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Encyclopedia > Karl Drais
Karl Drais ca 1820, then still a baron
Karl Drais ca 1820, then still a baron

Karl Drais (April 29, 1785December 10, 1851) was a German inventor and invented the Laufmaschine ("running machine"), also later called the velocipede, draisine (English) or "draisienne" (French), or nick-named, dandy horse. This incorporated the two-wheeler principle that is basic to the bicycle and motorcycle and meant the beginning of mechanized personal transport. He also invented the earliest typewriter with a keyboard in 1821 (although his name is not even mentioned on the correpsonding page on typewrites), later developped into an early stenograph machine, and a wood-saving cooker including the earliest hay chest. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 487 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1149 × 1415 pixel, file size: 89 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 487 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1149 × 1415 pixel, file size: 89 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... Original draisine made to measure. ... The velocipede was the predecessor of the bicycle, a human-powered vehicle introduced in the Victorian age. ... A draisine is a light auxiliary rail vehicle or trolley. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... dandy horse is the inspiration for the bicycle. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ... Mechanical desktop typewriters, such as this Underwood Five, were long time standards of government agencies, newsrooms, and sales offices. ... A stenotype or stenograph is a specialized keyboard or typewriter used by stenographers for shorthand use. ...


Biography

Baron Drais was born in Karlsruhe, with the aristocratic title Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Christian Ludwig, Freiherr Drais von Sauerbronn, but as he was a democrat, he did not use his title. His father was the chief judge of Baden, Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig von Drais. His mother was Margarete Ernestine von Kaltenthal. The Margrave of Baden at that time, Carl Friedrich von Baden, was one of Karl's godfathers. Karlsruhe (population 285,812 in 2006) is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border. ... For other uses, see Baden (disambiguation). ...


From 1803 to 1805, Drais studied architecture, agriculture and physics at the Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg. The Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg (German Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; also known as simply University of Heidelberg) was established in the town of Heidelberg, then the seat of the Counts Palatine, Prince-Electors of the Holy Roman Empire, in 1386. ...


He joined the civil service as forestry official and in 1810 received the title of a chief forest ranger, but was not yet assigned an adequate position. One year later he was suspended from active service, but continued to receive his salary so that he could devote more time to his inventions. A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled National Park Ranger (United States). ...


Drais' most influential invention was the velocipede, the earliest form of a two-wheeler - without pedals. His first reported ride from Mannheim to Rheinau (now a section of Mannheim) took place on June 12, 1817. In the same year, he undertook his second trip from Gernsbach to Baden-Baden and further ones. Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Gernsbach is a town in the district of Rastatt, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... , Baden-Baden is a town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ...


On January 12, 1818, Drais was awarded a Großherzogliches Privileg, similar to our modern patent (Baden had no patent law at that time). In addition, he was appointed Professor of Mechanics by Grand Duke Karl Friedrich. This was merely an honorary title and not related to any university or other institution. At the same time, he retired from the civil service and continued to receive his salary as a kind of inventor's pension. For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: one who claims publicly to be an expert) varies. ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ...


From 1822 to 1825, Drais joined a German expedition to Brazil, headed by Georg Heinrich von Langsdorff.


It has been posited that the 1816 Year Without a Summer, with starving horses and resulting problems with transportation, has been the reason for Drais's invention of the velocipede.[1] Development of global average temperatures during the last 1000 years. ...


He died in his hometown of Karlsruhe in 1851. Karlsruhe (population 285,812 in 2006) is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border. ...


Bibliography

  • Hans-Erhard Lessing Automobilität – Karl Drais und die unglaublichen Anfänge. Leipzig: Maxime Verlag 2003. (comprehensive, also political re-appraisal of Drais from new sources)
  • Keizo Kobayashi: Histoire du vélocipède de Drais à Michaux 1817-1870: Mythes et réalités. Tokyo: Bicycle culture center 1993. (Drais chapters dated)
  • Hermann Ebeling Der Freiherr von Drais: das tragische Leben des "verrückten Barons". Ein Erfinderschicksal im Biedermeier. Karlsruhe: Braun, 1985. (80% disproved by Lessing)
  • Heinz Schmitt Karl Friedrich Drais von Sauerbronn: 1785-1851 ; ein badischer Erfinder; Ausstellung zu seinem 200. Geburtstag; Stadtgeschichte im Prinz-Max-Palais, Karlsruhe, 9. März-26. Mai 1985; Städt. Reiss-Museum Mannheim, 5. Juli-18. August 1985. Karlsruhe: Stadtarchiv, 1985. (exhibition catalog)
  • Michael Rauck Karl Freiherr Drais von Sauerbronn: Erfinder und Unternehmer (1785 - 1851). Stuttgart: Steiner 1983. (Drais' personal file completely reprinted; priority hoaxes still believed)

External links

  • "Brimstone and Bicycles" by Mick Hamer of New Scientist, 29 Jan 2005
  • karl-drais.de of ADFC Mannheim
  • www.karldrais.de by S. Fink and H. E. Lessing (choose English version)
  • Karl Drais in Baden-Baden by Hans-Erhard Lessing

  Results from FactBites:
 
Karl Drais - definition of Karl Drais in Encyclopedia (84 words)
Karl Drais (April 19, 1785 - December 10, 1851) was a German inventor and inventor of the bicycle, called draisine.
Karl Drais was born and died in Karlsruhe.
He was a democrat and did not use his title Karl Friedrich Christian Ludwig Baron (Freiherr) Drais von Sauerbronn.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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