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Encyclopedia > Karelia
Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into.
Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into.

Karelia is the land of the Karelian people, that vast inhabited area in Northern Europe, of historical significance for Finland, Russia and Sweden. It is currently divided between the Russian Republic of Karelia, the Russian Leningrad Oblast, and two Regions of Finland, South Karelia and North Karelia. Download high resolution version (445x764, 30 KB)Traditional divisions of Karelia File links The following pages link to this file: Talk:Republic of Karelia User:Jniemenmaa/images Karelia Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (445x764, 30 KB)Traditional divisions of Karelia File links The following pages link to this file: Talk:Republic of Karelia User:Jniemenmaa/images Karelia Categories: GFDL images ... The Karelians is a name used to denote two related, yet different ethnic groups of Finnic-language speakers. ... Northern Europe is marked in dark blue Northern Europe is a name of the northern part of the European continent. ... The Republic of Karelia (Russian: ) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Leningrad Oblast (Russian: , tr. ... Finland is divided into 20 regions (maakunta/landskap in Finnish/Swedish). ... The Region of South Karelia is a region (maakunta / landskap) of Finland. ... The Region of North Karelia is a region (maakunta / landskap) in eastern Finland. ...


In the Karelian, Finnish and Estonian languages Karelia is called Karjala; in Russian Карелия, and in Swedish Karelen. The Karelian language is a variety closely related to Finnish, with which it is not necessarily mutually intelligible. ...

Contents


History

Main article: History of Karelia.


Karelia was bitterly fought over by Sweden and Novgorod Republic in the 13th century. The Treaty of Nöteborg (Finnish: Pähkinäsaaren rauha) in 1323 divided Karelia between the two. Viborg (Finnish: Viipuri) became the capital of the new Swedish province. Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика in Russian, or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Treaty of Nöteborg, also known as Treaty of Orekhovo signed at Orechovets (Pähkinäsaari) on August 12, 1323, was a treaty between Sweden and Novgorod regulating their border. ... Events Canonization of Saint Thomas Aquinas Lithuania: Vilnius becomes capital August 12 - The Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia) is signed, regulating the border for the first time Pharos of Alexandira Lighthouse (one of the Seven Wonders of the world) is destroyed by a series of earthquakes... A view of Vyborg from the castle tower Vyborg (Cyrillic: Выборг, Finnish: Viipuri, Swedish: Viborg, German: Wiburg) is a town with 70,000 inhabitants on the Karelian Isthmus in Russia, near the head of the Bay of Vyborg, 130 km to the northwest of Saint Petersburg, 38 km south from Russia...


The Treaty of Nystad (Finnish: Uudenkaupungin rauha) in 1721, between Imperial Russia and Sweden, ceded most of Karelia to Russia. After Finland had been occupied by Russia in the Finnish War, parts of the ceded provinces (Old Finland) were incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1917 Finland became independent and the border was confirmed by the Treaty of Tartu in 1920. The Treaty of Nystad (1721), signed at the present-day Finnish town of Uusikaupunki (Swedish Nystad), ended the Great Northern War, in which Russia received the territories of Estonia, Livonia and Ingria, as well as much of Karelia and Tsar Peter I of Russia replaced King Frederick I of Sweden... // Events Pope Innocent XIII becomes pope Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Brandenburg Concertos April 4 - Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Britain September 10 - Treaty of Nystad is signed, bringing an end to the Great Northern War November 2 - Peter I is proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. ... Old Finland (Vanha Suomi in Finnish) is a name used for the areas that Sweden lost to Russia in the Great Northern War and in the Hats Russian War. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The Finnish declaration of independence was adopted by the Parliament of Finland on December 6, 1917. ... The Treaties of Tartu were treaties between Bolshevist Russia on one side and the recently independent Estonia and Finland, formerly belonging to Imperial Russia, on the other. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ...

Many fine examples of old Russian wooden architecture survive in Karelia.
Many fine examples of old Russian wooden architecture survive in Karelia.

