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Encyclopedia > Karma
Spirituality Portal
Part of a series on
Hinduism
History · Deities
Denominations · Hindu Literature
Beliefs & practices
Dharma · Artha
Kama · Moksha
Karma · Samsara
Yoga · Bhakti
Maya · Puja · Mandir
Scriptures
Vedas · Upanishads
Ramayana · Mahabharata
Bhagavad Gita · Purana
Bibliography
Related topics
Hinduism by country
Leaders · Reforms
Ayurveda · Jyotisha
Calendar · Hindu festivals
Glossary · Criticism


Image File history File links EndlessKnot03d. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Hinduism is the worlds oldest religion in the world. ... Within Hinduism a large number of personalities, or forms, are worshipped as deities or murtis. ... Hinduism encompasses many movements and schools fairly organized within Hindu denominations. ... Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... Artha is a Sanskrit term referring to the idea of material prosperity. ... Kāma (Skt. ... Moksha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Karma is a concept in Hinduism, based on the Vedas and Upanishads, which explains causality through a system where beneficial events are derived from past beneficial actions and harmful events from past harmful actions, creating a system of actions and reactions throughout a persons reincarnated lives. ... The Wheel of Life as portrayed within Buddhism, showing the cycle of Samsara, or reincarnation. ... For other uses, see Yoga (disambiguation). ... Bhakti (DevanāgarÄ«: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ... Maya (illusion) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A puja as performed in Ujjain during the Monsoon on the banks of the overflowing river Shipra. ... The Gopuram of temples, in south India, are adorned with colourful icons depicting a particular story surrounding the temples deity. ... Template:Hindu scriptures - Vedic Scriptures Hindu scripture, which is known as Shastra is predominantly written in Sanskrit. ... Veda redirects here. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ... The following is a bibliography of Hindu scriptures and texts. ... Hinduism - Percentage by country The percentage of Hindu population of each country was taken from the US State Departments International Religious Freedom Report 2004. ... These are some of the most noteworthy Gurus and Saints of Hinduism: A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada Adi Shankara Amritanandamayi Baba Lokenath Brahmachari Bhakti Vaibhava Puri Maharaj Bhagawan Nityananda Bhagwan Swaminarayan Chinmayananda Gurumayi Chidvilasananda Lahiri Mahasaya Madhvacharya Mahavatar Babaji Mother Meera Muktananda Narayana Guru Nimbarka Nisargadatta Maharaj Raghavendra Swami Ramakrishna... Hinduism is going through a phase of regeneration and reform through the vehicle of several contemporary movements, collectively termed as Hindu reform movements. ... Shirodhara, one of the techniques of Ayurveda Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... Jyotisha (, in Hindi and English usage Jyotish; sometimes called Hindu astrology, Indian astrology, and/or Vedic astrology) is the Hindu system of astrology, one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, and regarded as one of the oldest schools of ancient astrology to have had an independent origin, affecting all other... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... Glossary of terms in Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

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Buddhism
A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ...



Image File history File links Lotus-buddha. ...

History of Buddhism
The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ...

Timeline of Buddhism
Buddhist councils
563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini, Ancient India. ... // Main article: First Buddhist council Ananda reciting the Sutta Pitaka According to the scriptures of all Buddhist schools, the first Buddhist Council was held soon after the nirvana of the Buddha under the patronage of king Ajatasatru, and presided by the monk Mahakasyapa, at Rajagaha (todays Rajgir). ...

Foundations
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
Buddhist Precepts
Nirvāṇa · Three Jewels
The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì, Thai: อริยสัจสี่, Ariyasaj Sii) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ... The Dharma wheel, often used to represent the Noble Eightfold Path The Noble Eightfold Path (Pāli: Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo; Sanskrit: Ārya ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ; Chinese: 八正道, Bāzhèngdào; Japanese: 八正道, Hasshōdō, Thai: อริยมรรคแปด, Ariya Mugg Paad, Mongolian qutuɣtan-u naiman gesigün-ü mör) is, in... Śīla (Sanskrit) or sīla (Pāli) is usually rendered into English as behavioral discipline, morality, or ethics. ... ( Sanskrit: ; Pali: निब्बान Nibbāna; Vietnamese: Niết bàn; Chinese: 涅槃; Mandarin Pinyin: nièpán, Cantonese: nihppùhn; Japanese: nehan ); Korean: 열반, yeolbhan; Thai: nibpan นิพพาน); Tibetan mya-ngan-las-das-pa; Mongolian ɣasalang-aca nögcigsen), is a Sanskrit word that literally means to cease blowing (as when a candle flame... Symbol of the triratna, as seen in the Sanchi stupa, 1st century BCE. The Three Jewels, also rendered as Three Treasures, Three Refuges or Triple Gem are the three things that Buddhists give themselves to, and in return look toward for guidance, in the process known as taking refuge. ...

