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Encyclopedia > Karma in Hinduism
Part of the series on
Hinduism
History  · Deities
Denominations  · Mythology
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Reincarnation  · Moksha
Karma  · Puja  · Maya
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Ramayana  · Mahabharata
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Karma is a concept in Hinduism, based on the Vedas and Upanishads, which explains causality through a system where beneficial events are derived from past beneficial actions and harmful events from past harmful actions, creating a system of actions and reactions throughout a person's reincarnated lives. Karma in Hinduism is used to explain the problem of evil that persists in spite of an omniscient, omnipotent, benevolent God; in this it is related to theodicy. Hinduism (Sanskrit/Hindi: ; also known as Sanatana Dharma - , and Vaidika Dharma - ) is a worldwide religious tradition that is based on the Vedas, and is generally regarded as one of the oldest religions still practised in the world. ... Image File history File links Aum. ... Hinduism (सनातन धर्म; also known as Sanātana Dharma, and Vaidika-Dharma) is a worldwide religious tradition that is based on the revealed knowledge of the Veda and the direct descendant of the Vedic religion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Hinduism encompasses many movements and schools fairly organized within Hindu denominations. ... Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ... Hindu philosophy (one of the main divisions of Indian philosophy) is traditionally seen through the prism of six different systems (called darshanas in Sanskrit) that are listed here and make up the main belief systems of Hinduism. ... Past Lives redirects here. ... Moksha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... ... In the Indian religions Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism, nirvāna (from the Sanskrit निर्वाण, Pali: Nibbāna -- Chinese: 涅槃; Pinyin: niè pán), literally extinction and/or extinguishing, is the culmination of the yogis pursuit of liberation. ... Dharma - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Yoga - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Ayurveda (आयुर्वेद Sanskrit: ayu—life; veda—knowledge of) or ayurvedic medicine is a comprehensive system of medicine, first described by Charaka around the beginning of the Common Era, and based on a holistic approach rooted in earlier Vedic culture. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vegetarianism is the practice of not eating meat, including beef, poultry, fish, or their by-products, with or without the use of dairy products or eggs. ... ... Artha is a Sanskrit term referring to the idea of material prosperity. ... Hindu scripture is overwhelmingly written in Sanskrit. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... Veda redirects here. ... The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... The Rāmāyana (Sanskrit: रामायण, march or journey (Ä€yana) of Rāma) is part of the Hindu smriti, written by Valmiki. ... The Mahabharata (Devanagari: महाभारत, phonetically Mahābhārata - see note), sometimes just called Bharata, is one of the two major ancient Sanskrit epics of India, the other being the Ramayana. ... The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ... The Aranyakas (Sanskrit आरण्यक, Forest Books, Forest Treatises) are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures are sometimes argued to be part of either the Brahmanas or Upanishads. ... The percentage of Hindu population of each country was taken from the US State Departments International Religious Freedom Report 2004. ... These are some of the most noteworthy Gurus and Saints of Hinduism: Shankara Ramanuja Madhvacharya Ramakrishna Vivekananda Sree Narayana Guru Aurobindo Ramana Maharshi Sivananda Chinmayananda Yogaswami Sivaya Subramuniyaswami Swaminarayan A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada Satya Sai Baba Shirdi Sai Baba Categories: Hindu religious figures ... The Gopuram of temples, in south India, are adorned with colourful icons depicting a particular story surrounding the temples deity. ... The Indian caste system is a social system in which people are divided into separate endogamous groups, known in English as castes, and in Hindi as jati (birth unit), biradari (fraternity) etc. ... A mantra is a religious syllable or poem, typically from the Sanskrit language. ... Glossary of terms in Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Nataraja is one of the most famous images of Lord Siva Murtis are deities or images used by Hindus and also by some Mahayana Buddhists during worship as points of devotional and meditational focus. ... Karma (Sanskrit: कर्म from the root kri, to do, meaning deed) or Kamma (Pali: meaning action, effect, destiny) is a term in several eastern religions that comprises the entire cycle of cause and effect. ... Hinduism (Sanskrit/Hindi: ; also known as Sanatana Dharma - , and Vaidika Dharma - ) is a worldwide religious tradition that is based on the Vedas, and is generally regarded as one of the oldest religions still practised in the world. ... Veda redirects here. ... The Upanishads (; Devanagari ) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... Causality - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Past Lives redirects here. ... In the philosophy of religion and theology, the problem of evil is the problem of reconciling the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the existence of an omniscient, omnipotent, omnibenevolent god. ... Omniscience is the capacity to know everything, or at least everything that can be known about a character/s including thoughts, feelings, etc. ... ... Benevolence is a faculty from the discipline of Phrenology. ... Michelangelos depiction of God in the painting Creation of the Sun and Moon in the Sistine Chapel) This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and derived henotheistic forms. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


