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Encyclopedia > Kargil War
Kargil War
Part of the Indo-Pakistani Wars

An Indian Bofors 155 mm howitzer field gun being repositioned for aiming at Pakistani positions during the war.
Date May-July 1999
Location Kargil district, Kashmir
Result India regains possession of Kargil
Territorial
changes
Status quo ante bellum
Combatants
Flag of India India Flag of Pakistan Pakistan,
Kashmiri secessionists,
Islamic militants ("Foreign Fighters")
Strength
30,000 5,000
Casualties
Indian Official Figures:
527 killed,[1][2][3]
1,363 wounded[4]
1 POW
Pakistani Estimates:(II)
357-500 killed[5][6]
(Pakistan troops)
665+ soldiers wounded[5]

8 POW.[7] Since both nations achieved independence in August 1947, there have been three major wars and one minor war between India and Pakistan. ... Image File history File links Kargil_Bofors. ... Bofors is an iron works, cannon maker, and defence industry located in Karlskoga, Sweden. ... 19th century 12 pounder (5 kg) mountain howitzer displayed by the National Park Service at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, USA A howitzer is a type of artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles at trajectories with... A field gun is an artillery piece. ... Kargil was a part of Gilgit-Baltistan before 1947, but now is a town in the Indian-controlled Kashmir. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... The term status quo ante bellum comes from Latin meaning literally, as things were before the war. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...

The Kargil War, also known as the Kargil conflict,(I) was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir. The cause of the war was when Kashmiri militants took up key positions in Indian occupied Kashmir cutting off that countries supply lines to Siachen and Ladakh. After intense and brutal counter attacks by India's regular army, the Kashmiri freedom fighters appealed to their ethnic cousins across the border in Pakistan as well as to the Pakistan army. Initially only independent Kashmiri insurgents as well as segments of Occupied Kashmir's local population spearheaded the movement; however, documents left behind by casualties and later statements by Pakistan's Prime Minister and Chief of Army Staff showed involvement of Pakistani paramilitary forces who began sympathizing with their ethnic and co-linguistic cousins in occupied Kashmir. The Indian Army, supported by the Indian Air Force, attacked the positions but where rendered ineffective. It was only after international diplomatic support spearheaded by the United States and the eventual pressure place on Pakistan to prevent its paramilitary forces from supplying the Freedom fighters that the liberated positions where finally ceded. Since Indian independence in August 1947 and the creation of the Republic of India and Pakistan, there have been three major wars and one minor war between the two states, the casus belli in each case being the disputed Kashmir region, with the only exception of the war of 1971... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders General K M Cariappa, Lt Gen S M Shrinagesh, Maj Gen K S Thimayya, Maj Gen Kalwant Singh Maj Gen Akbar Khan Casualties 1,104 killed[1](Indian army) 684 KIA(State Forces)[2] [3] 3,152 wounded [1] 1,500 killed[4] (Pakistan army) The... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri Harbakhsh Singh Ayub Khan Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800 killed[2] (September 6 - 22) 4,000 - 8,000 killed/ captured[3][4][5] (July to September 6) The Indo-Pakistani War... Combatants India Mukti Bahini Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 500,000+ troops 400,000+ troops Casualties 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] c. ... Combatants India Pakistan Casualties 1344 [2]  : Main article: Siachen Glacier Main article: Siachen Glacier The Siachen Conflict, sometimes referred to as The Siachen War is the name for the military conflict between the armies of India and Pakistan over the disputed Siachen Glacier region in Kashmir. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year. ... Kargil was a part of Gilgit-Baltistan before 1947, but now is a town in the Indian-controlled Kashmir. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... The word militant has come to refer to any individual or party engaged in aggressive physical or verbal combat, normally for a cause. ... A casualty is a person who is the victim of an accident, injury, or trauma. ... The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: وزیر اعظم Wazir-e- Azam) is the Head of Government of Pakistan. ... This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ... The Indian Air Force (भारतीय वायु सेना : Bharatiya Vayu Sena) is the air-arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the prime responsibility of conducting aerial warfare and securing the Indian airspace. ... This article is about negotiations. ...


The war is one of the most recent examples of high altitude warfare in mountainous terrain, and posed significant logistical problems for the combating sides. This was the first ground war between the two countries after they had developed nuclear weapons. (India and Pakistan both test-detonated fission devices in May 1998, though the first Indian nuclear test was conducted in 1974.) The conflict led to heightened tension between the two nations and increased defence spending on the part of India. In Pakistan, the aftermath caused instability to the government and the economy, and on October 12, 1999 a coup d'etat by the military placed army chief Pervez Musharraf in power. High altitude are regions on the Earths surface (or in its atmosphere) that are high above mean sea level. ... Mountain warfare refers to warfare in the mountains. ... Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... This is a list of countries with nuclear weapons. ... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant. ... The Smiling Buddha was the first nuclear test explosion by India on May 18, 1974 at Pokhran. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ) (born 11 August 1943, Delhi) is the current President of Pakistan, Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ...

Contents

Location

Location of conflict

Before the Partition of India in 1947, Kargil was part of Gilgit-Baltistan, a region of many diverse linguistic, ethnic and religious groups, due in part to the many isolated valleys separated by some of the world's highest mountains. The First Kashmir War (1947–48) resulted in most of the Kargil region remaining under Indian occupation; then, after Pakistan's defeat in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the remaining areas, including strategic military posts, also passed into Indian territory. Notably, Kargil is the only district in the Ladakh subdivision that has a Muslim majority. The town and district of Kargil is in what is now called Jammu and Kashmir. The town lies on the Line of Control (LOC), the defacto border for the two nations, located 120 km (75 miles) from Srinagar, facing the Northern Areas. Like other areas in the Himalayas, it has a temperate climate. Summers are cool with frigid nights, while winters are long and chilly with temperatures often dropping to −40 °C (−40 °F). A national highway connecting Srinagar to Leh cuts through Kargil. Image File history File links Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Source: http://www. ... This article is under construction. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kargil was a part of Gilgit-Baltistan before 1947, but now is a town in the Indian-controlled Kashmir. ... Gilgit-Baltistan or the Northern Areas is the northernmost region of Pakistan. ... The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 sometimes known as the First Kashmir War was a war fought between India and Pakistan over the region of Kashmir from 1947 to 1949. ... Combatants India Mukti Bahini Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 500,000+ troops 400,000+ troops Casualties 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] c. ... The divisions of a district. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is about the area administered by India. ... For Srinagar in Uttarakhand, see Srinagar, Uttarakhand. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... The Network of National Highways in India National Highways in India is the class of roads maintained by the Central Government and is the main long-distance roadways. ... View of Leh from Namgyal hill Leh Bazaar prior to 1871 Leh is the capital of the former Himalayan kingdom of Ladakh, which is now a district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. ...


The area that witnessed the infiltration and fighting is a 160 km long stretch on the border of the LOC, overlooking a vital highway on the Indian side of Kashmir. Apart from the district capital, Kargil, the front line in the conflict encompassed the tiny town of Drass as well as the Batalik sector, Mushko Valley and other nearby areas along the de facto border. The military outposts on these ridges were generally around 5,000 metres (16,000 feet) high, with a few as high as 5,600 metres (18,000 feet). One of the main reasons why Kargil was specifically targeted for incursions was its terrain lent itself to a pre-emptive seizure. With tactically vital features and well-prepared defensive posts atop the peaks, it provided an ideal high ground for a defender akin to a fortress. Any attack to dislodge the enemy and reclaim high ground in a mountain warfare would require a far higher ratio of attackers to defenders, which is further exacerbated by the high altitude and freezing temperatures. Additionally, Kargil was just 173 km (108 mi) from the Pakistani town of Skardu, which was capable of providing logistical and artillery support to the Pakistani combatants. All these tactical reasons, plus the Kargil district being a Muslim majority, were probably contributing factors to why Kargil was chosen as the location to attack. A front line is a line of confrontation in an armed conflict, most often a war. ... Drass is a tiny town in the Kargil District of Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley (also called a vale or dale) is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ... Border has several different, but related meanings: Generic borders A border can consist of a margin around the edge of something, such as a lawn, garden, photograph, or sheet of paper. ... This article is about the use of the term in geography and physical geology. ... Preemptive war (or preemptive attack) is waged in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Mountain warfare refers to warfare in the mountains. ... Skardu Town as seen from the Skardu Fort Skardu (Urdu: سکردو) is the principle town and capital of Baltistan district, one of the districts making up Pakistans Northern Areas (also part of the Pakistani-administered part of Kashmir). ... A combatant is a person who takes a direct part in the hostilities of an armed conflict who upon capture qualifies for prisoner of war under the Third Geneva Convention (GCIII). ...