Key Concepts
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Three marks of existence
Skandha · Cosmology
Saṃsāra · Rebirth · Dharma
Dependent Origination · Karma
According to the Buddhist tradition, all phenomena (dharmas) are marked by three characteristics, sometimes referred to as the Dharma seals, that is dukkha (suffering), anicca (impermanence), and anatta (non-Self). ... The skandhas (Sanskrit: Pāli: Khandha; literally: heap or bundle) are the five constituents or aggregates through which the functioning and experience of an individual is created according to Buddhist phenomenology. ... Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the universe according to the canonical Buddhist scriptures and commentaries. ... Saṃsāra, the Sanskrit and Pāli term for continous movement or continuous flowing refers in Buddhism to the concept of a cycle of birth (jāti) and consequent decay and death (jarāmaraṇa), in which all beings in the universe participate and which can only be escaped... Rebirth in Buddhism is the doctrine that the consciousness of a person (as conventionally regarded), upon the death or dissolution of the aggregates (skandhas) which make up that person, becomes one of the contributing causes for the arising of a new group of skandhas which may again be conventionally considered... Dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pāli: धम्म) in Buddhism has two primary meanings: the teachings of the Buddha which lead to enlightenment the constituent factors of the experienced world In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fǎ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... The doctrine of Pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit: प्रतित्यसमुत्पादा) or Paticcasamuppāda (Pāli: पतिचसमुपादा; Tibetan: ; Chinese:緣起) Dependent Arising is an important part of Buddhist metaphysics. ... Karma (Sanskrit: कर्मन karman, Pāli: कमा Kamma) means action or doing; whatever one does, says, or thinks is a karma. ...

Major Figures
A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Gautama Buddha
Disciples · Later Buddhists Image:StandngBuddha. ... A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Practices and Attainment

Buddhahood · Bodhisattva
Four Stages of Enlightenment
Paramitas · Meditation · Laity
Media:Example. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... The four stages of enlightenment in Buddhism are the four degrees of approach to full enlightenment as an Arahant which a person can attain in this life. ... Pāramitā or PāramÄ« (Sanskrit and Pāli respectively): Perfection or Transcendent. In Buddhism & Jainism, the Paramitas refer to the perfection or culmination of certain practices. ... Buddhist meditation encompasses a variety of meditation techniques that develop mindfulness, concentration, tranquility and insight. ... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ...

Regions
Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. ...

Southeast Asia · East Asia
India · Sri Lanka · Tibet
Bhutan · Western Countries
Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... The Aomori Daibutsu (Big Buddha), Aomori, Japan. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... The Indo-Greek king Menander (155-130 BCE) is the first Western historical figure documented to have converted to Buddhism. ...

Branches

Theravāda · Mahāyāna
Vajrayāna · Early schools
Pre-sectarian Buddhism Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ... The term pre-sectarian Buddhism is used to refer to the Buddhism that existed before the various subsects of Buddhism came into being. ...

Texts
There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ...

Pali Canon · Mahayana Sutras
Tibetan Canon Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that began to be compiled from the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools, and survive predominantly in primary translations in Chinese and Tibetan from original texts in Sanskrit or Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. ... The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism. ...

Comparative Studies
Culture · List of topics
Portal: Buddhism
The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel...

Image File history File links Dharma_wheel. ...

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Sikhism

Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... Image File history File links Khanda1. ...

History of Sikhism
Sikh beliefs
Sikh
The history of Sikhism is closely associated with the history of Punjab, the socio-political situation in medieval India, and the social structures and philosophies of Hinduism and Islam. ... // Ek Onkar There is only one God who has infinite qualities and names. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ...

The Sikh Gurus
Sikhism was established by ten Gurus, teachers or masters, over the period 1469 to 1708. ...

Sikh Bhagats
Sikh Bhagats refers to the Saints and holy men of various faiths whose teachings are included in the Sikh holy book the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. ...

Other Important People
This article list historic personalites who are important to the Sikh religion: Bhai Gurdas (1551-1637) is one of the most eminent literary personalities in the history of the Sikh religion. ...

Philosophy
Beliefs and principles
Underlying values
Prohibitions
Technique and methods
Other observations · Bani
The Sikh religious philosophy is covered in great detail in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh holy text. ... // There is only one God who has infinite qualities and names. ... The Sikhs must believe in the following values: Equality: All humans are equal before God – No discrimination is allowed on the basis of caste, race, sex, creed, origin, color, education, status, wealth, etc. ... There are a number of religious prohibitions in Sikhism and by the SGPC: Cutting Hair: Cutting hair is strictly forbidden in Sikhism. ... Naam: Or Naam Japo. ... The Golden Temple is the most important sacred shrine for Sikhs Sikhism comes from the word Sikh, which means a strong and able disciple. ... Bani is the term used by Sikhs to refer to various sections of the Holy Text that appears in their several Holy Books. ...

Sikh practices · List
The practice of the Sikh way of life has been laid out by the Gurus in simple, precise and practical manner. ...