One of the first and most dramatic illustrations of karma can be found in the Mahabharata, an ancient Hindu epic. The original Hindu concept of karma was later elaborated on by several other movements within the religion, most notably Vedanta, Yoga and Tantra. The concept was later adopted by other religions, such as Buddhism and Jainism, whose views differ from Hinduism as not involving the role of a personal supreme God. Thus, karma has had a major influence on worldwide philosophy and spirituality. The Mahabharata (Devanagari: महाभारत, phonetically Mahābhārata - see note), sometimes just called Bharata, is one of the two major ancient Sanskrit epics of India, the other being the Ramayana. ... Vedanta (Vedānta, वेदान्त, pronounced as ////) means the anta or culmination or essence of the Vedas. ... Yoga - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Tantra (Sanskrit: loom), tantric yoga or tantrism is any of several esoteric traditions rooted in the religions of India. ... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found from Sarnath, near Varanasi. ... Pre-Kushana Ayagapatta from Mathura Jainism (pronounced in English as //), traditionally known as Jain Dharma (जैन धर्म) , is a religion and philosophy originating in the prehistory of South Asia. ...

Contents


Definition

Karma literally means "deed" or "act", and more broadly names the universal principle of cause and effect, action and reaction, which Hindus believe governs all life. Karma is not fate; humans are believed to act with free will, creating their own destinies. According to the Vedas, if an individual sows goodness, he or she will reap goodness; if one sows evil, he or she will reap evil. Karma refers to the totality of mankind's actions and their concommitant reactions in current and previous lives, all of which determine the future. However, many karmas do not have an immediate effect; some accumulate and return unexpectedly in an individual's later lives. The conquest of karma is believed to lie in intelligent action and dispassionate reaction. Effect can be used in several different ways: Cause and effect are the relata of causality In movies and other media, sound effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds. ... Destiny or fate refers to the all but inevitable course of events. ... Free will is the philosophical doctrine that holds that our choices are ultimately up to ourselves. ... ... Evil is a term describing that which is regarded as morally bad, intrinsically corrupt, wantonly destructive, inhumane, or wicked. ...


As Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami explains it,[1] unkindness yields spoiled fruits, called papa, and good deeds bring forth sweet fruits, called punya. He further notes that as one acts, so does he become: one becomes virtuous by virtuous action, evil by evil action. Sivaya Subramuniyaswami (1927 - 2001), affectionately known as Gurudeva, was born in Oakland, California on January 5th, 1927. ... In the Hindu theory of Karma, Punya is merit that accumulates as a result of good deeds, acts or thoughts and that carries over to later in life or to a persons next birth. ...


There are three types of karma in Hinduism:

  1. sanchita karma, the sum total of past karmas yet to be resolved;
  2. prarabdha karma, that portion of sanchita karma that is to be experienced in this life; and
  3. kriyamana karma, the karma that humans are currently creating, which will bear fruit in the future.

In Hinduism, sanchita karma is one of the three kinds of karma. ... Prarabdha is that portion of the past karma which is responsible for the present body. ... Kriyamana karma, in Hinduism, is the karma that human beings are creating in the present, whose fruits will be experienced in the future. ...

