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Encyclopedia > Karl Pearson
Karl Pearson
Karl Pearson (né Carl Pearson)
Karl Pearson (né Carl Pearson)
Born March 27, 1857(1857-03-27)
Islington, London, England
Died April 27, 1936 (aged 79)
Coldharbour, Surrey, England
Residence England
Nationality British
Fields lawyer, Germanist, eugenicist, mathematician and statistician (primarily the latter)
Institutions University College, London
Alma mater Cambridge University
University of Heidelberg
Doctoral advisor Francis Galton
Doctoral students Philip Hall
Known for Pearson distribution
Pearson's r
Pearson's chi-square test
Notable awards Darwin Medal (1898)
Religious stance Quaker (until 1879); Freethought thereafter

Karl Pearson FRS (March 27, 1857April 27, 1936) established the discipline of mathematical statistics. [1] A sesquicentenary conference was held in London on 23 March 2007, to celebrate the 150th anniversary of his birth. [2] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Islington (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Coldharbour is an Old English place name that refers to a sheltered place on the outskirts of a main parish. ... This article is about the English county. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... Germanistics is the science dealing with Germanic languages and literature, particularly the study of German, which it is often used synonymous with. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... Statisticians are mathematicians who work with theoretical and applied statistics in the both the private and public sectors. ... The Front Quad University College London, commonly known as UCL, is one of the colleges that make up the University of London. ... Alma mater is Latin for nourishing mother. It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... The Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg (German Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; also known as simply University of Heidelberg) was established in the town of Heidelberg in the Rhineland in 1386. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Philip Hall (11 April 1904 - 30 December 1982) was an English mathematician. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... In statistics, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (sometimes known as the PMCC) (r) is a measure of the correlation of two variables X and Y measured on the same object or organism, that is, a measure of the tendency of the variables to increase or decrease together. ... Pearsons chi-square test (χ2) is one of a variety of chi-square tests – statistical procedures whose results are evaluated by reference to the chi-square distribution. ... The Darwin Medal is given by the Royal Society on even years to a biologist or a husband and wife team of biologists. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that beliefs should be formed on the basis of science and logical principles and not be compromised by authority, tradition, or any other dogma. ... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mathematical statistics uses probability theory and other branches of mathematics to study statistics from a purely mathematical standpoint. ... Designation which marks an organisation, institution or countrys 150 year existance. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


In 1911 he founded the world's first university statistics department at University College London. He was a proponent of eugenics, and a protégé and biographer of Sir Francis Galton. He was also a socialist.[citation needed] Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Affiliations University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website http://www. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... This article needs cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Family

Carl Pearson, later known as Karl Pearson (1857-1936) was born to William Pearson and Fanny Smith, who had three children. William Pearson also sired an illegitimate son, Frederick Mockett.


Pearson's mother, née Fanny Smith, came from a family of master mariners who sailed their own ships from Hull; his father read law at Edinburgh and was a successful barrister and Queen's Counsel (QC). William Pearson's father's family came from the North Riding of Yorkshire. The family grave is at Crambe, near York. Its motto, "ERIMUS" means "We shall be", and is also the motto of the Middlesbrough coat-of-arms. Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... For information about The Times satire Queens Counsel, see Queens Counsel (comic strip). ... The North Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three traditional subdivisions of Yorkshire, northern England, United Kingdom. ... Crambe is a village and civil parish in the Ryedale district of North Yorkshire, England. ... Middlesborough redirects here. ...


The family were dissenters and of Quaker stock; his maternal grandfather was a Unitarian minister. In 1879 Carl rejected Christianity and adopted ‘Freethought’ as a nonreligious faith that was grounded in science, though he distinguished his views from a ‘Freethinker’ (i.e., a person who forms opinions about religion on the basis of reason without recourse to authority or established beliefs.[citation needed] Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


"Carl Pearson" inadvertently became "Karl Pearson" when he enrolled at the University of Heidelberg in 1879, which changed the spelling. He used both variants of his name until 1884 when he finally adopted Karl - supposedly also after Karl Marx[citation needed] (though see Porter, 2004, p. 78, where argues Karl was not in homage to Marx); eventually he became universally known as "KP". The Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg (German Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; also known as simply University of Heidelberg) was established in the town of Heidelberg in the Rhineland in 1386. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ...