Scripture
Guru Granth Sahib
Adi Granth · Dasam Granth
The principal Sikh scripture is the Adi Granth (First Scripture), more commonly called the Guru Granth Sahib. ... The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ... Guru Granth Sahib (Granth is Punjabi for book, Sahib is Hindi meaning master, from Arabic, meaning companion, friend, owner, or master) or Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji or SGGS for short, is more than a holy book of the Sikhs. ... The Dasam Granth (Punjabi: , ) is a scripture of Sikhism, containing texts composed by 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh and his assembly of scholars. ...

Categories
Practices · History
Family of the Sikh Gurus
Gurdwara
Places · Politics

Articles on Sikhism
Portal: Sikhism
This list is of topics related to Sikhs and Sikhism. ...

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Jainism


Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

History of Jainism
Timeline
Jainist councils

Foundations
Ahimsa · Moksha · Asteya
Brahmacharya · Satya
Nirvana · Aparigraha
Anekantvada Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ... Moksha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Asteya is a Sanskrit word meaning avoidance of stealing or non-stealing. In Jainism, it is one of the five vows that all sravakas and shravikas as well as sadhus and sadhvis must take. ... Brahmacharya (pronounced /brʌmatʃərɪə/) is a Sanskrit word. ... Satya is a true badman. ... ( Sanskrit: ; Pali: निब्बान Nibbāna; Vietnamese: Niết bàn; Chinese: 涅槃; Mandarin Pinyin: nièpán, Cantonese: nihppùhn; Japanese: nehan ); Korean: 열반, yeolbhan; Thai: nibpan นิพพาน); Tibetan mya-ngan-las-das-pa; Mongolian ɣasalang-aca nögcigsen), is a Sanskrit word that literally means to cease blowing (as when a candle flame... Aparigraha is the Jain concept of non-possessiveness. ... Anekantvada is the Jain concept of multiplicity of viewpoints and open-mindedness. ...

Key Concepts
Kevalgnan · Cosmology
Samsara · Karma
Dharma · Reincarnation
Swadhyay
Enlightenment (or brightening) broadly means the acquisition of new wisdom or understanding enabling clarity of perception. ... According to Jain beliefs, the universe was never created, nor will it ever cease to exist. ... The Wheel of Life as portrayed within Buddhism, showing the cycle of Samsara, or reincarnation. ... Karmic Theory The Jain religion places great emphasis on the theory of Karma. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... Reincarnation, literally to be made flesh again, is a doctrine or mystical belief that some essential part of a living being (in some variations only human beings) survives death to be reborn in a new body. ... In Hinduism, Svadhyaya is the incorporation of the message of the Bhagavad Gita in ones life. ...

Major Figures
The 24 Tirthankaras
Lord Rishabh to Mahavira
Acharyas · Ganadhars
Siddhasen Divakar · Haribhadra
The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ... In Jainism, Lord Rishabh (also transliterated as Rishabanath and as Rushabh) was the first Tirthankar of Jainism. ... Idol of Lord Mahavira at Shri Mahaveerji (the holy town in Rajasthan named after Mahavira. ... An acharya (आचार्य) is a prominent guru, teacher and scholar who teaches by his own example (from Sanskrit achara, behavior). ... Siddhasen Diwakar(Fifth century B.C.)(आचार्य सिद्दसैन दिवाकर) was highly intelligent Jain acharya of his time. ... Haribhadra Suri was an 8th Century Jainist author. ...

Practices and Attainment
Four Stages of Enlightenment
Paramis · Meditation
The four stages of enlightenment in Buddhism are the four degrees of approach to full enlightenment as an Arahant which a person can attain in this life. ... Pāramitā (Sanskrit) or Parami (Pāli): Perfection or Transcendent (lit. ...

Jainism by Region
India · Western

Sects of Jainism
Svetambara · Digambara
Terapanthi · Early schools
Sthanakvasi · Bisapantha
Deravasi
The Shvetambara (White-Clad) are a Jainist sect. ... The Digambara (Sky-Clad) are a Jainist sect, these are the followers of Bhadrabahu. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Terapanth. ... Sthanakvasi is a sect of Jainism that believes that God is nirakar (i. ... Bisapantha is sub-sect of the Digambar sect of Jainism. ... Deravasi is a term for a sect of Jainism which includes all members of the Shvetambar sect who are not members of the Sthanakvasi division of the sect. ...

Texts
Navakar Mantra · Kalpasutra
Agama (text) · Tattvartha Sutra
Sanmatti Prakaran
Jainism puts great stress on learning. ... Navakar Mantra, also called the Namokar Mantra or the Namaskar Mantra, is the most important prayer used in Jainism. ... Kalpasutra is a Jain ancient text book containing the biography of the last two Jain Tirthankars, Parshvanath and Mahavira. ... Agama (Sanskrit:आगम) literally means that which has come down (i. ... Tattvartha Sutra (also known as Tattvarth-adhigama-sutra or Moksh-Shastra) is a Jaina text written by Acharya Umasvati or Umasvami. ...