The role of God

While the action of karma has often been compared with the Western notions of sin and judgment by God, karma instead has been commonly perceived by Westerners to operate as a law of nature without the intervention of any supernatural Being. That notion is not accurate with regard to Hinduism, though it holds true for Buddhism and Jainism. Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man, for many a symbol of the changes of the Western culture during the Renaissance Western culture refers to the culture that has developed in the Western world. ... Sin has been a term most usually used in a religious context, and today describes any lack of conformity to the will of God; especially, any willful disregard for the norms revealed by God is a sin. ... This page is under modification. ... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found from Sarnath, near Varanasi. ... Pre-Kushana Ayagapatta from Mathura Jainism (pronounced in English as //), traditionally known as Jain Dharma (जैन धर्म) , is a religion and philosophy originating in the prehistory of South Asia. ...


Karma in Hinduism does involve the role of God. Unlike Buddhists and Jains who believe that karma on its own joins the soul when it reincarnates, Hindus believe in the role of God in linking karma to an individual. Michelangelos depiction of God in the painting Creation of the Sun and Moon in the Sistine Chapel) This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and derived henotheistic forms. ...


Sri K. Thirugnana Sambantha writes about karma in his outline of Saivism. He explains the concept of karma in Hinduism by distinguishing it from that of Buddhism and Jainism, which do not require the existence of an external being like God. In their beliefs, just as a calf among a large number of cows can find its mother at suckling time, so also does karma find the specific individual it needs to attach to and come to fruition. However Hindus posit that karma, unlike the calf, is an unintelligent entity. Hence, karma cannot go and locate the appropriate person by itself. Shri Sambantha concludes that an intelligent Supreme Being with perfect wisdom and power, (Shiva for example) is necessary to make karma attach to the appropriate individual. In such sense, God is the Divine Accountant.[2] Shaivism, also Saivism, is a branch of Hinduism that worships Siva as the Supreme God. ... A deity or a god, is a postulated preternatural being, usually, but not always, of significant power, worshipped, thought holy, divine, or sacred, held in high regard, or respected by human beings. ... Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव or श्रीशिव (when used to distinguish lordly status), and written Śiva in the official IAST transliteration, pronounced as shιvə) is a form of Ishvara or God in the later Vedic scriptures of Hinduism. ...


Sivananda's views on karma based on the Upanishads and Brahma Sutras

Swami Sivananda, an Advaita scholar, reiterates the same views in his commentary synthesising Vedanta views on the Brahma Sutras, a Vedantic text. In his commentary on Chapter 3 (Phaladhikaranam, Topic 8, Sutras 38-41) of the Brahma Sutras, Sivananda notes that karma is insentient and short-lived and ceases to exist as soon as a deed is executed. Hence, karma cannot bestow the fruits of actions at a future date according to one's merit. Furthermore, one cannot argue that karma generates apurva or punya, which gives fruit. Since apurva is non-sentient, it cannot act unless moved by an intelligent being such as God. It cannot independently bestow reward or punishment. Swami Sivananda Saraswati (1887-1963), as he is known under his monastic name, was born Kuppuswamy in Pattamadai, Tamil Nadu, India. ... Advaita Vedanta is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita. ... The Brahma sutra is the nyaya prasthana, the logical text that sets forth the philosophy systematically (nyaya - logic/order). ... In the Hindu theory of Karma, Punya is merit that accumulates as a result of good deeds, acts or thoughts and that carries over to later in life or to a persons next birth. ...


There is a passage from Swami Sivananda's translation of the Svetasvatara Upanishad (4:6) illustrating this:

Two birds of beautiful plumage - inseparable friends - live on the same tree. Of these two one eats the sweet fruit while the other looks on without eating.

In his commentary, the first bird represents the individual soul while the second represents Brahman or God. The soul is a reflection essentially of Brahman. The tree represents the body. The soul identifies itself with the body and reaps the fruits of its actions and undergoes rebirth. The Lord alone stands as an eternal witness, ever contented, and does not eat, for he is the director of both the eater and the eaten. Brahman (ब्रह्मन् in devanagari script) in the Vedantic (and subsequently Yogic) schools of Hinduism, is the signifying name given to the concept of the unchanging, infinite, immanent and transcendent reality that is the Divine Ground of all being in this universe. ... Michelangelos depiction of God in the painting Creation of the Sun and Moon in the Sistine Chapel) This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and derived henotheistic forms. ...