He was also an accomplished historian and Germanist. He spent much of the 1880's in Berlin, Vienna, Saig bei Lenzkirch, and Brixlegg. He wrote on Passion plays, religion, Goethe, Werther, as well as sex-related themes e.g. The Men and Women's Club. Germanistics is the science dealing with Germanic languages and literature, particularly the study of German, which it is often used synonymous with. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Brixlegg is a Town in Tyrol, Austria, in the Kufstein district. ... A Passion play is a dramatic presentation depicting the suffering and death of Jesus. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... Werther is an opera in four acts by Jules Massenet to a French libretto by Édouard Blau, based on the novel The Sorrows of Young Werther by Goethe. ...


In 1890 he married Maria Sharpe who was related to the Kenrick, Reid, Rogers and Sharpe families, late 18th century and 19th century non-conformists largely associated with north London; they included:

  • Samuel Rogers, poet (1763-1855)
  • Sutton Sharpe (1797-1843), barrister
  • Samuel Sharpe, Egyptologist and philanthropist (1799-1881)
  • John Kenrick, a non-Conformist minister (1788-1877)

Karl and Maria Pearson had two daughters, Sigrid Loetitia Pearson and Helga Sharpe Pearson, and one son, Egon Sharpe Pearson. Egon Pearson became an eminent statistician himself, and created Neyman-Pearson statistics. He succeeded his father as head of the Applied Statistics Department at University College. Samuel Rogers (July 30, 1763 - December 18, 1855) was an English poet. ... Samuel Sharp, also called Daddy Sharpe (or Sam Sharp), he was a Deacon at the Burchell Baptist Church in Montego Bay, Jamaica, during the 19th century. ... Egon Sharpe Pearson (11 August 1895 — 12 June 1980) a son of Karl Pearson, was like his father, a British statistician, and succeeded him as professor of statistics at University College London and as editor of the journal Biometrika. ...



Karl met Maria at The Men and Women's Club, which was co-founded by KP, and designed to permit free discussion among men and women. Maria Pearson died in 1928; the following year he married Margaret Child, a colleague at University College. The South African author Olive Schreiner was another active member of The Men and Women's Club, Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Front Quad University College London, commonly known as UCL, is one of the colleges that make up the University of London. ... Olive Schreiner (Olive Emilie Albertina Schreiner) (March 24, 1855 – December 11, 1920) was a South African writer. ...

a discussion group which concentrated on "the status of moral judgement, moral change, fact and truth in the face of received opinion about the sexes". (Its) nominal leader ... Karl Pearson, two years younger than Schreiner, was a dynamic character to whom most of the group deferred. Schreiner, however, considered herself much more of his equal, and found his views intellectually stimulating. As the relationship deepened, Schreiner realised that she was looking for more than a platonic friendship. Pearson, however, remained oblivious to her passion. At one point Schreiner signed a letter "Your man-friend OS" in despair at his inability to interact on an emotional level.

Education and early work

Karl Pearson was educated privately at University College School, after which he went to King's College, Cambridge in 1876 to study mathematics. He then spent part of 1879 and 1880 studying medieval and 16th century German literature at the universities of Berlin and Heidelberg – in fact, he became sufficiently knowledgeable in this field that he was offered a Germanics post at Kings College, Cambridge. University College School, known generally as UCS, is a British Independent school situated in Hampstead, north west London. ... For other uses, see Kings College. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... German literature comprises those literary texts originating within Germany proper and written in the German language. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For other uses, see Heidelberg (disambiguation). ... The term Germanic peoples may refer to: the Germanic tribes that in the first millennium were seen as a barbarian threat by the Roman Empire and its successors; the Germanic Christianity that in the second millennium came to dominate much of Northern Europe, politically organized in the Holy Roman Empire... Full name The Kings College of Our Lady and St Nicholas Motto Veritas et utilitas Truth and usefulness Named after Henry VI Previous names - Established 1441 Sister College New College Provost Dame Judith Mayhew-Jonas Location Kings Parade Undergraduates 397 Graduates 239 Homepage Boatclub Kings College, Cambridge...


