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Encyclopedia > Karl Kautsky

Karl Kautsky (October 16, 1854 - October 17, 1938) was a leading theoretician of social democracy. He became a significant figure in Marxist history as the editor of the fourth volume of Karl Marx's economic critique, Das Kapital. He became the leading promulgator of Orthodox Marxism after the death of Friedrich Engels. is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Das Kapital (Capital, in the English translation) is an extensive treatise on political economy written by Karl Marx in German. ... Orthodox Marxism is the term used to describe the version of Marxism which emerged after the death of Karl Marx and acted as the official philosophy of the Second International up to the First World War and of the Third International thereafter. ... Engels redirects here. ...

Contents

Life

Karl Kautsky was born in Prague of artistic middle class parents. The family moved to Vienna when he was seven years old. He was studying history and philosophy at the University of Vienna in 1874, and became a member of the Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ) in 1875. In 1880 he joined a group of German socialists in Zurich who were supported financially by Karl Höchberg, and who smuggled socialist material into the Reich at the time of the Anti-Socialist Laws. Influenced by Eduard Bernstein, Höchberg's secretary, he became a Marxist and in 1881 visited Marx and Engels in England. For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... The University of Vienna (German: ) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Social Democratic Party of Austria (German: Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs, or SPÖ) is one of the oldest parties in Austria. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... Eduard Bernstein Eduard Bernstein (January 6, 1850 - December 18, 1932) was a German social democratic theoretician and politician, member of the SPD, and founder of evolutionary socialism or reformism. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Marx is a common German surname. ... The term Engels could refer to more than one thing: Friedrich Engels, German socialist Engels, Russia, formerly known as Pokrovsk This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In 1883, Kautsky founded the monthly Die Neue Zeit ("The New Time") in Stuttgart, which became a weekly in 1890, and was its editor until September 1917 which gave him a steady income and allowed him to propagate Marxism.[1] From 1885 to 1890, he spent time in London, where he became a close friend of Friedrich Engels. In 1891, he co-authored the Erfurt Program of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) together with August Bebel and Eduard Bernstein. Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Die Neue Zeit (The New Times) was a German socialist theoretical journal of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) that was published from 1883 to 1923. ... For other uses, see Stuttgart (disambiguation). ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Erfurt Program was adopted by the SPD in 1891, formulated under the political guidance of August Bebel and the ideological tutelage of Karl Kautsky. ... SPD redirects here. ... August Ferdinand Bebel (February 22, 1840 – March 18, 1913) was a German social democrat and one of the founders of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. ... Eduard Bernstein Eduard Bernstein (January 6, 1850 - December 18, 1932) was a German social democratic theoretician and politician, member of the SPD, and founder of evolutionary socialism or reformism. ...


Following the death of Engels in 1895, Kautsky became one of the most important and influential theoreticians of Marxism, representing the centre current of the party together with August Bebel. When Bernstein attacked the traditional Marxist position on the necessity for revolution in the later 1890s, Kautsky denounced him, arguing that Bernstein's emphasis on the ethical foundations of Socialism opened the road to a call for an alliance with the "progressive" bourgeoisie and a non-class approach. Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... August Ferdinand Bebel (February 22, 1840 – March 18, 1913) was a German social democrat and one of the founders of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. ...


In 1914 with the other German Social-Democrats Kautsky voted for the war credits. Kautsky claimed that Germany was waging a defensive war against the threat of Czarist Russia. However, in June 1915, about ten months after the war had begun and when it had become obvious that this was going to be a sustained, appallingly brutal and costly struggle, he issued an appeal with Eduard Bernstein and Hugo Haase against the pro-war leaders of the SPD and denounced the government's annexationist aims. In 1917 he left the SPD for the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD), which united Socialists who opposed the war. Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Eduard Bernstein Eduard Bernstein (January 6, 1850 - December 18, 1932) was a German social democratic theoretician and politician, member of the SPD, and founder of evolutionary socialism or reformism. ... Hugo Haase (September 29, 1863 - November 7, 1919) was a German politician, jurist, and pacifist. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... For the Independent Social Democratic Party of Romania, see Romanian Social Democratic Party (defunct). ...