Swami Sivananda also notes that God is free from charges of partiality and cruelty which are brought against him owing to social inequality, fate, and universal suffering in the world. According to the Brahma Sutras, it is individual souls that are responsible for their own fate and God is merely the dispenser and witness with reference to the merit and demerit of souls. Social inequality refers to disparities in the distribution of material wealth in a society. ... Suffering is any unwanted condition and the corresponding negative emotion. ... The Brahma sutra is the nyaya prasthana, the logical text that sets forth the philosophy systematically (nyaya - logic/order). ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


In his commentary on Chapter 2 (Adhikarana XII, Sutras 34-36) of the Brahma Sutras, Sivananda further notes that the position of God with respect to karma can be explained with the analogy of rain. Although rain can be said to bring about the growth of rice, barley and other plants, the differences in various species is due to the diverse potentalities lying hidden in the respective seeds. Thus, Sivananda further explains that differences between classes of beings are due to different merits belonging to individual souls. He concludes that God metes rewards and punishments only in consideration of the specific actions of beings. A bounty is often offered by a group as an incentive for the accomplishment of a task by someone usually not associated with the group. ... sexual abuse is the practice of imposing something unpleasant on a wrongdoer as a response to something unwanted that the wrongdoer has done. ...


Hindu scriptures on mitigation of karma by God

Some non-Hindu theologians have interpreted the concept of the relationship between God and karma to indicate that God is neutral and detached towards all, and thus He has no power in controlling karma. However, it is admitted that God is at once free of cruelty and is hence not partial to anyone. But its is also held that those who seek Him will find His grace.


God is all-merciful and His grace can overcome or mitigate the karma of man in many cases. It is still important to remember that man has free will and has to seek him. The nature of God is explained in the Brahma Sutras. The Brahma sutra is the nyaya prasthana, the logical text that sets forth the philosophy systematically (nyaya - logic/order). ...


Two examples from the Puranas

The story of Markandeya, who was saved from death by Siva, illustrates that God's grace can overcome karma and death for His beloved devotee.[3] This article is about the Hindu God. ...


The story of Ajamila in the Bhagavata Purana, [4],[5] also illustrates the same point. He had committed a lot of evil deeds during his life such as stealing, abandoning his wife and children, and marrying a prostitute. But at the moment of death, he involuntarily chanted the name of Narayana, and therefore received moksha or union with God and was saved from the messengers of Yama. Ajamila actually was thinking of his youngest son, whose name was also Narayana. But the name of God has powerful effects and he was forgiven for his great sins and attained salvation, despite his bad karma. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The Bhagavata Purana (sometimes rendered as Bhagavatha Purana), also known as the Srimad Bhagavatam, written c. ... Narayana (नारायण) or Narayan originates as an important Sanskrit name for Vishnu and is in many contemporary vernaculars, a common Indian name. ... Moksha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Tibetan Dharmapala at the Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois Yama (Sanskrit: यम) is the lord of death, whose first recorded appearance is in the Vedas. ...


A Saivite interpretation of karma

As stated in Surendranath Dasgupta's book, A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume V, The Southern Schools of Saivism, p.87: Appaya Dikshita, a Saivite theologian and proponent of Siva Advaita, states that Siva (God) only awards happiness and misery in accordance with the law of karma. Thus persons themselves perform good or evil actions according to their own inclinations as acquired in past creations, and in accordance with those deeds, a new creation is made for the fulfilment of the law of karma. He believes that there are cycles of creations in which souls gravitate to specific bodies in accordance with karma, which as an unintelligent object depends on the will of Siva alone. Thus, many interpret the caste system in accordance with karma, as those with good deeds are born in a highly spiritual family (probably the brahmana caste). This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ...