His next career move was to Inner Temple, where he read law until 1881 (although he never practised). After this, he returned to mathematics, deputizing for the mathematics professor at King's College London in 1881 and for the professor at University College London in 1883. In 1884, he was appointed to the Goldsmid Chair of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics at University College London. 1891 saw him also appointed to the professorship of Geometry at Gresham College; here he met Walter Frank Raphael Weldon, a zoologist who had some interesting problems requiring quantitative solutions. The collaboration, in biometry and evolutionary theory, was a fruitful one and lasted until Weldon died in 1906. Weldon introduced Pearson to Charles Darwin's cousin Francis Galton, who was interested in aspects of evolution such as heredity and eugenics. Pearson became Galton's protégé — his "statistical heir" as some have put it — at times to the verge of hero worship. Combined coat of arms of the four Inns of Court. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ... For other uses, see Kings College. ... Affiliations University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website http://www. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ... Sir Thomas Greshams grasshopper crest is used as a symbol of the College Gresham College is an unusual institution of higher learning off Holborn in central London. ... Walter Frank Raphael Weldon (15 March 1860 — 13 April 1906) was an English evolutionary zoologist and biometrician. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Hero Worship is an episode of the fifth season of Star Trek: The Next Generation. ...


After Galton's death in 1911, Pearson embarked on producing his definitive biography—a three-volume tome of narrative, letters, genealogies, commentaries, and photographs—published in 1914, 1924, and 1930, with much of Pearson's own financing paying for their print runs. The biography, done "to satisfy myself and without regard to traditional standards, to the needs of publishers or to the tastes of the reading public", triumphed Galton's life, work, and personal heredity. He predicted that Galton, rather than Charles Darwin, would be remembered as the most prodigious grandson of Erasmus Darwin. Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... This article is about Erasmus Darwin who lived 1731–1802; for his descendants with the same name see Erasmus Darwin (disambiguation). ...


When Galton died, he left the residue of his estate to the University of London for a Chair in Eugenics. Pearson was the first holder of this chair—the Galton Chair of Eugenics, later the Galton Chair of Genetics[1]—in accordance with Galton's wishes. He formed the Department of Applied Statistics (with financial support from the Drapers' Company), into which he incorporated the Biometric and Galton laboratories. He remained with the department until his retirement in 1933, and continued to work until his death in 1936. Website http://www. ... Arms of the Drapers Company The Worshipful Company of Drapers is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London; it has the formal name of The Master and Wardens and Brethren and Sisters of the Guild or Fraternity of the Blessed Mary the Virgin of the Mystery of... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Einstein and Pearson's work

When the 23 year-old Albert Einstein started a study group, the Olympia Academy, with his two younger friends, Maurice Solovine and Conrad Habicht, he suggested that the first book to be read was Pearson's The Grammar of Science. This book covered several themes that were later to become part of the theories of Einstein and other scientists. Pearson asserted that the laws of nature are relative to the perceptive ability of the observer. Irreversibility of natural processes, he claimed, is a purely relative conception. An observer who travels at the exact velocity of light would see an eternal now, or an absence of motion. He speculated that an observer who traveled faster than light would see time reversal, similar to a cinema film being run backwards. Pearson also discussed antimatter, the fourth dimension, and wrinkles in time. “Einstein” redirects here. ... The Olympia Academy (German: Akademie Olympia) was a group of friends in Bern, Switzerland, who met – usually at Albert Einsteins flat – in order to discuss philosophy and physics. ... Maurice Solovine (1875 - 1958), was a Roumanian philosopher and mathematician. ... The Grammar of Science is a book by Karl Pearson first published at London by Walter Scott in 1892. ... For other senses of this term, see antimatter (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fourth dimension (disambiguation). ...


Pearson's relativity was based on idealism, in the sense of ideas or pictures in a mind. "There are many signs," he wrote, "that a sound idealism is surely replacing, as a basis for natural philosophy, the crude materialism of the older physicists." (Preface to 2nd Ed., The Grammar of Science) Further, he stated, "...science is in reality a classification and analysis of the contents of the mind...." "In truth, the field of science is much more consciousness than an external world." 6 Wikisource has original text related to this article: Relativity: The Special and General Theory A principle of relativity is a criterion for judging physical theories, stating that they are inadequate if they do not prescribe the exact same laws of physics in certain similar situations. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... The Grammar of Science is a book by Karl Pearson first published at London by Walter Scott in 1892. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ...