Comparative Studies
Culture · List of Topics
Portal: Jainism
Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Acaranga Sutra Adipurana Agama (text) Antakrddaasah Anuttaraupapātikadaśāh Arya Asteya Category: ...

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Karma (Sanskrit: kárma , kárman- "act, action, performance"[1]; Pali: kamma) is the concept of "action" or "deed" in Indian religions understood as denoting the entire cycle of cause and effect described in Hindu, Jain, Sikh and Buddhist philosophies. Look up karma in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Image File history File links Karma. ... Image File history File links Karma. ... Pali (IAST: ) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... An Indian Muslim couple weds on the bank of Karnatakas Tungabhadra River. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ...

Contents

Concept

The explanation of karma can differ per tradition. Usually it is believed to be a sum of all that an individual has done, is currently doing and will do. The results or "fruits" of actions are called karma-phala. Karma is not about retribution, vengeance, punishment or reward; karma simply deals with what is. The effects of all deeds actively create past, present and future experiences, thus making one responsible for one's own life, and the pain and joy it brings to others. In religions that incorporate reincarnation, karma extends through one's present life and all past and future lives as well. It is cumulative. Reincarnation, literally to be made flesh again, is a doctrine or mystical belief that some essential part of a living being (in some variations only human beings) survives death to be reborn in a new body. ...


Views

Throughout this process, many believe God plays some kind of role, for example, as the dispenser of the fruits of karma.[2] Other Hindus consider the natural laws of causation sufficient to explain the effects of karma.[3][4][5] Another view holds that a Sadguru, acting on God's behalf, can mitigate or work out some of the karma of the disciple.[6][7][8] This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Satguru or Sadguru means true guru (Sanskrit सदगुरू sat=true), literally: true teacher. ...


Law of Karma

The "Law of Karma" is central in Indian religions. All living creatures are responsible for their karma — their actions and the effects of their actions — and for their release from samsara. The concept can be traced back to the early Upanishads. An Indian Muslim couple weds on the bank of Karnatakas Tungabhadra River. ... The Wheel of Life as portrayed within Buddhism, showing the cycle of Samsara, or reincarnation. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ...


The esoteric Christian tradition, Essenian and later Rosicrucian schools teach it as the "Law of Cause and Consequence/Effect"[9] However, this western esoteric tradition adds that the essence of the teachings of Christ is that the law of sin and death may be overcome by Love, which will restore immortality. Esoteric Christianity refers to the occult study and the mystic living of the esoteric knowledge related to what adherents view as the inner teachings of early Christianity, seen as a Mystery religion. ... The Essenes (sg. ... The Temple of the Rose Cross, Teophilus Schweighardt Constantiens, 1618. ... Christ is the English term for the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about living for infinite period of time. ...


Exceptions

Actions do not create karma (good or bad) when performed by an individual in the state of Moksha or liberation. Such a person is called "Stithaprajna". The monist, Adi Sankara taught "Akarmaiva Moksha," which means "Moksha can be attained only by doing, not by a process of effort". All actions performed by one in the state of Moksha are called Dharma.[citation needed] Moksha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Sri Adi Sankara Adi Shankaracharya or Adi Shankara (the first Shankara in his lineage), reverentially called Bhagavatpada Acharya (the teacher at the feet of Lord), Shankara (approximately 509- 477 BC (though some claim 788-820 CE)) was the most famous Advaita philosopher who had a profound influence on the growth... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ...


Fourth state

Hindus believe that everything in the Universe is in a state of creation, maintenance or destruction. Similarly, the mind creates a thought, maintains (follows) it for some time and the thought ultimately dies down (perhaps to be replaced by another thought). In addition to the three states of consciousness, Hinduism puts forward a fourth state of being called Turiya or pure consciousness, where the mind is not engaged in thinking but just observes the thoughts. Actions in the Turiya state do not create karma. Meditation is a practice aimed at giving individuals the experience of being in this objective state. An individual who is constantly in the turiya state is said to have attained moksha where their actions happen as a response to events (and not because of thought process); such actions do not result in accumulation of karma as they have no karmic effect. For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... In early Hindu philosophy, turiya (also called caturtha) is a state of pure consciousness, or the experience of ultimate reality and truth. ...


