes connecting the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Amon-Re, and Luxor Temple. 19th-century tourists in front of the Sphinx - view from South-East, Great Pyramid in background The Giza Necropolis stands on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. ... First pylon of Karnak Map of the Amun-Re Temple The Precinct of Amun-Re, located near Luxor, Egypt, is one of the four main enclosed areas that make up the immense Karnak Temple Complex. ... Precinct of Montu Gateway of Ptolemy III Euergates / Ptolemy IV Philopator Precinct of Montu, located near Luxor, Egypt, is one of the four main enclosed areas that make up the immense Karnak Temple Complex. ... Main entrance to Precinct of Mut. ... The Temple of Amenhotep IV at Karnak in Luxor, Egypt, was constructed during the first four years of the reign of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten, when he still referred to himself as Amenhotep IV. It was constructed outside the boundaries of the Precinct of Amon-Re, to the east. ... Luxor Temple, from the east bank of the Nile Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in the city today known as Luxor (ancient Thebes). ...


The key difference between Karnak and most of the other temples and sites in Egypt is the length of time over which it was developed and used. Construction work began in the 16th century BC. Approximately thirty pharaohs contributed to the buildings, enabling it to reach a size, complexity, and diversity not seen elsewhere. Few of the individual features of Karnak are unique, but the size and number of features are overwhelming. Construction of temples started in the Middle Kingdom and continued through to Ptolemaic times. The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises two phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty... cleopatra ruled seneca for 10 years before she ruled Egypt. ...


History

Greek & Roman accounts

References to the complex is found in Herodotus’, Diodorus Siculus, Strabo and presumably Hecataeus of Abdera and Manetho, but we only retain fragments of their works, though none of these authors relates more than rudimentary information about the complex. Strabo states that Thebes at the time of his visited is nothing more than a collection of smaller villages, though its once grandness could still be imagined. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Hecataeus of Abdera (or of Teos), Greek historian and Sceptic philosopher, flourished in the 4th century BC. He accompanied Ptolemy I Soter in an expedition to Syria, and sailed up the Nile with him as far as Thebes (Diogenes Laertius ix. ... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ...


European rediscovering

Thebes’ exact placement was unknown in mediaeval Europe, though both Herodotus and Strabo give the exact location of Thebes and how long up the Nile one must travel to reach it. Maps of Egypt, based on the 3rd century Claudius Ptolemaeus' mammoth work "Geographia," have been circling in Europe since the late 14th century, all of them showing Thebes’ (Diospolis) location. Despite this, several European authors of the 15th and 16th century who visited only Lower Egypt and published their travel accounts, put Thebes in or close to Memphis, like Joos van Ghistele or Andre Thevet. The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... The Geographia is Ptolemys main work besides the Almagest. ... Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Lower Egypt is the northern-most section of Egypt. ... Memphis was the wife of Epaphus, the founder of Memphis, Egypt in Greek mythology. ... André de Thevet (1502 in Angouleme - November 23, 1590 in Paris) was a French Franciscan priest, explorer, cosmographer and writer who travelled to Brazil in the 16th century and described the country, its aboriginal inhabitants and the historical episodes involved in the France Antarctique, a French settlement in Rio de...


The Karnak temple complex is first described by an unknown Venetian in 1589, though his account relates no name for the complex. This account, housed in the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, is unique, in that it is the first known European mention, since the ancient Greek and Roman writers, of a whole range of monument in Upper Egypt and Nubian, including Karnak, Luxor temple, Colossi of Memnon, Esna, Edfu, Kom Ombo, Philae and others. Karnak (“Carnac”) as a village name, and name of the complex, is first attested in 1668, when two capuchin missionary brothers Protais and Charles François d'Orléans travelled though the area. Protais’ writing about their travel was published by Melchisédech Thévenot (Relations de divers voyages curieux, 1670s-1696 editions) and Johann Michael Vansleb (The Present State of Egypt, 1678). The first drawing of Karnak, rather inaccurate and can be quite confusing when viewed with modern eyes, is found in Paul Lucas' travel account of 1704. Paul Lucas travelled in Egypt during 1699-1703. The drawing shows a mixture of the Precinct of Amun-Re and the Precinct of Montu, based on a complex confined by the tree huge Ptolemaic gateways of Ptolemy III Euergetes / Ptolemy IV Philopator, and the massive 113m long, 43m high and 15m thick, first Pylon of the Precinct of Amun-Re. Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... For the Star Wars planet, see Nubia (Star Wars). ... The Colossi of Memnon The Colossi of Memnon (known to locals as el-Colossat, or es-Salamat) are two massive stone statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III. For the past 3400 years they have stood in the Theban necropolis, across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor. ... Tourist bazaar The Egyptian city of Esna (known in antiquity as Iunyt, Ta-senet, and Latopolis) is located on the west bank of the River Nile, some 55 km south of Luxor. ... The front of the Edfu Temple. ... Kom Ombo (كوم أمبو) is an agricultural town in Egypt famous for its temple. ... Philae (or Pilak or Paaleq [Egyptian: remote place or the end or the angle island]; [Arabic: Anas el Wagud]) is an island in the Nile River and the previous site of an Ancient Egyptian temple complex in southern Egypt. ... 1668 (MDCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (OFM Cap) is an order of friars in the Roman Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans. ... Melchisédech (or Melchisédec) Thévenot (ca. ... Johann Michael Vansleb (November 1, 1635 in Erfurt - 1679) was a German theologian, linguist and Egypt traveller. ... // PAUL LUCAS Paul Lucas (born June 10, 1982) is the former editor-in-chief of professional wrestling website radicalwrestling. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... Ptolemy III Euergetes, (Ptolemaeus III) (Evergetes, Euergetes) (reigned 246 BC-222 BC) is sometimes called Ptolemy III Euergetes I. (Ptolemy VIII also titled himself Euergetes: the Beneficent; but he is usually known, then and since, as Ptolemy Physcon: Belly. ... Ptolemy IV Philopator Under the reign of Ptolemy IV Philopator ( Greek: Πτολεμαίος Φιλοπάτωρ, reigned 221-204 BC), son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II of Egypt, the decline of the Ptolemaic kingdom began. ...