Politics and eugenics

Aside from his professional life, Pearson was active as a prominent freethinker and socialist. He gave lectures on such issues as "the woman's question" (this was the era of the suffragist movement in the UK) and upon Karl Marx. His commitment to socialism and its ideals led him to refuse the offer of being created an OBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire) in 1920, and also to refuse a Knighthood in 1935.However Pearson's views on eugenics would be considered to be racist by many in a modern environment. Pearson openly advocated "war" against "inferior races," and saw this as a logical implication of his scientific work on human measurement: "My view – and I think it may be called the scientific view of a nation," he wrote, "– is that of an organized whole, kept up to a high pitch of internal efficiency by insuring that its numbers are substantially recruited from the better stocks, and kept up to a high pitch of external efficiency by contest, chiefly by way of war with inferior races." He reasoned that, if August Weismann's theory of germ plasm is correct, then the nation is wasting money when it tries to improve people who come from poor stock. Weismann claimed that acquired characteristics could not be inherited. Therefore, training benefits only the trained generation. Their children will not exhibit the learned improvements and, in turn, will need to be improved. "No degenerate and feeble stock will ever be converted into healthy and sound stock by the accumulated effects of education, good laws, and sanitary surroundings. Such means may render the individual members of a stock passable if not strong members of society, but the same process will have to be gone through again and again with their offspring, and this in ever-widening circles, if the stock, owing to the conditions in which society has placed it, is able to increase its numbers." (Introduction, The Grammar of Science). Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals personal bravery, achievement or service to the United Kingdom. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... August Weismann Friedrich Leopold August Weismann (b. ... The Grammar of Science is a book by Karl Pearson first published at London by Walter Scott in 1892. ...


"History shows me one way, and one way only, in which a high state of civilization has been produced, namely, the struggle of race with race, and the survival of the physically and mentally fitter race. If you want to know whether the lower races of man can evolve a higher type, I fear the only course is to leave them to fight it out among themselves, and even then the struggle for existence between individual and individual, between tribe and tribe, may not be supported by that physical selection due to a particular climate on which probably so much of the Aryan's success depended . . ." (Karl Pearson, National Life from the Standpoint of Science [London, 1905])


Awards from professional bodies

Pearson achieved widespread recognition across a range of disciplines and his membership of, and awards from, various professional bodies reflects this:

  • 4 June 1896: elected FRS: Fellow of the Royal Society [3]
  • 1898: awarded the Darwin Medal
  • 1911: awarded the honorary degree of LLD from the University of St Andrews
  • 1911: awarded a DSc from University of London
  • 1920: offered (and refused) the OBE
  • 1932: awarded the Rudolf Virchow medal by the Berliner Anthropologische Gesellschaft
  • 1935: offered (and refused) a knighthood

He was also elected an Honorary Fellow of King's College Cambridge, the Royal Society of Edinburgh, University College London and the Royal Society of Medicine, and a Member of the Actuaries' Club. The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... The Darwin Medal is given by the Royal Society on even years to a biologist or a husband and wife team of biologists. ... St Marys College Bute Medical School St Leonards College[5][6] Affiliations 1994 Group Website http://www. ...


Contributions to statistics

Pearson's work was all-embracing in the wide application and development of mathematical statistics, and encompassed the fields of biology, epidemiology, anthropometry, medicine and social history. In 1901, with Weldon and Galton, he founded the journal Biometrika whose object was the development of statistical theory. He edited this journal until his death. He also founded the journal Annals of Eugenics (now Annals of Human Genetics) in 1925. He published the Drapers' Company Research Memoirs largely to provide a record of the output of the Department of Applied Statistics not published elsewhere. For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Biometrika is a scientific journal established in 1901 by Francis Galton, Karl Pearson and W. F. R. Weldon to promote the study of biometrics, the statistical analysis of hereditary phenomena. ... Annals of Human Genetics, formerly Annals of Eugenics is a scientific journal. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arms of the Drapers Company The Worshipful Company of Drapers is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London; it has the formal name of The Master and Wardens and Brethren and Sisters of the Guild or Fraternity of the Blessed Mary the Virgin of the Mystery of...