Background

During the 1990s, escalating tensions and conflict with separatists in Kashmir as well as nuclear tests by both countries in 1998 changed the scenario. Despite the belligerent atmosphere, both countries signed the Lahore Declaration in February 1999 to provide a peaceful and bilateral solution to the Kashmiri issue. However, elements in the Military of Pakistan covertly trained and sent troops and paramilitary forces, some allegedly in the guise of mujahideen, into the Indian territory. The aim was to sever the link between Kashmir and Ladakh, and cause Indian forces to withdraw from the Siachen Glacier, thus forcing India to negotiate a settlement of the broader Kashmir dispute. Pakistan also believed that any tension in the region would internationalise the Kashmir issue, helping it to secure a speedy resolution. Yet another goal may have been to boost the morale of the decade-long rebellion in Indian Occupied Kashmir by taking a proactive role. Some writers have speculated that the operation's objective may also have been as a retalliation for India's Operation Meghdoot in 1984 that seized much of Siachen Glacier.[8] Low intensity conflict (LIC) is the use of military forces applied selectively and with restraint to enforce compliance with the policies or objectives of the political body controlling the military force. ... Kashmir : Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... The Lahore Declaration was a historic declaration signed by the Indian Prime Minister, Mr. ... Bilateralism is a term referring to trade or political relations between two states. ... Military of Pakistan (Urdu: پاک عسکریہ) is the principal defence organization of Pakistan. ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... For the Iranian opposition group, see Peoples Mujahedin of Iran. ... The Siachen Glacier is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya Mountains along the disputed India-Pakistan border at approximately . ... Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Indian occupied Kashmir (also called Held Kashmir) is the name given by Pakistan to a portion of Kashmir controlled by India. ... Combatants India Pakistan Operation Meghdoot was the name given to the preemptive attack launched by the Indian Military to capture most of the Siachen Glacier, in the disputed Kashmir region, precipating the Siachen Conflict. ...


According to India's then army chief Ved Prakash Malik, and many other scholars, the infiltration was code named "Operation Badr",[9] and much of the background planning, including construction of logistical supply routes, had been undertaken much earlier. On more than one occasion, the army had given past Pakistani leaders (namely Zia ul Haq and Benazir Bhutto) similar proposals for an infiltration in the Kargil region in the 1980s and 1990s. However, the plans had been shelved for fear of drawing the nations into all-out war.[10][11] Some analysts believe that the blueprint of attack was reactivated when Pervez Musharraf was appointed chief of army staff in October 1998. In a disclosure made by Nawaz Sharif, the then Prime Minister of Pakistan, he states that he was unaware of the preparation of the intrusion, and it was an urgent phone call from Atal Bihari Vajpayee, his counterpart in India, that informed him about the situation.[12] Responding to this, Musharraf asserted that the Prime Minister had been briefed on the Kargil operation 15 days ahead of Vajpayee's journey to Lahore on February 20.[13] Sharif had attributed the plan to Musharraf and "just two or three of his cronies",[14] a view shared by some Pakistani writers who have stated that, only four generals, including Musharraf, knew of the plan.[10][15] Chief of Army Staff of Indian Army is the highest post in the Indian Army. ... A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used clandestinely to refer to another name or word. ... Gen. ... Benazir Bhutto (Urdu: بینظیر بھٹو, IPA: ; Sindhi:بینظیر ڀُٽو ) (born 21 June 1953 in Karachi) is a Pakistani politician who became the first elected woman to lead a post-colonial Muslim state. ... Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (Urdu: میاں محمد نواز شریف ) (born December 10, 1949 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan)[1] is a Pakistani politician. ... Atal Bihari Vajpayee (Hindi: , IPA: ) (born December 25, 1924) was the Prime Minister of India, briefly in 1996, and again from March 19, 1998 until May 19, 2004. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


War progress

There were three major phases to the Kargil War. First, Kashmiri freedom fighters captured several strategic high points in the Indian-occupied section of Kashmir. India forces where completely caught off guard and unable to dislogdge what were essentially militia men despite having their entire arsenal of modern weoponry. The war highlighted how a simple contingent of men can bring to a stalement a large army despite numerical and equipment inferiority.


Liberation by Pakistan

Because of the extreme winter weather in Kashmir, it was common practice for the Indian and Pakistan Army to abandon forward posts and reoccupy them in the spring. That particular spring, the Pakistan Army reoccupied the forward posts before the scheduled time. For other uses, see Spring. ...

Infiltration and military build-up.

In early May 1999, the Pakistan Army decided to occupy the Kargil posts, numbering around 130, and thus control the area. Troops from the elite Special Services Group as well as four to seven battalions[16][17] of the Northern Light Infantry (a paramilitary regiment not part of the regular Pakistani army at that time) backed by Kashmiri guerrillas and Afghan mercenaries[18] covertly and overtly set up bases on the vantage points of the Indian-controlled region. Initially, these incursions were not spotted due to the heavy artillery fire by Pakistan across the Line of Control, which provided cover for the infiltrators. But by the second week of May, the ambushing of an Indian patrol team, acting on a tip-off by a local shepherd in the Batalik sector, led to the exposure of the infiltration. Initially with little knowledge of the nature or extent of the encroachment, the Indian troops in the area claimed that they would evict them within a few days. However, reports of infiltration elsewhere along the LoC made it clear that the entire plan of attack was on a much bigger scale. The total area seized by the ingress is generally accepted to between 130 km² - 200 km²;[15][19] Musharraf however, stated that 500 square miles (1,300 km²) of Indian territory was occupied.[16] Image File history File links Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Source: http://www. ... The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. ... Military manpower Military age 16 years of age Availability 39,028,014 (2005) Males ages 16-49 Reaching military age males: 1,969,055 (2005) Active troops 620,000 (Ranked 9th) Military expenditures Dollar figure $3. ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ... The Northern Light Infantry (NLI) is a Light Infantry Regiment of the Pakistan Army. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Spray and pray be merged into this article or section. ... An ambush is a long established military tactic in which an ambushing force uses concealment to attack an enemy that passes its position. ... See: espionage, urban exploration, entryism, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. ...


The Government of India responded with Operation Vijay, a mobilisation of 200,000 Indian troops. However, because of the nature of the terrain, division and corps operations could not be mounted; the scale of most fighting was at the regimental or battalion level. International observers believe that the operation resulted in failure and showed how ineffective and ill prepared India was despite having one of the world's largest (numerically) army. In effect, two divisions of the Indian Army,[20] numbering 20,000, plus several thousand from the Indian Paramilitary Forces and the air force were deployed in the conflict zone. The total number of Indian soldiers that were involved in the military operation on the Kargil-Drass sector was thus close to 30,000. The number of infiltrators, including those providing logistical backup, has been put at approximately 5,000 at the height of the conflict.[15][21][18] This figure includes troops from Pakistan-administered Kashmir that were involved in the war providing additional artillery support. The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of... In the 1999 Kargil Conflict between India and Pakistan, Operation Vijay (Victory in Hindi) was the name of the successful Indian operation to push back the infiltrators from the Kargil Sector. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... This article is about a military unit. ... British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... Components Indian Army Indian Air Force Indian Navy Indian Coast Guard Indian Paramilitary Forces Strategic Nuclear Command History Military history of India British Indian Army Indian National Army Ranks Air Force ranks and insignia of India Army ranks and insignia of India Naval ranks and insignia of India Related Info... Planning, calculating, or the giving or receiving of information. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ...


Protection of National Highway No. 1A

The terrain of Kashmir is mountainous and at high altitudes; even the best roads, such as National Highway No. 1 (NH 1) from Leh to Srinagar, are only two lanes. The rough terrain and narrow roads slowed traffic, and the high altitude, which affected the ability of aircraft to carry loads, made control of NH 1A (the actual stretch of the highway which was under Pakistani fire) a priority for India. From their observation posts, the Pakistani forces had a clear line of sight to lay down indirect artillery fire on NH 1A, inflicting heavy casualties on the Indians.[22] This was a serious problem for the Indian Army as the highway was its main logistical and supply route. The Pakistani shelling of the arterial road posed the threat of Leh being cut off, though an alternative (and longer) road to Leh existed via Himachal Pradesh. An observation post is a position from which soldiers can watch enemy movements and direct artillery fire. ... Indirect fire is a characteristic unique to artillery in which the fire is adjusted out of sight of the guns. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... , Himachal Pradesh (Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA:  ) is a state in the north-west of India. ...