Srikantha, another Saivite theologian, believes that individual souls themselves do things which may be regarded as the cause of their acting in a particular way, or desisting from a particular action in accordance with the nature of the fruition of their past deeds.† He further believes that Siva only helps a person when he wishes to act in a particular way or to desist from a particular action.


A Vaishnavite interpretation of karma

Ramanuja attempts to fashion a solution to the problem of evil by attributing all evil things in life to the accumulation of evil karma of jivas (human souls) and maintains that God is amala or without any stain of evil. Sri Ramanuja Acharya (1017 - 1137 AD) was an Indian philosopher and is recognized as the most important saint of Sri Vaishnavism. ... In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva is the immortal essence of a living being, subject to maya. ... Amala is a type of food eaten in West Africa, precisely among the Yoruba of Nigeria. ...


Madhva, the founder of the Dvaita school, on the other hand, believes that there must be a root cause for variations in karma even if karma is accepted as beginningless and is the cause of the problem of evil. Since jivas have different kinds of karma, from good to bad, all must not have started with same type of karma from the beginning of time. Thus, Madhva concludes that the jivas are not God's creation as in the Christian doctrine, but are rather entities co-existent with Vishnu, although under His absolute control. Souls are thus dependent on Him in their pristine nature and in all transformations that they may undergo. Madhva can refer to: Shri Madhvacharya, Vaishnavite saint and founder of Dvaita school of thought, at Pajaka, Udupi a person belonging to the Dvaita school of thought This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Dvaita, a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu theology), founded by Shri Madhvacharya, stresses strict distinction between God (expressed as Vishnu) and souls. ... Look up Creation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Creation is the following: Generally, creation is the act or result of bringing something into existence from nothing at all. ... For other uses of the name Vishnu, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ...


According to Madhva, God, although He has control, does not interfere with Man's free will; and although He is omnipotent, that does not mean that He engages in extraordinary feats. Rather, God enforces a rule of law and in accordance with the just deserts of jivas gives them freedom to follow their own nature. Thus, God functions as the sanctioner or as the divine accountant, and accordingly jivas are free to work according to their innate nature and their accumulated karma, good and bad. Since God acts as the sanctioner, the ultimate power for everything comes from God and the jiva only utilizes that power, according to his/her innate nature.


Swami Tapasyananda further explains the Madhva view in his book Bhakti Schools of Vedanta, by illustrating the doctrine with this analogy: the power in a factory comes from the powerhouse (God), but the various cogs (jivas) move in a direction in which they are set. Thus he concludes that no charge of partiality and cruelty can therefore be brought against God. The jiva is the actor and also the enjoyer of the fruits of his/her own actions. Swami Tapasyananda was a senior monk of the Ramakrishna Mission. ...


Madhva differed significantly from traditional Hindu beliefs owing to his concept of eternal damnation. For example, he divides souls into three classes: one class of souls which qualify for liberation (Mukti-yogyas), another subject to eternal rebirth or eternal transmigration (Nitya-samsarins), and a third class that is eventually condemned to eternal hell or Andhatamas (Tamo-yogyas). No other Hindu philosopher or school of Hinduism holds such beliefs. In contrast, most Hindus believe in universal salvation: that all souls will eventually obtain moksha, even if it is after millions of rebirths. Eternal links here. ... // Religious In some forms of Western Christian belief, damnation to hell is the punishment of God for persons with unredeemed sin. ... In Dvaita theology, this class of souls, classified by Shri Madhvacharya, is considered eligible for mukti or moksha. ... In Dvaita theology, this class of souls, classified by Shri Madhvacharya, are eternally transmigrating. ... Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180) Hell is, according to many religious beliefs, a place or a state of painful suffering. ... In Dvaita theology, this group of souls, classified by Shri Madhvacharya, consists of souls who are the damnable. ... In comparative religion, a universalist religion is one that holds itself true for all people; it thus allows all to join, regardless of ethnicity. ...