Pearson's thinking underpins many of the 'classical' statistical methods which are in common use today. Some of his main contributions are:

  1. Linear regression and correlation - Pearson was instrumental in the development of this theory. One of his classic data sets (originally collected by Galton) involves the regression of sons' height upon that of their fathers'. Pearson built a 3-dimensional model of this data set (which remains in the care of the Statistical Science Department) to illustrate the ideas. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient is named after him, and it was the first important effect size to be introduced into statistics.
  2. Classification of distributions - Pearson's work on classifying probability distributions forms the basis for a lot of modern statistical theory; in particular, the exponential family of distributions underlies the theory of generalized linear models.
  3. Pearson's chi-square test - A particular kind of chi-square test, a statistical test of significance.

In statistics, linear regression is a regression method that models the relationship between a dependent variable Y, independent variables Xi, i = 1, ..., p, and a random term ε. The model can be written as Example of linear regression with one dependent and one independent variable. ... Positive linear correlations between 1000 pairs of numbers. ... In statistics, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (sometimes known as the PMCC) (r) is a measure of the correlation of two variables X and Y measured on the same object or organism, that is, a measure of the tendency of the variables to increase or decrease together. ... In statistics, effect size is a measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables. ... A probability distribution describes the values and probabilities that a random event can take place. ... In probability and statistics, an exponential family is any class of probability distributions having a certain form. ... In statistics, the generalized linear model (GLM) is a useful generalization of ordinary least squares regression. ... Pearsons chi-square test (χ2) is one of a variety of chi-square tests – statistical procedures whose results are evaluated by reference to the chi-square distribution. ... A chi-square test is any statistical hypothesis test in which the test statistic has a chi-square distribution when the null hypothesis is true, or any in which the probability distribution of the test statistic (assuming the null hypothesis is true) can be made to approximate a chi-square...

Resume of academic career

  • Third Wrangler in Mathematics Tripos, Cambridge University, 1879
  • Studied medieval and sixteenth-century German literature, Berlin and Heidelberg Universities, 1879-1880
  • Read law, called to the Bar by Inner Temple, 1881
  • Delivered lectures on mathematics, philosophy and German literature at societies and clubs devoted to adult education
  • Deputised for the Professor of Mathematics, King's College London, 1881, and for the Professor of Mathematics at University College London, 1883
  • Formed the Men and Women's Club, with some others, to discuss equality between the sexes
  • Appointed to Goldsmid Chair of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, University College London, 1884
  • Appointed Professor of Geometry, Gresham College, 1891
  • Collaborated with Walter Frank Raphael Weldon, Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, in biometry and evolutionary theory, 1891-1906
  • Elected Fellow of the Royal Society, 1896
  • Founded journal Biometrika with Weldon and Francis Galton founder of the School of Eugenics at University College London, 1901
  • Appointed first Galton Professor of Eugenics, University College London, 1911
  • Formed Department of Applied Statistics incorporating the Biometric Laboratory and Galton Laboratory, University College London
  • Founded journal Annals of Eugenics, 1925
  • Died April 27, 1936