The infiltrators, apart from being equipped with small arms and grenade launchers, were also armed with mortars, artillery and anti-aircraft guns. Many posts were also heavily mined, with India later recovering nearly 9,000 anti-personnel mines according to ICBL. Pakistan's reconnaissance was done through unmanned aerial vehicles and AN/TPQ-36 Firefinder radars supplied by the US.[23] The initial Indian attacks were aimed at controlling the hills overlooking NH 1A, with high priority being given to the stretches of the highway near the town of Kargil. The majority of posts along the Line of Control were adjacent to the highway, and therefore the recapture of nearly every infiltrated post increased both the territorial gains and the security of the highway. The protection of this route and the recapture of the forward posts were thus ongoing objectives throughout the war. Though most of the posts in the vicinity of the highway were cleared by mid-June, some parts of the highway near Drass witnessed sporadic shelling until the end of the war. Small arms captured in Fallujah, Iraq by the US Marine Corps in 2004 The term small arms generally describes any number of smaller infantry weapons, such as firearms that an individual soldier can carry. ... A grenade launcher is weapon that fires or launches a grenade to longer distances than a soldier could throw by hand. ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... “Flak” redirects here. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ...  State Parties to the Ottawa Treaty The International Campaign to Ban Landmines is a coalition of non-governmental organizations whose goal is to abolish the production and use of anti-personnel mines. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... Unmanned Aerial Vehicle over Iraq. ... The AN/TPQ-36 FIREFINDER is a mobile radar system manufactured by the Hughes Aircraft Company, later acquired by Raytheon. ...


International Diplomacy

Once the freedom fighters and paramilitary forces began their pull back, it allowed India to regain control of the hills overlooking NH 1A, the Indian Army turned to driving the invading force back across the Line of Control, but elected not to pursue forces further into the Pakistani Kashmir. In effect, while the Indian's claimed victory, they merely took over the posts abondoned by the fighters. The Battle of Tololing, among other assaults, slowly tilted the combat in India's favor. Nevertheless, some of the posts put up a stiff resistance, including Tiger Hill (Point 5140) that fell only later in the war. A few of the assaults occurred atop hitherto unheard of peaks – most of them unnamed with only Point numbers to differentiate them – which witnessed fierce hand to hand combat. As the operation was fully underway, about 250 artillery guns were brought in to clear the infiltrators in the posts that were in the line of sight. The Bofors field howitzer (infamous in India due to the Bofors scandal) played a vital role, with Indian gunners making maximum use of the terrain that assisted such an attack. However, its success was limited elsewhere due to the lack of space and depth to deploy the Bofors gun. It was in this type of terrain that aerial attacks were introduced. The Indian Air Force launched Operation Safed Sagar but was limited by the high altitude, which in turn limited bomb loads and the number of airstrips that could be used. The IAF lost a MiG-27 strike aircraft which it attributed to an engine failure as well as a MiG-21 fighter which was shot down by Pakistan; Pakistan said it shot down both jets after they crossed into its territory[24][25] and one Mi-8 helicopter to Stinger SAMs. During attacks the IAF used laser-guided bombs to destroy well-entrenched positions of the Pakistani forces. It is estimated that in the war, nearly 700 intruders were killed by air action alone.[21] The battle of Tololing was one of the pivotal battles in the Kargil War between Indias armed forces and Pakistan backed irregulars in 1999. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Close Quarters Combat. ... When viewing a scene, as in optics, photography, or even hunting, the line of sight is the straight line between the observer and the target. ... Bofors is an iron works, cannon maker, and defence industry located in Karlskoga, Sweden. ... 19th century 12 pounder (5 kg) mountain howitzer displayed by the National Park Service at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, USA A howitzer is a type of artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles at trajectories with... The Bofors Scandal was a major corruption scandal in India in the 1980s; the then Prime Minister Indhira Gandhi and several others were accused of receiving kickbacks from Bofors AB for winning a bid to supply Indias 155 mm field howitzer. ... Gunner refers to a rank in the Royal Artillery, or can refer to anyone whose main job is to operate a gun. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... The Indian Air Force (भारतीय वायु सेना : Bharatiya Vayu Sena) is the air-arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the prime responsibility of conducting aerial warfare and securing the Indian airspace. ... A footage of IAFs successful strike mission on Tiger Hill. ... An airstrip is a kind of airport that consists only of a runway with perhaps fueling equipment. ... The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-27 (NATO reporting name Flogger) is a ground attack aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union and later licence-produced in India by Hindustan Aeronautics as the Bahadur (Valiant). It is based on the MiG-23 fighter aircraft, but optimized... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A compressor stall is either of two failure modes of an axial flow jet engine caused by a stall of the vanes of the compressor rotor. ... Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (NATO reporting name Fishbed) is a fighter aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan and Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... Russian Mi-8 Hip The Mil Mi-8 (NATO reporting name Hip) is a large transport helicopter that can also act as a gunship. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... The FIM-92 Stinger is a man portable infra-red homing surface-to-air missile developed in the United States and used by all the US armed services, with whom it entered service in 1981. ... Akash Missile Firing French Air Force Crotale battery Bendix Rim-8 Talos surface to air missile of the US Navy A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... A laser-guided bomb (LGB) is a free-fall bomb, usually dropped from an aircraft, that is guided to its target by a laser designator The laser is directed at the target, illuminating it. ...

Footage of IAF's successful strike mission on Tiger Hill.
Footage of IAF's successful strike mission on Tiger Hill.

In some vital points, neither artillery nor air power could dislodge the outposts manned by the Pakistan soldiers, who were out of visible range. The Indian Army mounted some direct frontal ground assaults which were slow and took a heavy toll given the steep ascent that had to be made on peaks as high as 18,000 feet (5,500 m). Since any daylight attack would be suicidal, all the advances had to be made under the cover of darkness, escalating the risk of freezing. Accounting for the wind chill factor, the temperatures were often as low as −11 °C to −15 °C (12 °F to 5 °F) near the mountain tops. Based on military tactics, much of the costly frontal assaults by the Indians could have been avoided if the Indian Military had chosen to blockade the supply route of the opposing force, virtually creating a siege. Such a move would have involved the Indian troops crossing the LoC as well as initiating aerial attacks on Pakistan soil, a manoeuvre India was not willing to exercise fearing an expansion of the theatre of war and reducing international support for its cause. Image File history File links Tiger_hill_capture. ... Image File history File links Tiger_hill_capture. ... In film and video, footage is the raw, unedited material as it has been recorded by the camera, which usually must be edited to create a motion picture, video clip, television show or similar completed work. ... The Indian Air Force (भारतीय वायु सेना : Bharatiya Vayu Sena) is the air-arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the prime responsibility of conducting aerial warfare and securing the Indian airspace. ... Wind chill is the apparent temperature felt on the exposed human (or animal) body due to the combination of air temperature and wind speed. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... The military tactic of frontal assault is a direct, hostile movement of forces towards enemy forces in a large number, in an attempt to overwhelm the enemy. ... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ...


Meanwhile, the Indian Navy also readied itself for an attempted blockade of Pakistani ports (primarily Karachi port)[26] to cut off supply routes.[27] Later, the then-Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif disclosed that Pakistan was left with just six days of fuel to sustain itself if a full-fledged war had broken out.[21] As Pakistan found itself entwined in a prickly position, the army had covertly planned a nuclear strike on India, the news of which alarmed U.S. President Bill Clinton, resulting in a stern warning to Nawaz Sharif.[28] Two months into the conflict, Indian troops had slowly retaken most of the ridges they had lost;[29][30] according to official count, an estimated 75%–80% of the intruded area and nearly all high ground was back under Indian control.[31] The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. ... The logo of the Karachi Port Trust. ... The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: وزیر اعظم Wazir-e- Azam) is the Head of Government of Pakistan. ... This article is about nuclear war as a form of actual warfare, including history. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...

Indian army soldiers wave the Indian flag on a mountain peak after securing the mountain from Pakistani forces.

Following the Washington accord on July 4, where Sharif agreed to withdraw the Pakistan-backed troops, most of the fighting came to a gradual halt. In spite of this, some of the militants still holed up did not wish to retreat, and the United Jihad Council (an umbrella for all extremist groups) rejected Pakistan's plan for a climb-down, instead deciding to fight on.[32] Following this, the Indian army launched its final attacks in the last week of July; as soon as the last of these Jihadists in the Drass subsector had been cleared, the fighting ceased on July 26. The day has since been marked as Kargil Vijay Diwas (Kargil Victory Day) in India. By the end of the war, India had resumed control of all territory south and east of the Line of Control, as was established in July 1972 as per the Shimla Accord. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1010x750, 812 KB)Source:[mod. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1010x750, 812 KB)Source:[mod. ... Indian National Flag Flag ratio: 2:3 The National Flag of India was adopted in its present form during an ad hoc meeting of the Constituent Assembly held on the 22 July 1947, a few days before Indias independence from the British on 15 August, 1947. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Definition Withdrawing is the act of removing all or part of a military force from combat and moving to a safe location. ... Also known as the Muttahida Jihad Council (MJC), this is a group created in the summer of 1994 by Pakistans Inter Services Intelligence. ... Extremism is the act of taking a belief, political view or ideology to its most literal extreme. ... Jihad (ǧihād جهاد) is an Arabic word which comes from the Arabic root word jahada, which means exerting utmost effort or to strive. The word connotes a wide range of meanings, from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith, to holy war. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Shimla Accord (named after Shimla) is a treaty signed between India (Prime Minister Indira Gandhi) and Pakistan (Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto) after their 1971 war. ...