After the November Revolution in Germany, Kautsky served as under-secretary of State in the Foreign Office in the short lived SPD-USPD revolutionary government and worked at finding documents which proved the war guilt of Imperial Germany. Revolutionaries at machine gun posts, Berlin, November 1918 The German Revolution describes a series of events that occurred in 1918-1919, culminating in the overthrow of the Kaiser and the establishment of a democratic republic. ...


After 1919, Kautsky's prominence steadily diminished. He visited Georgia in 1920 and wrote a book in 1921 on this Social Democratic country still independent of Bolshevist Russia. In 1920, when the USPD split, he went with a minority of that party back into the SPD. At the age of 70 he moved back to Vienna with his family in 1924 where he remained until 1938. At the time of Hitler's Anschluss, he fled to Czechoslovakia and thence by plane to Amsterdam where he died in the same year. 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Bolshevik side in the Russian Civil War, or more specifically the Russian government between the October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ...


Karl Kautsky lived in Berlin-Friedenau for many years; his wife, Luise Kautsky, was a close friend of Rosa Luxemburg, who also lived in Friedenau, and today there is a commemorative plaque where Kautsky lived at Saarstraße 14. This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Friedenau is a district within the Borough of Tempelhof-Schöneberg in Berlin, Germany. ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Jewish Polish-born Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ...


Kautsky was described as a "renegade" by Vladimir Lenin, and he in turn castigated Lenin in his 1934 work Marxism and Bolshevism: Democracy and Dictatorship:
Lenin redirects here. ...

"The Bolsheviks under Lenin’s leadership, however, succeeded in capturing control of the armed forces in Petrograd and later in Moscow and thus laid the foundation for a new dictatorship in place of the old Tsarist dictatorship."[1]

His work Social Democracy vs. Communism[2] treated the Bolshevist rule in Russia. In Kautsky's view, Bolsheviks (or, Communists) had been a conspirational organisation, which gained power by a coup and initiated revolutionary changes for which there were no economic presumptions in Russia. Instead, a bureaucratic society developed, misery of which eclipsed the problems of the Western capitalism. The attempts (be it undertaken by Lenin or Stalin) of building a working and affluent socialist society failed. Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Росси́йская Импе́рия, (also Imperial Russia) covers the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great into the Russian Empire stretching from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to...

“Foreign tourists in Russia stand in silent amazement before the gigantic enterprises created there, as they stand before the pyramids, for example. Only seldom does the thought occur to them what enslavement, what lowering of human self-esteem was connected with the construction of those gigantic establishments.”
“They extracted the means for the creation of material productive forces by destroying the most essential productive force of all-the laboring man. In the terrible conditions created by the Piatiletka, people rapidly perished. Soviet films, of course, did not show this.” (ch. 6 Is Soviet Russia A Socialist State?)

Major works

  • Frederick Engels: His Life, His Work and His Writings (1887) [2]
  • The Economic Doctrines of Karl Marx (1887/1903) [3]
  • Thomas More and his Utopia (1888) [4]
  • The Class Struggle (1892) [5]
  • On The Agrarian Question (1899)
  • The Social Revolution and on the day After the Social Revolution (1902) [6]
  • Foundations of Christianity (1908) [7]
  • The Road to Power (1909) [8]
  • Are the Jews a Race? (1914) [9]
  • The Dictatorship of the Proletariat (1918) [10]
  • Terrorism and Communism (1919) [11]
  • The Labour Revolution (1924) [12]

Foundations of Christianity (German: Der Ursprung des Christentums) is a 1908 book by Marxist theoretician Karl Kautsky. ...

References

  1. ^ http://faculty.goucher.edu/history231/steenson.htm
  2. ^ available at http://www.marxists.org/archive/kautsky/1930s/demvscom/index.htm

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Karl Kautsky

  Results from FactBites:
 
Karl Kautsky (973 words)
The Kautskys were aware of the importance of these documents when they were alive, and made a habit of preserving any piece of paper that came to their attention, no matter if it was a one-line postcard, a visiting card, or a huge correspondence file.
After her marriage to Karl in 1890 she became his collaborator as well; in addition, she was a publicist, translator, editor, and archivist and last but not least, the mother of three sons.
The Kautskys were truly internationalist in their way of living and orientation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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