The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Publications

  • The New Werther (1880)
  • The Trinity, A Nineteenth Century Passion Play (1882)
  • The Trinity: a nineteenth century passion-play (E. Johnson, Cambridge, 1882)
  • A history of the theory of elasticity and of the strength of materials from Galilei to the present time (University Press, Cambridge, 1886-1893; editor)
  • The Ethic of Freethought (1886)
  • Die Fronica (1887)
  • The moral basis of socialism (W. Reeves, London, 1887)
  • The positive creed of freethought: with some remarks on the relation of freethought to socialism (W. Reeves, London, 1888)
  • Enthusiasm of the market place and of the study (1885)
  • The common sense of the exact sciences (Kegan Paul & Co, London, 1885; editor)
  • Matter and soul (1886)
  • The ethic of Freethought: a selection of essays and lectures (T. Fisher Unwin, London, 1888)
  • The Grammar of Science (1892), Dover Publications, 2004 edition, ISBN 0-486-49581-7
  • The grammar of science (1892)
  • The new university for London: a guide to its history and a criticism of its defects (T. Fisher Unwin, London, 1892)
  • On the dissection of asymmetrical frequency curves (1894)
  • Skew variation in homogeneous material (1895)
  • Reaction! A criticism of Mr Balfour's attack on rationalism (1895)
  • Regression, heredity and panmixia (1896)
  • The chances of death and other studies in evolution (E. Arnold, London, 1897)
  • On the criterion that a given system of deviations from the probable in the case of a correlated system of variables is such that it can be reasonably supposed to hove arisen from random sampling (1900)
  • National life from the stand-point of science An address delivered at Newcastle (A. & C. Black, London, 1901)
  • Mathematical contributions to the theory of evolution (1904)
  • A mathematical theory of random migration (1906)
  • Studies in national deterioration (1907)
  • A first study of the inheritance of vision and of the relative influence of heredity and environment on sight (London, 1909)
  • On a practical theory of elliptical and pseudo-elliptical arches, with special reference to the ideal masonry arch (with W. D. Reynolds and W. F. Stanton; 1909)
  • A second study of the statistics of pulmonary tuberculosis: marital infection (London, 1908; editor)
  • The groundwork of eugenics (1909)
  • The problem of practical eugenics(1909)
  • The treasury of human inheritance (Dulau & Co., London, 1909; editor)
  • Nature and nurture, the problem of the future: A presidential address (1910)
  • A preliminary study of extreme alcoholism in adults (with A. Barrington, London; 1910)
  • Supplement to the memoir (by Ethel Elderton) entitled: The influence of parental alcoholism on the physique and ability of the offspring: A reply to the Cambridge economists (1910)
  • A second study of the influence of parental alcoholism on the physique and ability of the offspring (1910)
  • A monograph on albinism in man (with Edward Nettleship and Charles Usher; 1911)
  • The academic aspect of the science of eugenics: A lecture delivered to undergraduates (1911)
  • Eugenics and public health: An address to public health officers (1912)
  • Tuberculosis, heredity and environment (1912)
  • Darwinism, medical progress and eugenics: The Cavendish lecture, an address to the medical profession (1912)
  • Social problems, their treatment, past, present, and future A lecture (1912)
  • On the correlation of fertility with social value: a cooperative study (1913)
  • On the handicapping of the first-born (1914)
  • Tables for statisticians and biometricians (London, 1914; editor)
  • Mendelism and the problem of mental defect (1914)
  • Tables for Statisticians and Biometricians (1914)
  • A statistical study of oral temperatures in school children, with special reference to parental, environmental, and class differences with M. H. Williams and Julia Bell (1914)
  • The life, letters and labours of Francis Galton (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1914)
  • The life, letters and labours of Francis Galton (three volumes: 1914, 1924, 1930; available in full at Galton website)
  • On the torsion resulting from flexure in prisms with cross-sections of uni-axial symmetry only (with A. W. Young and Ethel Elderton; 1918)
  • A study of the long bones of the English skeleton (London, 1919)
  • Tracts for computers(London, 1919; editor)
  • On the construction of tables and on interpolation (London, 1920)
  • The science of man: its needs and its prospects (London, 1920)
  • Side lights on the evolution of man (London, 1921)
  • On the sesamoids of the knee-joint (Cambridge, 1922)
  • Tables of the incomplete G-function: computed by the staff of the Department of Applied Statistics, University College (London, 1922; editor)
  • Study of the data provided by a baby-clinic in a large manufacturing town (Cambridge, 1922)
  • Francis Galton, 1822-1922, a centenary appreciation (London, 1922)
  • Charles Darwin, 1809-1882, an appreciation(London, 1923)
  • On the relationship of health to the psychial and physical characters in school children (Cambridge, 1923)
  • Home conditions and eyesight: some recent misinterpretations of the problem of nurture and nature'
  • On the skull and portraits of George Buchanan (Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh, London, 1926)
  • The right of the unborn child (Cambridge University Press, London, 1927)
  • The skull and portraits of Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, and their bearing on the tragedy of Mary, Queen of Scots (1928)
  • Tables of the incomplete beta-function (The Proprietors of Biometrika, London, 1934; editor)
  • Tables of Incomplete Beta Function (1934)

Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht... The Grammar of Science is a book by Karl Pearson first published at London by Walter Scott in 1892. ... Albino redirects here. ... Julia Bell is an English human geneticist, born January 28, 1879; died 1979. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Biometrika is a scientific journal established in 1901 by Francis Galton, Karl Pearson and W. F. R. Weldon to promote the study of biometrics, the statistical analysis of hereditary phenomena. ...