World opinion

Pakistan was criticised by other countries for allowing its paramilitary forces and insurgents to cross the Line of Control in support of the Kashmiri Freedom fighters.[33] Pakistan's primary diplomatic response, one of plausible deniability linking the incursion to what it officially termed as "Kashmiri freedom fighters". In reality, there was little the government of Pakistan could do to prevent private citizens, retired soldiers and members of its paramilitary wings who share ethnic, religious and direct family relations with those under Indian occupation in Kashmir. The Kashmiri struggle evokes strong emotions and support from among the Pakistani population. Veteran analysts argued that the battle was fought at heights where only seasoned troops could survive, so poorly equipped "freedom fighters" would neither have the ability nor the wherewithal to seize land and defend it. Moreover, while the army had initially denied the involvement of its troops in the intrusion, two soldiers were awarded the Nishan-E-Haider (Pakistan's highest military honour). Another 90 soldiers were also given gallantry awards, most of them posthumously, confirming Pakistan's role in the episode. India also released taped phone conversations between the Army Chief and a senior Pakistani general where the latter is recorded saying: "the scruff of [the militants] necks is in our hands,"[34] although Pakistan dismissed it as a "total fabrication". Concurrently, Pakistan made several contradicting statements, confirming its role in Kargil, when it defended the incursions saying that the LOC itself was disputed.[35] Pakistan also attempted to internationalize the Kashmir issue, by linking the crisis in Kargil to the larger Kashmir conflict but, such a diplomatic stance found few backers on the world stage.[36] An insurgency is an armed rebellion against a constituted authority, by any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... Plausible deniability also Deniability is the term given to the creation of loose and informal chains of command in government, which allow controversial instructions given by high-ranking officials to be denied if they become public. ... Freedom fighter is a relativistic local term for those engaged in rebellion against an established organization that is thought to be oppressive. ... Nishan-e-Haider (Urdu: , translated as Order of the Lion, abbreviated as NH), is the highest military award given by Pakistan. ... A posthumous recognition is a ceremonial award given after the recipient has passed away. ... Telephone tapping (or wire tapping/wiretapping in the US) is the monitoring of telephone and Internet conversations by a third party, often by covert means. ... The disputed areas of the region of Kashmir. ...


As the Indian counter-attacks picked up momentum, Pakistani prime minister Nawaz Sharif flew to meet U.S. president Bill Clinton on July 4 to obtain support from the United States. Clinton rebuked Sharif, however, and asked him to use his contacts to rein in the militants and withdraw Pakistani soldiers. Clinton would later reveal in his autobiography that "Sharif’s moves were perplexing" since the Indian prime minister had travelled to Lahore to promote bilateral talks aimed at resolving the Kashmir problem and "by crossing the Line of Control, Pakistan had wrecked the [bilateral] talks."[37] On the other hand, he applauded Indian restraint for not crossing the LoC and escalating the conflict into an all-out war.[38] The other G8 nations, too, supported India and condemned the Pakistani violation of the LoC at the Cologne summit. The European Union was also opposed to the violation of the LoC.[39] China, a long-time ally of Pakistan, did not intervene in Pakistan's favour, insisting on a pullout of forces to the LoC and settling border issues peacefully. Other organizations like the ASEAN Regional Forum too supported India's stand on the inviolability of the LOC.[36] Faced with growing international pressure, Sharif managed to pull back the remaining soldiers from Indian territory. The joint statement issued by Clinton and Sharif conveyed the need to respect the Line of Control and resume bilateral talks as the best forum to resolve all disputes.[40] is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... My Life My Life is a 2004 autobiography written by former President of the United States Bill Clinton, who left office on January 20, 2001. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... Hymn The ASEAN Hymn Jakarta, Indonesia Membership 10 Southeast Asian states Leaders  -  Secretary General Ong Keng Yong Area  -  Total 4,497,4931 km²  Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character , sq mi  Population  -   estimate 566. ...


Impact and influence of media

Star TV news footage shows the BM-21 Grad MRL system being fired in the background. The rocket barrage was aimed at Tiger Hill. The reporter is Barkha Dutt. Images like these were relayed on most networks in India.
Star TV news footage shows the BM-21 Grad MRL system being fired in the background. The rocket barrage was aimed at Tiger Hill. The reporter is Barkha Dutt. Images like these were relayed on most networks in India.

The Kargil War was significant for the impact and influence of the mass media in both nations, especially on the Indian side where the state apparatus downplayed the loses suffered by the Indian army and the full financial extent of the conflict. Coming at a time of exploding growth in electronic journalism in India, the Kargil news stories and war footage were often telecast live on TV, and many websites provided in-depth analysis of the war. The conflict became the first "live" war in South Asia that was given such detailed media coverage, often to the extent of drumming up jingoistic feelings. The conflict soon turned into a news propaganda war, with the official press briefings of both nations producing claims and counterclaims. It reached such a stage where an outside observer listening to both Indian as well as Pakistani coverage of this conflict, would wonder whether both sides were reporting on the same conflict. The Indian government placed a temporary news embargo on information from Pakistan, even banning the telecast of the state-run Pakistani channel PTV and blocked access to online editions of Dawn newspaper. The Pakistani media played up this apparent curbing of freedom of the press in India, while the latter claimed it was in the interests of national security. Incidentally, one of the shells fired by Pakistan troops even hit a Doordarshan transmission centre in Kargil, although coverage continued.[41] Image File history File links Kargil_Pinaka. ... Star TV can refer to the following: Star TV (Ukraine): An electronic/club music channel in Ukraine Star TV (Turkey): A general entertainment channel in Turkey Star TV (Tanzania): A television station in Tanzania STAR TV (Asia): An Asian satellite service owned by News Corporation Startv (Canada): A Canadian weekly... BM-21 battery. ... BM-13 Katyusha RM-70 of the Polish Army A multiple rocket launcher is a type of unguided rocket artillery system, in use since the Second World War. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... Barkha Dutt in news footage during the Kargil War. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... Electronic journalism -- known as EJ or ENG for electronic news gathering -- is most associated with broadcast news where producers, reporters and editors make use of electronic recording devices for gathering and presenting information in telecasts and radio transmissions reaching the public. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Live television refers to television broadcasts of events or performances on a delay of between zero and fifteen seconds, rather than from video recordings or film. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Ten Thousand Miles From Tip to Tip, an 1898 political cartoon depicting the extension of the United States dominion Jingoism is chauvinistic patriotism, usually associated with a War Hawk political stance. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... News Embargo is the restriction imposed on the publication of information or news someone has. ... A government corporation or government-owned corporation is a legal entity created by a government to exercise some of the powers of the government. ... The Pakistan Television Corporation (abbreviated as PTV) (Urdu: پاکستان ٹیلیوژن کارپوریشن) is the state-run television service in Pakistan, and has been on the air since 1964. ... Online means being connected to the Internet or another similar electronic network, like a bulletin board system. ... Dawn is Pakistans oldest and most widely-read English-language newspaper. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... Doordarshan (sometimes DoorDarshan; ) is a Public broadcast Terrestrial television channel run by Prasar Bharati, a board nominated by the Government of India. ...


As the war progressed, media coverage was more intense in India compared to Pakistan. Many Indian channels were showing images from the battle zone with their troops in a style reminiscent of CNN's coverage of the Gulf War. One of the reasons for India's increased coverage was the proliferation of numerous privately owned channels vis-à-vis the Pakistani electronic media scenario which was still at a nascent stage. Yet another was the relatively greater transparency in the Indian media. In fact, at a seminar in Karachi, Pakistani journalists agreed that while the Indian government had taken the press and the people into its confidence, this was missing on the Pakistan side.[42] The print media in India and abroad was largely sympathetic to the Indian cause, with editorials in newspapers based in the west and other neutral countries observing that Pakistan was largely responsible for the incursions. Analysts believe that the power of the Indian media, which was both larger in number and assumed to be more credible, might have acted as a force multiplier for the Indian military operation in Kargil,[43] and served as a morale booster. As the fighting intensified, the Pakistani version of events found little backing on the world stage, helping India to gain valuable diplomatic recognition for its position on the issue. The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... A screenshot of a web page. ... For other uses of Transparency, see Transparency (disambiguation). ... Mass media in India is that part of the Indian media which aims to reach a wide audience. ... A seminar is, generally, a form of academic instruction, either at a university or offered by a commercial or professional organization. ...   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... Look up editorial, op-ed in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A force multiplier is a military term referring to a factor that dramatically increases (hence multiplies) the combat effectiveness of a military force. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Diplomatic recognition is a political act by which one state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government, thereby according it legitimacy and expressing its intent to bring into force the domestic and international legal consequences of recognition. ...