The process of release (moksha) from ego-consciousness (ahamkar) with its inherent karma can be compared with the doctrine of salvation in mainstream Christianity: Grace given by faith in the suffering, death and resurrection of Jesus.[citation needed] Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Soteriology is the study of salvation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Faith has two general implications which can be implied either exclusively or mutually; To Trust: Believing a certain variable will act a specific way despite the potential influence of known or unknown change. ... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


In the Indian religions

Hinduism

Main article: Karma in Hinduism

One of the first and most dramatic illustrations of karma can be found in the epic Mahabharata. In this poem, Arjuna the protagonist is preparing for battle when he realizes that the enemy consists of members of his own family and decides not to fight. His charioteer, Krishna — one of the incarnations of God (Vishnu) — explains to Arjuna the concept of "duty" among other things and makes him see that it is his duty to fight. The whole of the Bhagavad Gita within the Mahabharata, is a dialogue between these two on aspects of life including morality and a host of other philosophical themes. The original Hindu concept of karma was later enhanced by several other movements within the religion, most notably Vedanta, and Tantra. Karma is a concept in Hinduism, based on the Vedas and Upanishads, which explains causality through a system where beneficial events are derived from past beneficial actions and harmful events from past harmful actions, creating a system of actions and reactions throughout a persons reincarnated lives. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Sri Yantra This article is an overview of Tantra and an in-depth look at the Tantra of Hinduism. ...


Karma literally means "deed" or "act" and more broadly names the universal principle of cause and effect, action and reaction that governs all life. Karma is not fate, for man acts with free will creating his own destiny. According to the Vedas, if we sow goodness, we will reap goodness; if we sow evil, we will reap evil. Karma refers to the totality of our actions and their concomitant reactions in this and previous lives, all of which determines our future. The conquest of karma lies in intelligent action and dispassionate response. Effect can be used in several different ways: Cause and effect are the relata of causality In movies and other media, sound effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds. ... Free Will in Theology is an important part of the debate on free will in general. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Evil (disambiguation). ...


Karma is considered to be a spiritually originated law. Many Hindus see God's direct involvement in this process, while others consider the natural laws of causation sufficient to explain the effects of karma.[10][11][12] Karma is not punishment or retribution, but simply an extended expression or consequences, of natural acts. The effects experienced are also able to be mitigated by actions and are not necessarily fated. That is to say, a particular action now is not binding to some particular, pre-determined future experience or reaction; it is not a simple, one-to-one correspondence of reward or punishment.


Hindu scriptures divide karma into three kinds: Sanchita (accumulated), Prarabdha (fruit-bearing) and Kriyamana (current) karma. All kriyamana karmas become sanchita karma upon completion. From this stock of sanchita karma, a handful is taken out to serve one lifetime and this handful of actions, which has begun to bear fruit and which will be exhausted only on their fruit being enjoyed and not otherwise, is known as prarabdha karma. In this way, so long as the stock of sanchita karma lasts, a part of it continues to be taken out as prarabdha karma for being enjoyed in one lifetime, leading to the cycle of birth and death. A jiva cannot attain moksha until the accumulated sanchita karmas are completely exhausted.[13] In Hinduism, sanchita karma is one of the three kinds of karma. ... Prarabdha is that portion of the past karma which is responsible for the present body. ... Kriyamana karma, in Hinduism, is the karma that human beings are creating in the present, whose fruits will be experienced in the future. ... In ontology, a being is anything that can be said to be, either transcendantly or immanently. ...


Buddhism

Main article: Karma in Buddhism

In Buddhism, karma (Pāli kamma) is strictly distinguished from vipāka, meaning "fruit" or "result". Karma is categorized within the group or groups of cause (Pāli hetu) in the chain of cause and effect, where it comprises the elements of "volitional activities" (Pali sankhara) and "action" (Pali bhava). Any action is understood to create "seeds" in the mind that will sprout into the appropriate result (Pāli vipaka) when they meet with the right conditions. Most types of karmas, with good or bad results, will keep one within the wheel of samsāra; others will liberate one to nirvāna. Karma (Sanskrit: कर्मन karman, Pāli: कमा Kamma) means action or doing; whatever one does, says, or thinks is a karma. ... Vipaka is the metabolised part of drug, the after taste of food in the body in Ayurvedic Medicine Vipaka (Pali) is the result of karma (intentional actions). ... The Twelve Nidanas (Pali: nidana- foundation, source or origin) are the application of the Buddhist concept of Pratitya-samutpada (dependent origination). ... The doctrine of PratÄ«tyasamutpāda (Sanskrit: प्रतित्यसमुत्पादा) or Paticcasamuppāda (Pāli: पतिचसमुपादा; Tibetan: ; Chinese:緣起) Dependent Arising is an important part of Buddhist metaphysics. ... Saṃsāra, the Sanskrit and Pāli term for continous movement or continuous flowing refers in Buddhism to the concept of a cycle of birth (jāti) and consequent decay and death (jarāmaraṇa), in which all beings in the universe participate and which can only be escaped... ( Sanskrit: ; Pali: निब्बान Nibbāna; Vietnamese: Niết bàn; Chinese: 涅槃; Mandarin Pinyin: nièpán, Cantonese: nihppùhn; Japanese: nehan ); Korean: ì—´ë°˜, yeolbhan; Thai: nibpan นิพพาน); Tibetan mya-ngan-las-das-pa; Mongolian É£asalang-aca nögcigsen), is a Sanskrit word that literally means to cease blowing (as when a candle flame...