Further reading

  • Porter, Theodore M. (2004): Karl Pearson: The Scientific Life in a Statistical Age, Princeton University Press.
  • Eisenhart, Churchill (1974): Dictionary of Scientific Biography, pp. 447–73. New York, 1974.
  • Filon, L. N. G. and Yule, G. U. (1936): Obituary Notices of the Royal Society of London, Vol. ii, No. 5, pp. 73–110.
  • Pearson, E. S. (1938): Karl Pearson: An appreciation of some aspects of his life and work. Cambridge University Press.

George Udny Yule (February 18, 1871 – June 26, 1951) was a Scottish statistician. ...

See also

Pearson family memorial at Crambe, Yorkshire
Pearson family memorial at Crambe, Yorkshire

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2432 × 3648 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2432 × 3648 pixel, file size: 3. ... The Grammar of Science is a book by Karl Pearson first published at London by Walter Scott in 1892. ... Pearsons chi-square test (χ2) is one of a variety of chi-square tests – statistical procedures whose results are evaluated by reference to the chi-square distribution. ... In statistics, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (sometimes known as the PMCC) (r) is a measure of the correlation of two variables X and Y measured on the same object or organism, that is, a measure of the tendency of the variables to increase or decrease together. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Kikuchi Dairoku as a professor at Tokyo Imperial University (now the University of Tokyo) Kikuchi Dairoku (菊池大麓 Kikuchi Dairoku, March 17, 1855 - August 19, 1917) was born in Edo, the second son of Mitsukuri Shuhei. ... University College School, known generally as UCS, is a British Independent school situated in Hampstead, north west London. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... The Professor of Geometry at Gresham College is appointed by the City of London Corporation. ... The History of Feminism is the history of Feminist movements. ...

References

Most of the biographical information above is taken from the Karl Pearson page at the Department of Statistical Sciences at University College London, which has been placed in the public domain. The main source for that page was A list of the papers and correspondence of Karl Pearson (1857-1936) held in the Manuscripts Room, University College London Library, compiled by M. Merrington, B. Blundell, S. Burrough, J. Golden and J. Hogarth and published by the Publications Office, University College London, 1983.


Additional information from entry for Karl Pearson in the Sackler Digital Archive of the Royal Society

  1. ^ Race, Intelligence and Bias in Academe by Roger Pearson Scott-Townsend Publishers, 1991, 304 pp.

External links

Persondata
NAME Pearson, Karl
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Pearson, Carl
SHORT DESCRIPTION lawyer, Germanist, Eugenicist, mathematician and statistician (primarily the latter)
DATE OF BIRTH March 27, 1857
PLACE OF BIRTH London, England
DATE OF DEATH April 27, 1936
PLACE OF DEATH Coldharbour, Surrey, England
The MacTutor history of mathematics archive is a website hosted by University of St Andrews in Scotland. ... The Mathematics Genealogy Project is a web-based database that gives an academic genealogy based on dissertation supervision relations. ... Crambe is a village and civil parish in the Ryedale district of North Yorkshire, England. ... Middlesborough redirects here. ... Binomial name Pisum sativum A pea (Pisum sativum) is the small, edible round green seed which grows in a pod on a leguminous vine, hence why it is called a legume. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... Germanistics is the science dealing with Germanic languages and literature, particularly the study of German, which it is often used synonymous with. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... Statisticians are mathematicians who work with theoretical and applied statistics in the both the private and public sectors. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Coldharbour is an Old English place name that refers to a sheltered place on the outskirts of a main parish. ... This article is about the English county. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Human Intelligence: Karl Pearson (158 words)
Karl Pearson developed some of the central techniques of modern statistics.
In the early 1900's Pearson became interested in the work of Francis Galton, who wanted to find statistical relationships to explain how biological characteristics were passed down through generations.
Pearson's research laid much of the foundation for 20th-century statistics, defining the meanings of correlation, regression analysis, and standard deviation.
Karl Pearson (865 words)
Karl Pearson was a major player in the early development of statistics as a serious scientific discipline in its own right.
Karl Pearson was born in London on the 27th March 1857.
Pearson's work was all-embracing in the wide application and development of mathematical statistics, and encompassed the fields of biology, epidemiology, anthropometry, medicine and social history.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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