During the 1920s, Finns were involved in attempts to overthrow the Bolshevists in Russian Karelia (East Karelia), for instance in the failed Aunus expedition. These mainly private expeditions ended after the peace treaty of Tartu. After the end of the Russian Civil War, and the establishment of the Soviet Union in 1922, the Russian part of Karelia became the Karelian Autonomous republic of the Soviet Union (ASSR) in 1923. Image File history File links Photo of Kizhi, taken in the 1963. ... Image File history File links Photo of Kizhi, taken in the 1963. ... The 1920s were a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Red side in the Russian government between the Bolsheviks October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... East Karelia and West Karelia with borders of 1939 and 1940/1947. ... The Aunus expedition was an attempt by Finnish volunteers to occupy parts of East Karelia in 1919, during the Russian Civil War. ... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In 1939 the Soviet Union attacked Finland starting Winter War. In Peace of Moscow most of Finnish Karelia had to be handed over to the Soviet Union. About 400 000 people, the whole population excluding few individuals, fled and had to be relocated. In 1941 Karelia was re-conquered for three years during the Continuation War 19411944 when also East Karelia was occupied by the Finns. The Winter War and the resulting Soviet expansion caused considerable bitterness in Finland that lost its second biggest city, Viipuri, its industrial heart along the river Vuoksi, the Saimaa canal that connected central Finland to the Gulf of Finland, access to the fishing waters of Lake Ladoga (Finnish: Laatokka), and made an eighth of her citizens refugees without chance of return. 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 180,000 450,000 Casualties 22,830 dead 43,557 wounded c. ... The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on March 12, 1940. ... Finnish Karelia, historically also Swedish Karelia or Carelia, is a historical province in eastern Finland. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... A view of Vyborg from the castle tower Vyborg (Cyrillic: Выборг, Finnish: Viipuri, Swedish: Viborg, German: Wiburg) is a town with 70,000 inhabitants on the Karelian Isthmus in Russia, near the head of the Bay of Vyborg, 130 km to the northwest of Saint Petersburg, 38 km south from Russia... The River Vuoksi (Finnish) or River Vuoksa (Russian standard transcription) runs in the northernmost part of the Karelian Isthmus, from Lake Saimaa in southeastern Finland flowing into Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia. ... Saimaa Canal (Finnish: Saimaan kanava, Swedish: Saima kanal) is a canal in a system of 120 interconnected lakes in the south-central and south-east part of Finland. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ...


As a consequence of the Peace of Moscow, the Karelian ASSR was incorporated with the Karelo-Finnish SSR 19411956; After which it became an ASSR again. In 1991 the Republic of Karelia was created of the ASSR. State motto: Kaikkien maiden proletaarit, liittykää yhteen! (Workers of all countries, unite) Image:SovietUnionKarelia. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic of Karelia (Russian: ) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...


Politics

Map showing the Republic of Karelia and the two Finnish regions.
Map showing the Republic of Karelia and the two Finnish regions.

Karelia is divided between Finland and Russia. The Republic of Karelia is an autonomous republic of Russia, which was formed in 1991 from the Karelian ASSR. The Karelian Isthmus belongs to the Leningrad Oblast. The Finnish parts of Karelia are part of the regions (maakunta) of South Karelia and North Karelia. Map of current political divisions of Karelia File links The following pages link to this file: Republic of Karelia Talk:Republic of Karelia North Karelia User:Jniemenmaa/images South Karelia Karelia Categories: GFDL images ... Map of current political divisions of Karelia File links The following pages link to this file: Republic of Karelia Talk:Republic of Karelia North Karelia User:Jniemenmaa/images South Karelia Karelia Categories: GFDL images ... The Republic of Karelia (Russian: ) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Karelian Isthmus is the narrow stretch of land between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia. ... Leningrad Oblast (Russian: , tr. ... The Region of South Karelia is a region (maakunta / landskap) of Finland. ... The Region of North Karelia is a region (maakunta / landskap) in eastern Finland. ...