Buddhism relates karma directly to motives behind an action. Motivation usually makes the difference between "good" and "bad", but included in the motivation is also the aspect of ignorance; so a well-intended action from a deluded mind can easily be "bad" in the sense that it creates unpleasant results for the "actor".


Other Niyama Dharmas

In Buddhism, karma is not the only cause of anything that happens. The following are the five "Niyama Dharma" that cause effects.

  • Karma Niyama — Consequences of one's actions
  • Dhamma Niyama — Laws of nature
  • Irthu Niyama — Seasonal changes and climate
  • Biija Niyama — Genetic inheritance
  • Chitta Niyama — Will of mind

The last four cover "conditions" or "circumstances" in which karmic potential can ripen as result.


Jainism

Main article: Karma in Jainism

Karma in Jainism conveys a totally different meaning as commonly understood in the Hindu philosophy and western civilization.[14] In Jainism, karma is referred to as karmic dirt, as it consists of very subtle and microscopic particles i.e. pudgala that pervade the entire universe. This article is about Jainism. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ...


[15]


Karmas are attracted to the karmic field of a soul on account of vibrations created by activities of mind, speech and body as well as on account of various mental dispositions. The soul, according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is the self-aware essence unique to a particular living being. ...


Hence the karmas are the subtle matter surrounding the consciousness of a soul. When these two components i.e. consciousness and karma interact, we experience the life as we know it at present.


Herman Kuhn quoting from Tattvarthasutra describes karmas as – a mechanism that makes us thoroughly experience the themes of our life until we gained optimal knowledge from them and until our emotional attachment to these themes falls off.


[16]


According to Padmanabh Jaini "this emphasis on reaping the fruits only of one’s own karma was not restricted to the Jainas; both Hindus and Buddhist writers have produced doctrinal materials stressing the same point. Each of the latter traditions, however, developed practices in basic contradiction to such belief. In addition to shrardha (the ritual Hindu offerings by the son of deceased), we find among Hindu s widespread adherence to the notion of divine intervention in ones fate, while Buddhists eventually came to propound such theories like boon-granting bodhisattvas, transfer of merit and like. Only Jainas have been absolutely unwilling to allow such ideas to penetrate their community, despite the fact that there must have been tremendous amount of social pressure on them to do so." [17] This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ...


The key points where the theory of Karma in Jainism differs from the other religions, could be stated as follows:

  1. Karma in Jainism operates as a self-sustaining mechanism as natural universal law, without any need of an external entity to manage them. (absence of the exogenous "Divine Entity" in Jainism)
  2. Jainism advocates that a soul's karma changes even with the thoughts, and not just the actions. Thus, to even think evil of someone would endure a "karm-bandh" or an increment in bad karma. It is for this reason, that Jainism gives a very strong emphasis on "samyak dhyan" (Rationality in thoughts) and "samyak darshan" (Rationality in perception) and not just "samyak charitra" (rationality in conduct).
  3. Under Jain theology, a soul is released of worldly affairs as soon as it is able to emanicipate from the "karm-bandh". A famous illustration is that of Mata Marudevi, the mother of Shri Rishabh Dev, the first Tirthankar of present time cycle, who reached such emanicipation by elevating sequentially her thought processes, while she was visiting her Tirthankar son. This illustration explains how "Nirvana" and "Moksha" are different in Jainism, from other religions. In the presence of a Tirthankar, another soul achieved Keval Gyan and subsequently Nirvana, without any need of intervention by the Tirthankar.
  4. The karmic theory in Jainism operates endogenously. Tirthankars are not attributed "godhood" under Jainism. Thus, even the tirthankars themselves have to go through the stages of emanicipation, for attaining that state. While Buddhism does give a similar and to some extent a matching account for Shri Gautama Buddha, Hinduism maintains a totally different theory where "divine grace" is needed for emanicipation.
  5. Jainism treats all souls equally, in as much as it advocates that all souls have the same potential of attaining "nirvana". Only those who make effort, really attain it, but nonetheless, each soul is capable on its own to do so by gradually reducing its karma.

(from SANCHETI ASOO LAL, BHANDARI MANAK MAL, FIRST STEPS TO JAINISM (PART TWO): DOCTRINE OF KARMA, DOCTRINE OF ANEKANT AND OTHER ARTICLES WITH APPENDICES, Catalogued by Library of U.S. Congress, Washington, Card No. 90-232383)


Analogs of karma

If we accept the basic ethical purpose of karma is to behave responsibly, and the tenet of karma is essentially "if you do good things, good things will happen to you — if you do bad things, bad things will happen to you," then it is possible to identify analogs with other religions that do not rely on karma as a metaphysical assertion or doctrine.


Karma does not specifically concern itself with salvation as it implies a basic socio-ethical dynamic. As a mechanism, karma in Hinduism is judge of one's actions, much as the concept of God as judge is in relation to "good works" in western religions.