WMDs and the nuclear factor

One of the main concerns in the international community during the Kargil crisis was that both neighbours had access to weapons of mass destruction, and if the war intensified, it could have led to nuclear war. Both countries had tested their nuclear capability a year before in 1998; India conducted its first test in 1974 while it was Pakistan's first-ever nuclear test. Many pundits believed the tests to be an indication of the escalating stakes in the scenario in South Asia. With the outbreak of clashes in Kashmir just a year after the nuclear tests, many nations took notice of the conflict and desired to end it. For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The first hint of the possible use of a nuclear bomb was on May 31 when Pakistani foreign secretary Shamshad Ahmad made a statement warning that an escalation of the limited conflict could lead Pakistan to use "any weapon" in its arsenal.[44] This was immediately interpreted as an obvious threat of a nuclear retaliation by Pakistan in the event of an extended war, and the leader of Pakistan's senate noted, "The purpose of developing weapons becomes meaningless if they are not used when they are needed."[45] Many such ambiguous statements from officials of both countries were viewed as an impending nuclear crisis. The limited nuclear arsenals of both sides, paradoxically could have led to 'tactical' nuclear warfare in the belief that a nuclear strike would not have ended in total nuclear warfare with mutual assured destruction, as could have occurred between the United States and the USSR. Some experts believe that following nuclear tests in 1998, Pakistani military was emboldened by its nuclear deterrent cover to markedly increase coercion against India.[46] is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ... This article is about armaments factories. ... The Senate of Pakistan is the upper House of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. ... Mutual assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ...


The nature of the India-Pakistan conflict took a more sinister proportion when the U.S. received intelligence that Pakistani nuclear warheads were being moved towards the border. Bill Clinton tried to dissuade Pakistan prime minister Nawaz Sharif from nuclear brinkmanship, even threatening Pakistan of dire consequences. According to a White House official, Sharif seemed to be genuinely surprised by this supposed missile movement and responded that India was probably planning the same. This was later confirmed in an article in May 2000, which stated that India too had readied at least five nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles.[47] Sensing a deteriorating military scenario, diplomatic isolation, and the risks of a larger conventional and nuclear war, Sharif ordered the Pakistani army to vacate the Kargil heights. He later claimed in his official biography that General Pervez Musharraf had moved nuclear warheads without informing him.[48] Recently however, Pervez Musharraf revealed in his memoirs that Pakistan’s nuclear delivery system was not operational during the Kargil war;[16] something that would have put Pakistan under serious disadvantage if the conflict went nuclear. A B61 nuclear bomb in various stages of assembly; the nuclear warhead is the bullet-shaped silver cannister in the middle-left of the photograph. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A memoir, as a literary genre, forms a sub-class of autobiography. ...


Additionally, the threat of WMD included a suspected use of chemical and even biological weapons. Pakistan accused India of using chemical weapons and incendiary weapons such as napalm against the Kashmiri fighters. India, on the other hand, showcased a cache of gas masks, among other firearms, as proof that Pakistan may have been prepared to use non-conventional weapons. One militant group even claimed to possess chemical weapons; this was later found to be a hoax, and even the gas masks were most likely intended by the Pakistanis as protection from an Indian attack. The Pakistani allegations of India using banned chemicals in its bombs were proven to be unfounded by the U.S. administration at the time and the OPCW.[49] For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... Dressing the wounded during a gas attack by Austin O. Spare, 1918. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease_causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... hey hey you no i rock at soccer cuz no i made the school team!! yay me aka katelyn ♥ Incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are bombs designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as napalm, thermite, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus. ... A simulated Napalm explosion during MCAS Air Show in 2003. ... Belgian 1930s era L.702 model civilian mask. ... A firearm is a kinetic energy weapon that fires either a single or multiple projectiles propelled at high velocity by the gases produced by action of the rapid confined burning of a propellant. ... A hoax is an attempt to trick an audience into believing that something false is real. ... The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is not an agency of the United Nations. ...


Aftermath

India

Indian PM A.B.Vajpayee flashes the V sign after the Parliamentary elections in which his coalition emerged the victors. His handling of the Kargil crisis is believed to have played a big part in garnering the votes.
Indian PM A.B.Vajpayee flashes the V sign after the Parliamentary elections in which his coalition emerged the victors. His handling of the Kargil crisis is believed to have played a big part in garnering the votes.

The aftermath of the war saw the rise of the Indian stock market by over 30%. The next Indian national budget included major increases in military spending. From the end of the war until February 2000, the economy of India was bullish. There was a surge in patriotism, with many celebrities pitching in towards the Kargil cause.[50] Indians were also angered by the death of pilot Ajay Ahuja under controversial circumstances, and especially after Indian authorities reported that Ahuja had been murdered and his body mutilated by Pakistani troops. The war had also produced higher than expected fatalities for the Indian military, with a sizeable percentage of them including newly commissioned officers. One month later, the Atlantique Incident - where a Pakistan Navy plane was shot down by India - briefly reignited fears of a conflict between the two countries. Image File history File links Vajpayee_Victory. ... Image File history File links Vajpayee_Victory. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... Atal Bihari Vajpayee (Hindi: , IPA: ) (born December 25, 1924) was the Prime Minister of India, briefly in 1996, and again from March 19, 1998 until May 19, 2004. ... The V sign is a hand gesture in which the first and second fingers are raised and parted, whilst the remaining fingers are clenched. ... Sansad Bhavan, The Parliament of India The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is bicameral. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... The Bombay Stock Exchange The Bombay Stock Exchange Limited (Marathi:मुंबई शेयर बाजार) (formerly, The Stock Exchange, Mumbai; popularly called The Bombay Stock Exchange, or BSE) is the oldest stock exchange in Asia. ... Indias general budget is presented each year on the last day of February by the countrys Finance minister in Parliament. ... The economy of India, when measured in USD exchange-rate terms, is the twelfth largest in the world, with a GDP of US $1. ... In investing, financial markets are commonly believed to have market trends[1] that can be classified as primary trends, secondary trends (short-term), and secular trends (long-term). ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ... Sqn. ... Mutilation or maiming is an act or physical injury that degrades the appearance or function of the (human) body, usually causing death. ... An officer is a member of a military, naval, or if applicable, other uniformed services who holds a position of responsibility. ... The Atlantique Incident was a major event in which a Pakistan Navy plane was shot down by the Indian Air Force citing border violation. ... Pakistan Navy (Urdu: پاک بحریہ) is the naval wing of the Pakistan military. ...


After the war, the Indian government severed ties with Pakistan and increased defence preparedness. Since the Kargil conflict, India raised its defence budget as it sought to acquire more state of the art equipment; however, a few irregularities came to light during this period of heightened military expenditure.[51] There was also severe criticism of the intelligence agencies like RAW, which failed to predict either the intrusions or the identity/number of infiltrators during the war. An internal assessment report by the armed forces, published in an Indian magazine, showed several other failings, including "a sense of complacency" and being "unprepared for a conventional war" on the presumption that nuclearism would sustain peace. It also highlighted the lapses in command and control, the insufficient troop levels and the dearth of large-calibre guns like the Bofors.[52] In 2006, retired Air Chief Marshal, A.Y. Tipnis, alleged that the Indian Army did not fully inform the government about the intrusions, adding that the army chief Ved Prakash Malik, was initially reluctant to use the full strike capability of the Indian Air Force, instead requesting only helicopter gunship support.[53] Soon after the conflict, India also decided to complete the project - previously stalled by Pakistan - to fence the entire LOC.[54] This article is in need of attention. ... An intelligence agency is a governmental organization that for the purposes of national security is devoted to the gathering of information (known in the context as intelligence) by means of espionage, communication interception, cryptanalysis, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public sources. ... This article is about the Indian intelligence agency. ... Conventional warfare means a form of warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more nation-states in open confrontation. ... Introduction Nuclearism is the poltical philosophy or ideology that nuclear weapons are the best way of maintaining peace. ... In the military: The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. ... The word caliber (American English) or calibre (British English) comes from the Italian calibro, itself from the Arabic quâlib, meaning mould. ... Air Chief Marshal Sir Richard Johns in RAF No 1 Dress uniform Air Chief Marshal (Air Chf Mshl or ACM) is a senior air officer rank in the Royal Air Force of the United Kingdom as well as in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) and in the air forces... A helicopter gunship is a military helicopter armed for attacking targets on the ground, using automatic cannon and machinegun fire, rockets, and precision guided missiles such as the Hellfire. ...