There are some small but enthusiastic groups of Finns campaigning for closer ties between Finland and Karelia. Thus the irredentist hopes is called Karelian question and is about for Finland's re-acquisition of the ceded Finnish Karelia live on in for instance the Karjalan Liitto and ProKarelia. The ambitions for closer ties with East Karelia does not include territorial demands. Irredentism is a international relations term that involves advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ... Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union. ... Finnish Karelia, historically also Swedish Karelia or Carelia, is a historical province in eastern Finland. ... Karjalan Liitto (Karelian Association) is an interest group for Karelian evacuees. ... ProKarelia is a Finnish NGO, that works for the return of Finnish Karelia, Petsamo, Salla and some islands in Gulf of Finland ceded to the Soviet Union in past treaties in Moscow and Paris. ... East Karelia and West Karelia with borders of 1939 and 1940/1947. ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Karelia.


Karelia streches from the White Sea coast to the Gulf of Finland. It contains the two largest lakes in Europe, Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega. The Karelian Isthmus is located between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga. Barents Sea, the Kola Peninsula and the White Sea. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... Lake Onega (also known as Onego, Onezhskoe ozero (from Russian, Онежское озеро), and Onezhskoe lake) is a lake in the Russian Federation. ... The Karelian Isthmus is the narrow stretch of land between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ...


The border between Karelia and Ingria, the land of the closely related Ingrian people, is traditionally held to follow the Sestra River/Rajajoki (Russian: Сестра/Раяйоки), today in the Saint Petersburg metropolitan area, but 1812–1940 the Russo-Finnish border. The Ingrian flag Map of Karelia giving an idea of where Ingria lies. ... Ingrians refer to the Finnic people that before the foundation of Saint Petersburg inhabited Ingria (east and south of the Gulf of Finland) Ingrian Finns (Lutherans) Izhorians (Orthodox) Categories: Finnic peoples ... Sestra River, also known as Rajajoki in Finnish (Сестра in Russian) is a river in the Leningrad Oblast in Russia. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


On the other side of Lake Ladoga, River Svir is usually thought of as the traditional southern border of Karelian land, like Lake Saimaa marks the Western border while Lake Onega and the White Sea marks the Eastern border. In the North there were the nomadic Samis, but no natural border except for huge woods (taiga) and tundra. Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... The river Svir (Свирь, Finnish: Syväri) connects Lake Onega with Lake Ladoga in Russia, thus connecting the two largest lakes of Europe, and is considered the southern border of East Karelia. ... A territory is a defined area (including land and waters), usually considered to be a possession of an animal, person, organization, or institution (from the word terra, meaning land). In politics, a territory is an area of land under the jurisdiction of a governmental authority. ... A Picture of Saimaa Saimaa, or Saimen in Swedish, is a lake in southeastern Finland. ... Lake Onega (also known as Onego, Onezhskoe ozero (from Russian, Онежское озеро), and Onezhskoe lake) is a lake in the Russian Federation. ... Barents Sea, the Kola Peninsula and the White Sea. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps and Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... Taiga Taiga (IPA pronunciation: , from the Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by coniferous forests. ... In physical geography, tundra is an area where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ...


In historical texts Karelia is sometimes divided into East Karelia and West Karelia, which are also called Russian Karelia and Finnish Karelia respectively. The area to the north of Lake Ladoga which belonged to Finland before World War II is called Ladoga Karelia, and the parishes on the old pre-war border are sometimes called Border Karelia. White Karelia is the northern part of East Karelia and Olonets Karelia is the southern part. East Karelia and West Karelia with borders of 1939 and 1940/1947. ... Finnish Karelia, historically also Swedish Karelia or Carelia, is a historical province in eastern Finland. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead:17 million Civilian dead:33 million Total dead:50 million Military dead:8 million Civilian dead:4 million Total dead:12 million World War II... This article is about Karelia, the land of the Karelians, in its broadest meaning. ... This article is about Karelia, the land of the Karelians, in its broadest meaning. ... East Karelia and West Karelia with borders of 1939 and 1940/1947. ... This article is about Karelia, the land of the Karelians, in its broadest meaning. ...