Similarly, the Egyptian goddess Ma'at (the divine judge) played a similar and impartial role meting out justice in a manner very similar to karma; Ma'at could not be appeased by faith or regret — an action done was done, with no space for the more recent theistic concept of grace. The goddess Maat Maat, reconstructed to have been pronounced as * (Muh-aht),[1] was the Ancient Egyptian concept of order—law, morality, and justice[2] which was deified as a goddess. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Parallels may also be found in the Greek goddess Ananke (Necessity, Inevitability, or Compulsion), who was the mother of the Moirae (Fates) and dealt out one's "heimarmene" (allotted portion) strictly according to one's actions both in this life and in previous incarnations, and in Germanic Wyrd. In Greek mythology, Ananke (Greek ) was the personification of destiny, unalterable necessity and fate. ... Fates redirects here. ... Wyrd is a concept in ancient Anglo-Saxon and Nordic cultures roughly corresponding to fate. ...


The Apostle Paul similarly states: "man reaps what he sows" [3]. A 19th century picture of Paul of Tarsus Paul of Tarsus (originally Saul of Tarsus) or Saint Paul the Apostle (fl. ...


Western interpretation

An academic and religious definition was mentioned above. Millions of people believe in karma and it is a part of many cultures and the psyches of millions of people. Others without religious backgrounds, especially in western cultures or with Christian upbringings, become convinced of the existence of karma. For some, karma is a more reasonable concept than eternal damnation for the wicked. Spirituality or a belief that virtue is rewarded and sin creates suffering might lead to a belief in karma. Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ...


According to karma, performing positive actions results in a good condition in one's experience, whereas a negative action results in a bad effect. The effects may be seen immediately or delayed. Delay can be until later in the present life or in the next. Thus, meritorious acts may mean rebirth into a higher station, such as a superior human or a godlike being, while evil acts result in rebirth as a human living in less desirable circumstances, or as a lower animal. Some observers have compared the action of karma to Western notions of sin and judgment by God or gods, while others understand karma as an inherent principle of the universe without the intervention of any supernatural Being. In Hinduism, God does play a role and is seen as a dispenser of karma; see Karma in Hinduism for more details. The latter understanding, without intervention is the view of Buddhism and Jainism. The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Karma is a concept in Hinduism, based on the Vedas and Upanishads, which explains causality through a system where beneficial events are derived from past beneficial actions and harmful events from past harmful actions, creating a system of actions and reactions throughout a persons reincarnated lives. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ...


Most teachings say that for common mortals, being involved with karma is an unavoidable part of daily living. However, in light of the Hindu philosophical school of Vedanta, as well as Gautama Buddha's teachings, one is advised to either avoid, control or become mindful of the effects of desires and aversions as a way to moderate or change one's karma (or, more accurately, one's karmic results or destiny). This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Image:StandngBuddha. ...


Spiritism

Main article: Spiritist doctrine

In Spiritism, karma known as "the law of cause and effect", plays a central role in determining how one's life needs to be. Spirits are encouraged to choose how (and when) to suffer retribution for the wrong they did in previous lives. Disabilities, physical or mental impairment or even an unlucky life are due to the choices a spirit makes before incarnating (that is, before being born to a new life). The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up incarnation, incarnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


What sets Spiritism apart from the more traditional religious views is that it understands karma as a condition inherent to the spirit, whether incarnated or not: the consequences of the crimes committed by the spirit last beyond the physical life and cause him (moral) pain in the afterlife. The choice of a life of hardships is, therefore, a way to get rid of the pain caused by moral guilt and to perfect qualities that are necessary for the spirit to progress to a higher form.


Because Spiritism always accepted the plurality of inhabited worlds, its concept of karma became considerably complex. There are worlds that are "primitive" (in the sense that they are home to spirits newly born and still very low on intellect and morals) and a succession of more and more advanced worlds to where spirits move as they are elevated. A spirit may choose to be born on a world inferior to his own as a penance or as a mission. Penance is repentance of sins, as well as the name of the Catholic Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation/Confession. ...


New Age and Theosophy

The idea of karma was popularized in the Western world through the work of the Theosophical Society. Kardecist and Western New Age reinterpretations of karma frequently cast it as a sort of luck associated with virtue: if one does good or spiritually valuable acts, one deserves and can expect good luck; conversely, if one does harmful things, one can expect bad luck or unfortunate happenings. In this conception, karma is affiliated with the Neopagan law of return or Threefold Law, the idea that the beneficial or harmful effects one has on the world will return to oneself. Colloquially this may be summed up as 'what goes around comes around.' The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... The Theosophical Society was the organization formed to advance the spiritual doctrines and altruistic living known as Theosophy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ...