The Kargil conflict was followed by the 13th Indian General Elections to the Lok Sabha, which gave a decisive mandate to the NDA government. It was re-elected to power in Sept–Oct 1999 with a majority of 303 seats out of 545 in the Lok Sabha. On the diplomatic front, the conflict was a major boost to Indo-U.S. relations, as the United States appreciated Indian attempts to restrict the conflict to a limited geographic area. These ties were further strengthened following the 9/11 attacks and a general shift in foreign policy of the two nations. Relations with Israel – which had discreetly aided India with ordnance supply and matériel such as unmanned aerial vehicles and laser-guided bombs, as well as satellite imagery – also were bolstered following the end of the conflict.[55] Parties are listed in the following order; First listed are parties registered as National parties, secondly parties registered as State parties and then unrecognized parties that won seats. ... The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ... In politics, a mandate is the authority granted by an electorate to act as its representative. ... The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is a coalition in India. ... The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ... Indo-U.S. relations, the bilateral relations between the United States of America and the Republic of India are at an all time high. ... The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Matériel (from the French for equipment or hardware, related to the word material) is a term used in English to refer to the equipment and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management. ... The £124 million Taranis UAV built by BAE Systems An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is an aircraft with no onboard pilot. ... Satellite imagery consists of photographs of Earth or other planets made from artificial satellites. ...


Pakistan

In 1999 TIME reported from the front line[56] of the combat and provided one of the few images of a Pakistani soldier at his post.

Faced with the possibility of international isolation, the already fragile Pakistani economy was weakened further.[57][58] The morale of its forces after the withdrawal was affected[59] as many units of the Northern Light Infantry were destroyed,[60] and the government refused to even recognise the dead bodies of its soldiers,[61][62] an issue that provoked outrage and protests in the Northern Areas.[63][64] Pakistan initially did not acknowledge many of its casualties, but Sharif later said that over 4,000 Pakistani troops were killed in the operation and that Pakistan had lost the conflict. Responding to this, Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf said, "It hurts me when an ex-premier undermines his own forces," and claimed that Indian casualties were more than that of Pakistan.[65] Image File history File links KargilPak. ... Image File history File links KargilPak. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... The economy of Pakistan is the 2nd largest economy in the world as measured by purchasing power parity (PPP). ... The Northern Light Infantry (NLI) is a Light Infantry Regiment of the Pakistan Army. ... The President of Pakistan (Urdū: صدر مملکت Sadr-e-Mamlikat) is the head of state of Pakistan. ...


Many in Pakistan had expected a victory over the Indian military based on Pakistani official reports on the war,[57] but were dismayed by the turn of events and questioned the eventual retreat.[10][66] The military leadership is believed to have felt let down by the prime minister's decision to withdraw the remaining fighters. However, some authors, including ex-CENTCOM Commander Anthony Zinni, and ex-PM Nawaz Sharif, state that it was the General who requested Sharif to withdraw the Pakistani troops.[67][68] With Sharif placing the onus of the Kargil attacks squarely on the army chief Pervez Musharraf, there was an atmosphere of uneasiness between the two. On October 12, 1999, General Musharraf staged a bloodless coup d'état, ousting Nawaz Sharif. The military of India, officially known as the Indian armed forces, is the primary military organisation responsible for the territorial security and defense of India. ... Definition Withdrawing is the act of removing all or part of a military force from combat and moving to a safe location. ... Emblem of the United States Central Command. ... Anthony Charles Zinni (born September 17, 1943) is a retired general in the United States Marine Corps and a former Commander in Chief of U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM). ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Coup redirects here. ...


Benazir Bhutto, an opposition leader and former prime minister, called the Kargil War "Pakistan's greatest blunder". Many ex-officials of the military and the ISI (Pakistan's principal intelligence agency) also were of the view that "Kargil was a waste of time" and "could not have resulted in any advantage" on the larger issue of Kashmir.[69] A retired Pakistani Army General, Lt Gen Ali Kuli Khan, lambasted the war as "a disaster bigger than the East Pakistan tragedy",[70] adding that the plan was "flawed in terms of its conception, tactical planning and execution" that ended in "sacrificing so many soldiers.".[71][70] The Pakistani media too was vocal in its criticism of the whole plan and the eventual climbdown from the Kargil heights since there were no gains to show for the loss of lives and only resulted in international condemnation for its actions.[72] This article is about the Pakistani intelligence agency. ... An intelligence agency is a governmental organization that for the purposes of national security is devoted to the gathering of information (known in the context as intelligence) by means of espionage, communication interception, cryptanalysis, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public sources. ... Lieutenant General Ali Kuli Khan was a former chief of military intelligence of the Pakistan Army who was superseded when the then Lieutenant General Pervez Musharraf was promoted as the chief of army staff. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ...


Despite calls by many for a probe, no public commission of inquiry was set up to investigate the people responsible for initiating the conflict. However, the Pakistani political party, PML(N) unveiled a white paper in 2006, which states that Nawaz Sharif constituted an inquiry committee that recommended a court martial for General Pervez Musharraf.[73] The party alleges that Musharraf "stole the report" after toppling the government, to save himself. The report also claims that India knew about the plan 11 months before its launch, enabling a complete victory for India on military, diplomatic and economic fronts.[74] Though the Kargil conflict had brought the Kashmir dispute into international focus – which was one of the aims of Pakistan – it had done so in negative circumstances that eroded its credibility, since the infiltration came just after a peace process between the two countries was underway. The sanctity of the LoC too received international recognition. The Pakistan Muslim League (N) (Urdu: پاکستان مسلم لیگ Ù†) is a political party in Pakistan. ... A white paper is an authoritative report. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


After the war, a few changes were made to the army. In recognition of the Northern Light Infantry's performance in the war - which even drew praise from a retired Indian Lt. General[22] - the regiment was incorporated into the regular army. The war showed that despite a tactically sound plan that had the element of surprise, little groundwork had been done to gauge the politico-diplomatic ramifications.[75] And like previous unsuccessful infiltrations attempts like Operation Gibraltar that sparked the 1965 war, there was little coordination or information sharing among the branches of the Pakistan military. One U.S. Intelligence study is reported to have stated that Kargil was yet another example of Pakistan’s (lack of) grand strategy, repeating the follies of the previous wars.[76] All these factors contributed to a strategic failure for Pakistan in Kargil. Operation Gibraltar was the name given to the Military Plan by Pakistan to Liberate Jammu and Kashmir, Indian Occupied and bring the Dispute to a logical end. ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri Harbakhsh Singh Ayub Khan Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800 killed[2] (September 6 - 22) 4,000 - 8,000 killed/ captured[3][4][5] (July to September 6) The Indo-Pakistani War... Military of Pakistan (Urdu: پاک عسکریہ) is the principal defence organization of Pakistan. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ...


Kargil War in the arts

The brief conflict has provided considerable material for both filmmakers and authors alike in India. Some documentaries which were shot on the subject were even used by the ruling party coalition, led by BJP, in furthering its election campaign that immediately followed the war. The following is a list of the major films and dramas on the subject. Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... BJP could mean one of Indias largest political parties, the Bharatiya Janata Party British Journal of Photography British Journal of Psychiatry British Journal of Pharmocology This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... “Electioneering” redirects here. ...

A movie poster of LOC Kargil which had the largest cast of stars in an Indian film.
  • LOC: Kargil (2003), a Hindi movie which depicts most of the incidents from the Kargil War was one of the longest in Indian movie history running for more than four hours.[77]
  • Lakshya (2004), another Hindi movie portraying a fictionalised account of the conflict. Movie critics have generally appreciated the realistic portrayal of characters.[78] The film also received good reviews in Pakistan because it portrays both sides fairly.[79]
  • Dhoop (2003),[80] directed by national award winner Ashwini Chaudhary, which depicted the life of Anuj Nayyar's parents after his death. Anuj Nayyar was a captain in the Indian army and was awarded Maha Vir Chakra posthumously. Om Puri plays the role of S.K. Nayyar, Anuj's father.
  • Mission Fateh - Real Stories of Kargil Heroes, a TV series telecast on Sahara channel chronicling the Indian Army's missions.
  • Fifty Day War - A theatrical production on the war, the title indicating the length of the Kargil conflict. This was claimed to be the biggest production of its kind in Asia, involving real aircraft and explosions in an outdoor setting.