Sivaya Subramuniyaswami

Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami explains in the lexicon section of his book, Dancing with Siva, that karma literally means "deed or act" and more broadly names the universal principle of cause and effect, action and reaction which governs all life. As he explains it, karma is not fate, for man acts with free will creating his own destiny. The Vedas tell us, if we sow goodness, we will reap goodness; if we sow evil, we will reap evil. Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami further notes that karma refers to the totality of our actions and their concomitant reactions in this and previous lives, all of which determine our future. The conquest of karma lies in intelligent action and dispassionate reaction. Not all karmas rebound immediately. Some accumulate and return unexpectedly in this or other births. Sivaya Subramuniyaswami (1927 - 2001), affectionately known as Gurudeva, was born in Oakland, California on January 5th, 1927. ... Karma (Sanskrit: कर्म from the root kri, to do, meaning deed) or Kamma (Pali: meaning action, effect, destiny) is a term in several eastern religions that comprises the entire cycle of cause and effect. ... Cause and Effect is considered by many fans to be one of the best episodes of the series Star Trek: The Next Generation. ... Look up Action on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Action can be used in different contexts: In philosophy, action is effective will In sociology, action can either mean a basic action (one that has a meaning) or a more advanced social action, one that not only has a meaning but is... A reaction is the following: In physics, a reaction (physics) is defined by Newtons third law: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. The idea that any given force has a pair or opposite force. ... Look up life and living in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the philosophical and religious concept, see destiny. ... Free will is the philosophical doctrine that holds that our choices are ultimately up to ourselves. ... Destiny or fate refers to the all but inevitable course of events. ... ... Evil is a term describing that which is regarded as morally bad, intrinsically corrupt, wantonly destructive, inhumane, or wicked. ... A depiction of the future of mankind as seen in the motion picture Blade Runner. ...


Caste and Karma

As stated earlier, there are cycles of creations in which souls gravitate to specific bodies in accordance with karma, which as an unintelligent object depends on the will of God alone. Thus, many interpret the caste system in accordance with karma, as those with good deeds are born in a spiritual family, which is synonymous with the brahmana caste. However, Krishna said in the Gita that characteristics of a brahmin are determined by behavior and not by birth. Krishna (कृष्ण in Devanagari, IAST ) is according to common Hindu tradition the eighth avatar of Vishnu. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... A Brahmin (ब्राह्मण, pronunciation is Brahmana) is an ancient Indian tribe/caste and a member of the Hindu and Indian tribes and castes. ...


References

  1. ^  Cited from Dancing with Siva by Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami

Sivaya Subramuniyaswami (1927 - 2001), affectionately known as Gurudeva, was born in Oakland, California on January 5th, 1927. ... Swami Sivananda Saraswati (1887-1963), as he is known under his monastic name, was born Kuppuswamy in Pattamadai, Tamil Nadu, India. ... The Brahma sutra is the nyaya prasthana, the logical text that sets forth the philosophy systematically (nyaya - logic/order). ... Swami Tapasyananda was a senior monk of the Ramakrishna Mission. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Karma - Dharma - Hinduism - Buddhism - Nirvana - Samadhi - Vedas - Haryana Online - India (1895 words)
Hinduism sees karma as immutable law with involuntary and voluntary acts being part of a more intricate system of cause and effect that is often not comprehensible to one bound by karma.
To the Hindu, karma is the law of the phenomenal cosmos that is part and parcel of living within the dimensions of time and space.
However, in light of the Hindu philosophical school of Vedanta, as well as Gautama Buddha's teachings, one is advised to either avoid, control or become mindful of the effects of desires and aversions as a way to moderate or change one's karma (or, more accurately, one's karmic results).
Hinduism - MSN Encarta (1224 words)
According to Hinduism, however, this current life is merely one link in a chain of lives that extends far into the past and projects far into the future.
Hinduism takes a comprehensive view of our human condition and has classified all the things we seek in the world and beyond into four broad categories: kāma, artha, dharma, and moksha.
Thus, Hindus consider that birth as a human being is a unique and valuable opportunity for seeking moksha, an opportunity that should not be wasted.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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