Karnak was visited and described in succession by Claude Sicard and his travel companion Pierre Laurent Pincia (1718 and 1720-21), Ganger (1731), Frederick Louis Norden (1737-38), Richard Pococke (1738), James Bruce (1769), Charles-Nicolas-Sigisbert Sonnini de Manoncourt (1777), William George Browne (1792-93), and finally by a number of scientists of the Napoleon expedition, including Vivant Denon, during 1798-1799. Claude-Étienne Savary describes the complex rather detailed in his work of 1785; especially in light that it is a fictional account of a pretended journey to Upper Egypt, composed out of information from other travellers. Savary did visit Lower Egypt in 1777-78, and published a work about that too. Father Claude Sicard (1677 – 1726) was a French Jesuit priest, and an early modern visitor to Egypt, between 1708 and 1712, producing the earliest known map of the country. ... Frederic Louis Norden, from Voyage dEgypte et de Nubie, 1755 Frederic Louis Norden (October 22, 1708 – September 22, 1742) was a Danish naval captain and explorer. ... Richard Pococke (1704-1765) was an English prelate and anthropologist. ... James Bruce (December 14, 1730 – April 27, 1794) was a Scottish traveller and travel writer who spent more than a dozen years in North Africa and Abyssinia (Ethiopia) where he traced the Blue Nile. ... Charles-Nicolas-Sigisbert Sonnini de Manoncourt (February 1, 1751 - May 9, 1812 in Paris) was a French naturalist. ... Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Browne, William George. ... Dominique Vivant, Baron de Denon (4 January 1747 - 27 April 1825) was a French artist and archaeologist. ... Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Lower Egypt is the northern-most section of Egypt. ...


Main parts

Precinct of Amun-Re

Main article: Precinct of Amun-Re

This is the largest of the precincts of the temple complex, and is dedicated to Amun-Re, the chief god of the Theban Triad. First pylon of Karnak Map of the Amun-Re Temple The Precinct of Amun-Re, located near Luxor, Egypt, is one of the four main enclosed areas that make up the immense Karnak Temple Complex. ... Amun (also spelt Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imenand, and spelt in Greek as Ammon, and Hammon) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important, before disappearing back into the shadows. ... The Theban Triad are the three Egyptian gods that were the most powerful in the area of Thebes, in Egypt. ...


Precinct of Montu

Main article: Precinct of Montu

Dedicated to the son of Amun-Re and Mut, Montu, the war-god of the Theban Triad. It is located to the north of the Amun-Re complex, and is much smaller in size. It is not open to the public. Precinct of Montu Gateway of Ptolemy III Euergates / Ptolemy IV Philopator Precinct of Montu, located near Luxor, Egypt, is one of the four main enclosed areas that make up the immense Karnak Temple Complex. ... For other uses, see Mut (disambiguation). ... In Egyptian mythology, Menthu was a hawk-god of war. ...


Precinct of Mut

Main article: Precinct of Mut

Located to the south of the Amen-Re complex, this precinct was dedicated to the mother goddess, of the Theban Triad, Mut. It has several smaller temples associated with it, and has its own sacred lake. It has been ravaged, many portions having been used in other structures. It is not open to the public. Main entrance to Precinct of Mut. ... A Cucuteni culture statuette, 4th millennium BC. A mother goddess is a goddess, often portrayed as the Earth Mother, who serves as a general fertility deity, the bountiful embodiment of the earth. ... For other uses, see Mut (disambiguation). ...


Temple of Amenhotep IV (dismantled)

The temple that Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) constructed on site was located to the east of the main complex, outside the walls of the Amun-Re precinct. It was destroyed after the death of its builder, and its full extent and lay-out is currently unknown. The Temple of Amenhotep IV at Karnak in Luxor, Egypt, was constructed during the first four years of the reign of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten, when he still referred to himself as Amenhotep IV. It was constructed outside the boundaries of the Precinct of Amon-Re, to the east. ... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Karnak temple complex
  • Karnak: Temple of Amun – Bible History Online, 2004.
  • Centre franco-égyptien d'étude des temples de Karnak (in French)
  • Photographs of Karnak Temple – GlobalAmity.net
  • Karnak 3D :: Detailed 3D-reconstruction of the Great Temple of Amun at Karnak. (in Spanish) – Marc Mateos, 2007.

  Results from FactBites:
 
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Karnak - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (532 words)
The very term Karnak is nearly universally understood as the temple complex and not the village.
There are also a few smaller temples and sanctuaries located outside the enclosing walls of the four main parts, as well as several avenues of ram-headed sphinxes connecting the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Amon-Re and Luxor Temple.
The key difference between Karnak and most of the other temples and sites in Egypt is the length of time over which it was developed and used.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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