Many other movies like Tango Charlie[81] also drew heavily upon the Kargil episode, which still continues to be a plot for mainstream movies with a Malayalam movie Keerthi Chakra,[82] being based on an incident in Kargil. The impact of the war in the sporting arena was also visible during the India-Pakistan clash in the 1999 Cricket World Cup, which coincided with the Kargil timeline. The game witnessed heightened passions and was one of the most viewed matches in the tournament. Image File history File links LOC_Kargil. ... Image File history File links LOC_Kargil. ... German three sheet movie poster for Metropolis. ... A movie star or film star is a celebrity who is a person known for his or her roles in motion pictures. ... The Indian film industry is the largest in the world in terms of the ticket sales and the number of films produced annually (877 feature films and 1177 short films were released in the year 2003 alone). ... LOC Kargil is a 2003 Bollywood war film based on the Kargil War. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... See Lakshya for other uses. ... Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. ... The National Film Awards, commonly known as the National Awards, are arguably the most prestigious and prominent film awards in India. ... Captain Anuj Nayyar, MVC Captain Anuj Nayyar was a junior officer of the 17 Jat Regiment of the Indian Army, who was posthumously awarded the Maha Vir Chakra, Indias second highest gallantry award, for his heroics during the Kargil War in 1999. ... The Maha Vir Chakra medal The Maha Vir Chakra (MVC) is the second highest military decoration in India and is awarded for acts of conspicuous gallantry in the presence of the enemy, whether on land, at sea or in the air. ... Om Puri, OBE (Honorary) (born October 18, 1950 in Ambala, Haryana, India) is an Indian actor who has appeared in both mainstream Bollywood films as well as art films. ... A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle &#8212... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Setting is a term in literature and drama usually referring to the time and location in which a story takes place. ... Look up plot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... It has been suggested that Aran movie be merged into this article or section. ... The 1999 Cricket World Cup was hosted primarily by England, but Ireland, Scotland and the Netherlands also hosted some games. ... For the novel by Michael Crichton, see Timeline (novel). ...


Notes

Note (I): Names for the conflict: There have been various names for the conflict. During the actual fighting in Kargil, the Indian Government was careful not to use the term "war", calling it a "war-like situation", even though both nations indicated that they were in a "state of war". Terms like Kargil "conflict", Kargil "incident" or the official military assault, "Operation Vijay", were thus preferred. After the end of the war however, the Indian Government increasingly called it the "Kargil War", even though there had been no official declaration of war. Other less popularly used names included "Third Kashmir War" and Pakistan's codename given to the infiltration: "Operation Badr". In the 1999 Kargil Conflict between India and Pakistan, Operation Vijay (Victory in Hindi) was the name of the successful Indian operation to push back the infiltrators from the Kargil Sector. ...


Note (II): Casualties: The exact count of Pakistan army losses has been somewhat more difficult to figure out, partly because Pakistan has not yet published an official casualties list. The US Department of State had made an early, partial estimate of close to 700 fatalities. After the end of the war, this figure was revised upwards by scholars as well as authors. Estimates on Pakistan casualties vary wildly given the problems of assessing the number of deaths in the militant ranks. According to numbers stated by Nawaz Sharif there were 4,000+ fatalities. His party Pakistan Muslim League (N) in its "white paper" on the war mentioned that more than 3,000 Mujahideens, officers and soldiers were killed.[83] Another major Pakistani political party, the PPP, assesses the casualties to be three thousand soldiers and irregulars, as given on their website. Indian estimates, as stated by the country's Army Chief mention 1,042 Pakistani soldiers were killed[84] Musharraf, in his hindi version of his memoirs, titled "Agnipath", differs from all the estimates stating that 357 troops were killed with a further 665 wounded.[5] Apart from General Musharraf's figure on the number of Pakistanis wounded, the number of people injured in the Pakistan camp is not yet fully known. One Indian Pilot was officially captured during the fighting, while there were eight Pakistani soldiers who were captured during the fighting, and were repatriated on 13 August 1999;[7] Department of State redirects here. ... The Pakistan Muslim League (N) (Urdu: پاکستان مسلم لیگ Ù†) is a political party in Pakistan. ... The Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) (Urdu: پاکستان پیپلز پارٹی ) is a mainstream centre-left political party in Pakistan. ... Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

  1. ^ Government of India site mentioning the Indian casualties, Statewise break up of Indian casualties statement from Indian Parliament
  2. ^ Breakdown of casualities into Officers, JCOs, and Other Ranks - Parliament of India Website
  3. ^ Complete Roll of Honour of Indian Army's Killed in Action during Op Vijay from the Official Indian Army Website.
  4. ^ Official statement giving breakdown of wounded personnel - Parliament of India Website
  5. ^ a b c President Musharaffs disclosure on Pakistani Casualties in his book Indian Express news report
  6. ^ Over 4000 soldier's killed in Kargil: Sharif
  7. ^ a b Tribune Report on Pakistani POWs
  8. ^ Robert G. Wirsing (2003). Kashmir in the Shadow of War: regional rivalries in a nuclear age. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-1090-6.  Pg 38
  9. ^ Kargil: where defence met diplomacy - Hosted on Daily Times; The Fate of Kashmir By Vikas Kapur and Vipin Narang Stanford Journal of International Relations; Book review of "The Indian Army: A Brief History by Maj Gen Ian Cardozo" - Hosted on IPCS
  10. ^ a b c Hassan Abbas (2004). Pakistan's Drift Into Extremism: Allah, the Army, and America's War on Terror. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-1497-9. 
  11. ^ Musharraf advised against Kargil, says Benazir, Musharraf had brought Kargil plan to me: Benazir, Interview in 2003. ‘Musharraf planned Kargil when I was PM’ : Bhutto - Previous interview to Hindustan Times on November 30, 2001
  12. ^ I was in dark about Kargil aggression: Sharief July 16, 2004 - Hosted on Rediff.com
  13. ^ Kargil planned before Vajpayee's visit: Musharraf July 13, 2006 - Indian Express
  14. ^ "I learnt about Kargil from Vajpayee, says Nawaz", Dawn, 29 May 2006. Retrieved on 2006-05-29. 
  15. ^ a b c An Analysis of the Kargil Conflict 1999, by Brigadier Shaukat Qadir, RUSI Journal, April 2002
  16. ^ a b c Pervez Musharraf (2006). In the Line of Fire: A Memoir. Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-8344-9. 
  17. ^ The Northern Light Infantry in the Kargil Operations by Ravi Rikhye 1999 August 25, 2002 - ORBAT
  18. ^ a b It is estimated that around 2,000 "Mujahideen" might have been involved as Musharraf stated on July 06, 1999 to Pakistan's The News; online article in the Asia Times quoting the General's estimate. An Indian Major General(retd) too puts the number of guerillas at 2,000 apart from the NLI Infantry Regiment.
  19. ^ War in Kargil (PDF) Islamabad Playing with Fire by Praful Bidwai - The Tribune, 7 June 1999
  20. ^ Lessons from Kargil, Gen VP Malik
  21. ^ a b c 1999 Kargil Conflict -GlobalSecurity.org
  22. ^ a b Indian general praises Pakistani valour at Kargil May 5, 2003 Daily Times, Pakistan
  23. ^ Indian Army gets hostile weapon locating capability
  24. ^ [1]
  25. ^ India loses two jets
  26. ^ The Resurgence of Baluch nationalism by Frédéric Grare - Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
  27. ^ [http://www.defencejournal.com/2001/apr/seaspark.htm Exercise Seaspark—2001 by Cdr. (Retd) Muhammad Azam Khan] Defence Journal, April 2001
  28. ^ Pakistan 'prepared nuclear strike'
  29. ^ Bitter Chill of Winter - Tariq Ali, London Review of Books
  30. ^ Colonel Ravi Nanda (1999). Kargil : A Wake Up Call. Vedams Books. ISBN 81-7095-074-0.  Online summary of the Book
  31. ^ Kargil: where defence met diplomacy - India's then Chief of Army Staff VP Malik, expressing his views on Operation Vijay in an article in The Indian Express.
  32. ^ Pakistan and the Kashmir militants
  33. ^ Hassan Abbas (2004). Pakistan's Drift Into Extremism: Allah, The Army, And America's War On Terror. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-1497-9.  Pg 173; Revisiting Kargil: Was it a Failure for Pakistan's Military?, IPCS
  34. ^ Transcripts of conversations between Lt Gen Mohammad Aziz, Chief of General Staff and Musharraf
  35. ^ U.S. brokers Kargil peace but problems remain, Betrayal on Kargil by Nasim Zehra June 16, 2000 Jang
  36. ^ a b ASEAN backs India's stand July 24, 2006 The Tribune
  37. ^ Bill Clinton (2004). My Life. Random House. ISBN 0-375-41457-6. , Pg 865
  38. ^ Dialogue call amid fresh fighting - - BBC News
  39. ^ India encircles rebels on Kashmir mountaintop - CNN
  40. ^ Text of joint Clinton-Sharif statement
  41. ^ Pak TV ban gets good response
  42. ^ Pak media lament lost opportunity - Editorial statements and news headlines from Pakistan hosted on Rediff.com
  43. ^ The role of media in war - Sultan M Hali, Press Information Bureau, India
  44. ^ Quoted in News Desk, “Pakistan May Use Any Weapon,” The News, May 31, 1999.
  45. ^ Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons Program (PDF)
  46. ^ Options Available to the United States to Counter a Nuclear Iran By George Perkovich - Testimony by George Perkovich before the House Armed Services Committee, February 1, 2006
  47. ^ India had deployed Agni during Kargil, Article from "Indian Express" 19/6/2000
  48. ^ Musharraf moved nuclear weapons in Kargil war - Excerpts from Nawaz's Sharif's Urdu biography Ghadaar Kaun? Nawaz Sharif Ki Kahani, Unki Zubani (Who is the traitor? Nawaz Sharif’s story in his own words.)
  49. ^ NTI:Country Overview - The Nuclear Threat Initiative
  50. ^ The Spoils of War, India backs its 'boys'
  51. ^ Kargil defence purchases scandal, Kargil coffin scam
  52. ^ War Against Error, Cover story on Outlook, February 28, 2005 (Online edition)
  53. ^ Army was reluctant to tell govt about Kargil: Tipnis 7 October 2006 - The Times of India
  54. ^ Fencing Duel - India Today
  55. ^ News reports from Daily Times (Pakistan) and BBC mentioning the Israeli military support to India during the conflict.
  56. ^ Under Cover of Night The presence of Pakistani soldiers deep in enemy territory disproves Islamabad's claims of innocence July 12, 1999, Time Asia
  57. ^ a b Samina Ahmed. "Diplomatic Fiasco: Pakistan's Failure on the Diplomatic Front Nullifies its Gains on the Battlefield" (Belfer Center for International Affairs, Kennedy School of Government)
  58. ^ Multiple views and opinions on the state of Pakistan's economy, the Kashmir crisis and the military coup, The Promise of Contemporary Pakistan by Faisal Cheema
  59. ^ Samina Ahmed. "A Friend for all Seasons." (Belfer Center for International Affairs, Kennedy School of Government)
  60. ^ War in Kargil - The CCC's summary on the war.
  61. ^ PPP's website on the failure to acknowledge Pakistan's soldiers
  62. ^ "Pakistan refuses to take even officers' bodies"
  63. ^ Second-Class Citizens by M. Ilyas Khan, The Herald (Pakistan), July 2000. Online scanned version of the article(PDF)
  64. ^ Musharraf and the truth about Kargil - The Hindu 25 September 2006
  65. ^ President Musharraf reacts to Nawaz Sharif's Pakistan's casualty claims in Kargil
  66. ^ Pakistani opposition presses for Sharif's resignation By K. Ratnayake 7 August 1999, Can Sharif deliver?, Michael Krepon. "The Stability-Instability Paradox in South Asia" - Hosted on Henry L. Stimson Centre.
  67. ^ Tom Clancy, Gen. Tony Zinni (Retd) and Tony Koltz (2004). Battle Ready. Grosset & Dunlap. ISBN 0-399-15176-1. 
  68. ^ Musharraf Vs. Sharif: Who's Lying?
  69. ^ Select Media Reports from Urdu Media in Pakistan (PDF)
  70. ^ a b Kargil was a bigger disaster than 1971 - Interview of Lt Gen Ali Kuli Khan.
  71. ^ Review of Musharraf's memoirs by By S. A. Haleem Jang, October 19, 2006
  72. ^ Victory in reverse: the great climbdown, For this submission what gain? by Ayaz Amir - Dawn (newspaper)
  73. ^ PML-N issues white paper on Kargil operation - The News International
  74. ^ Ill-conceived planning by Musharraf led to second major military defeat in Kargil: PML-N Pak Tribune, August 6, 2006
  75. ^ Kargil: the morning after By Irfan Husain 29 April 2000 Dawn
  76. ^ EDITORIAL: Kargil: a blessing in disguise? July 19, 2004 Daily Times, Pakistan
  77. ^ LOC:Kargil main page on the website IMDb.
  78. ^ A collection of some reviews on the movie "Lakshya" at Rotten Tomatoes
  79. ^ Bollywood’s Kargil —Ihsan Aslam Daily Times
  80. ^ Dhoop at the Internet Movie Database
  81. ^ Tango Charlie at the Internet Movie Database
  82. ^ Keerthi Chakra at the Internet Movie Database
  83. ^ Ill-conceived planning by Musharraf led to second major military defeat in Kargil: PML-N August 6, 2006, PakTribune
  84. ^ Indian Army rubbishes Musharraf's Kargil claims