There is also the metaphysical idea that, because karma is a force of nature and not a sentient creature capable of making value judgments, karma isn't about good and evil deeds, because applying those labels would be judgmental, but that it is about positive and negative energy, where negative energy can include things not seen as "being bad" like sadness and fear, and positive energy can be caused by being creative and solving problems as well as by exuding love and doing virtuous acts.[citation needed]It is referred to as "omniverse karma" or "omni-karma"[citation needed] because it requires the existence of an omniverse, that space that contains all possible universes. The omniverse idea includes concepts such as souls, psychic energy, synchronicity (a concept originally from psychoanalyst Carl Jung, which says that things that happen at the same time are related), and ideas from quantum or theoretical physics. In physical cosmology, omniverse is a term used to differentiate a limited number of universes from all existent universes. ... The soul, according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is the self-aware essence unique to a particular living being. ... Synchronicity is the experience of two or more events which occur in a meaningful manner, but which are causally inexplicable to the person or persons experiencing them. ... “Jung” redirects here. ... Fig. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ a neuter n-stem, nominative kárma कर्म; from the root kṛ, means "to do, make, perform, accomplish, cause, effect, prepare, undertake"
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Pratima Bowes, The Hindu Religious Tradition 54–80 (Allied Pub. 1976) ISBN 0710086687
  4. ^ Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda, Vol. II, at 217–225 (18th reprint 1995) ISBN 81-85301-75-1
  5. ^ Alex Michaels, Hinduism: Past and Present 154–56 (Princeton 1998) ISBN 0-691-08953-1
  6. ^ Yogananda, Paramahansa, Autobiography of a Yogi, Chapter 21 ISBN 1-56589-212-7
  7. ^ Swami Krishnananda on the Guru mitigating the karma of the disciple
  8. ^ Swami B. V. Tripurari on grace of the Guru destroying karma
  9. ^ Max Heindel, The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception or Mystic Christianity (Part I, Chapter IV: Rebirth and the Law of Consequence), ISBN 0911274340 },1909.
  10. ^ E.g., Compare [2] with Pratima Bowes, The Hindu Religious Tradition 54–80 (Allied Pub. 1976) ISBN 0710086687
  11. ^ Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda, Vol. II, at 217–225 (18th reprint 1995) ISBN 81-85301-75-1
  12. ^ Alex Michaels, Hinduism: Past and Present 154–56 (Princeton 1998) ISBN 0-691-08953-1.
  13. ^ Goyandaka J, The Secret of Karmayoga, Gita Press, Gorakhpur
  14. ^ Hermann Kuhn, Karma, the Mechanism, 2004
  15. ^ Acharya Umasvati, Tattvartha Sutra, Ch VIII, Sutra 24
  16. ^ Hermann Kuhn, Karma, the Mechanism, 2004
  17. ^ Padmanabh Jaini, Collected papers on Jaina Studies, Chapter 7, Pg 137

Max Heindel (1865-1919) Max Heindel - born Carl Louis von Grasshoff in Aarhus, Denmark on July 23, 1865 - was a Christian occultist, astrologer, and mystic. ... The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception or Mystic Christianity is a Rosicrucian text, written by Max Heindel (ISBN 0-911274-34-0) // Western Wisdom Teachings The first edition was printed in November 1909, it has little changed since then and it is considered to be Max Heindels magnum opus. ...

See also

For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Wheel of Life as portrayed within Buddhism, showing the cycle of Samsara, or reincarnation. ... Karma (Sanskrit: कर्मन karman, Pāli: कमा Kamma) means action or doing; whatever one does, says, or thinks is a karma. ... Karma is a concept in Hinduism, based on the Vedas and Upanishads, which explains causality through a system where beneficial events are derived from past beneficial actions and harmful events from past harmful actions, creating a system of actions and reactions throughout a persons reincarnated lives. ... This article is about Jainism. ... According to Edgar Cayce, a 20th century American mystic, Karma is the meeting of oneself in the present through thoughts and deeds from the past. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Consequentialism refers to those moral theories which hold that the consequences of a particular action form the basis for any valid moral judgment about that action. ... For other uses of Fate, see Fate Destiny refers to a predetermined course of events. ... Amor fati is a Latin phrase, which loosely translates to Love of fate. It is used to describe the attitude that everything which occurs in ones life, including suffering and loss, is good. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... My Name Is Earl is an Emmy Award-winning American sitcom created by Greg Garcia. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Karma in Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2221 words)
Karma is a concept in Hinduism, based on the Vedas and Upanishads, which explains causality through a system where beneficial events are derived from past beneficial actions and harmful events from past harmful actions, creating a system of actions and reactions throughout a person's reincarnated lives.
Karma in Hinduism is used to explain the problem of evil that persists in spite of an omniscient, omnipotent, benevolent God; it is thus related to theodicy.
Karma refers to the totality of mankind's actions and their concommitant reactions in current and previous lives, all of which determine the future.
Basic Buddhism: The Theory of Karma (6534 words)
The theory of Karma is a fundamental doctrine in Buddhism.
A child’s past Karma may be compared to the seed: the physical disposition of the mother to the soil; and that of the father to the moisture, which fertilised the soil.
Karma determines the realm of rebirth and the state of existence in that realm of all transient being (in the cycle of existences, which have to be traversed till the attainment, at last, of Nibbana).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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