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References

  • The Cause and Consequences of the 1999 Limited War in Kargil the CCC Kargil Project.
  • Kargil Conflict (GlobalSecurity.org)
  • Limited Conflict Under the Nuclear Umbrella (RAND Corporation)
  • War in Kargil (Center for Contemporary Conflict) PDF download
  • Essay on the outcomes of the Kargil War
  • Stephen P. Cohen (2004). The Idea of Pakistan. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0-8157-1502-1. 
  • Kargil Review Committee (2000). From Surprise to Reckoning : The Kargil Review Committee Report. SAGE Publications. ISBN 0-7619-9466-1.  (Executive summary of the report, Online)
  • Limited War with Pakistan: Will It Secure India’s Interests? Paper by Suba Chandran
  • An Analysis of the Kargil Conflict 1999, by Shaukat Qadir, RUSI Journal, April 2002 (PDF)

GlobalSecurity. ... The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit global policy think tank first formed to offer research and analysis to the United States armed forces. ... Stephen P. Cohen is Senior Fellow in Foreign Policy Studies at the Brookings Institution. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ...

Further reading

  • M. K. Akbar (1999). Kargil Cross Border Terrorism. South Asia Books. ISBN 81-7099-734-8. 
  • Amarinder Singh. A Ridge Too Far: War in the Kargil Heights. ASIN: B0006E8KKW
  • Jasijit Singh (1999). Kargil 1999: Pakistan's Fourth War for Kashmir. South Asia Books. ISBN 81-86019-22-7. 
  • J. N. Dixit (2002). India-Pakistan in War & Peace. Books Today. ISBN 0-415-30472-5. 
  • Muhammad Ayub. An Army; Its role and Rule (A History of the Pakistan Army From Independence to Kargil 1947–1999). Published by Rosedog Books, Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania, USA. ISBN 0-8059-9594-3

External links

  • Indian Armed Forces site on Kargil
  • Animated timeline and other Kargil stories - India Today
  • Behind the 'near-war' - Asiaweek report
  • Indian Picture Galleries [2] [3]
  • Impact of the conflict on civilians - BBC
  • Acosta, Marcus P., CPT, U.S. Army, High Altitude Warfare- The Kargil Conflict & the Future, June 2003. Master's degree Thesis about the Kargil War. Authored in completion of master's degree requirements in the Department of National Security Affairs,Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California. Alternate Link
  • The Kargil Crisis: An Overview by Abdus Sabur
  • The Day A Nuclear Conflict Was Averted – YaleGlobal Online
  • Kargil Debacle: Musharraf's Time Bomb, Waiting to Explode
  • Brief analysis of the Kargil conflict by Center for Strategic and International Studies (PDF)
  • Remembering Kargil Reality check - The News International, Pakistan
  • POSTCARD USA: Kargil, Kargil everywhere - Pakistan's Daily Times
  • Analysis on Shireen Mazari's Research
  • Disarmament Diplomacy - Complete texts of Indian and Pakistani statements following Pakistan's decision to withdraw its troops in Kargil
  • Kargil War as Ice Capades - Article by Gary Brecher in Moscow-based magazine The eXile; and a response to Brecher's article at The Acorn/Indian National Interest.
  • Video of Pakistani PoWs from the conflict hosted on YouTube
  • Video on Tiger Hill operations by IAF - National Geographic Channel video.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kargil War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6385 words)
The war is one of the most recent examples of high altitude warfare in mountainous terrain, and posed significant logistical problems for the combating sides.
The Kargil War was significant for the impact and influence of the mass media in both nations, especially on the Indian side.
The Kargil victory was followed by the 13th Indian General Elections to the Lok Sabha, which gave a decisive mandate to the NDA government.
1999 Kargil Conflict (3558 words)
The 1999 Kargil War took place between May 8, when Pakistani forces and Kashmiri militants were detected atop the Kargil ridges and July 14 when both sides had essentially ceased their military operations.
Operation Vijay in the Kargil district of Jammu and Kashmir during the summer months of 1999 was a joint Infantry-Artillery endeavour to evict regular Pakistani soldiers of the Northern Light Infantry (NLI) who had intruded across the Line of Control (LoC) into Indian territory and had occupied un-held high-altitude mountain peaks and ridgelines.
Unlike the earlier wars with Pakistan, this time the bringing in of the Navy at the early stages of the conflict served to hasten the end of the conflict in India's favor.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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