Tver Karelia denotes the villages in the Tver Oblast that are inhabited by Karelians. [1] [2] Tver Oblast (Russian: Тверска́я о́бласть) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... The Karelians is a name used to denote two related, yet different ethnic groups of Finnic-language speakers. ...


Towns and cities

View of the old town of Kem in 1911.
View of the old town of Kem in 1911.

Image File history File links View of Kem, Karelia in 1911. ... Image File history File links View of Kem, Karelia in 1911. ... View of Kem in 1911. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... The Republic of Karelia (Russian: ) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Petrozavodsk (Russian: ; Karelian/Finnish: Petroskoi) is the capital of the Republic of Karelia, Russia, with a population of 266,160 (2002 Census). ... View of Kem in 1911. ... Kemi is a town and municipality of Finland. ... Kostomuksha is a town located in North-Western part of Russian Karelia, in 30 km from Finnish border. ... View from space Kondopoga is a town in Karelia, Russia. ... Sortavala (Сортавала) is a town in the Russian Republic of Karelia, located at the northern tip of Lake Ladoga. ... Unitsa (Уница) is a village in Karelia, Russia on a bank of Unitskaya guba (Unitskaya gulf) of Onego lake. ... The Karelian Isthmus is the narrow stretch of land between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia. ... A view of Vyborg from the castle tower Vyborg (Cyrillic: Выборг, Finnish: Viipuri, Swedish: Viborg, German: Wiburg) is a town with 70,000 inhabitants on the Karelian Isthmus in Russia, near the head of the Bay of Vyborg, 130 km to the northwest of Saint Petersburg, 38 km south from Russia... Priozersk (Приозерск) is a town on the Karelian Isthmus, in the Leningrad Oblast of Russia, centered on an island at the southwestern shore of Lake Ladoga, at the estuary of the northern armlet of River Vuoksi (Вуокса (Vuoksa) in Russian). ... The Region of South Karelia is a region (maakunta / landskap) of Finland. ... Imatra is a town and municipality in eastern Finland, founded in 1948 around three industrial settlements near the Finnish-Russian border. ... Lappeenranta (or Villmanstrand in Swedish) is a city and municipality that resides on the shore of the lake Saimaa in South-Eastern Finland, about 30 km from the Russian border. ... The Region of North Karelia is a region (maakunta / landskap) in eastern Finland. ... Joensuu City Hall Joensuu is a city in eastern Finland. ... Kitee is a municipality of Finland. ... Lieksa is a town and municipality of Finland. ... Nurmes is a municipality of Finland. ... Outokumpu is a municipality of Finland. ...

Demographics

The Karelian language is spoken in the Republic of Karelia and also in the Tver Karelian villages. The Veps language is spoken on both sides of the River Svir. The dialect spoken mainly in South Karelia is one of the southeastern dialects of Finnish. [3] The dialect in North Karelia is part of the large group of Savonian dialects. [4] Karelians who evacuated from Finnish Karelia resettled all over Finland and today there are approximately one million people in Finland having Karelian roots. In Finland, about 5,000 people speak Karelian. The Karelian language is a variety closely related to Finnish, with which it is not necessarily mutually intelligible. ... Veps language, spoken by the Vepses, belongs to the Baltic-Finnic group of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... The river Svir (Свирь, Finnish: Syväri) connects Lake Onega with Lake Ladoga in Russia, thus connecting the two largest lakes of Europe, and is considered the southern border of East Karelia. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Karelia.

The Kalevala is an epic poem which Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish folk lore in the 19th century. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Karelian language is a variety closely related to Finnish, with which it is not necessarily mutually intelligible. ... Karelian pasties (Karjalanpiirakat in Finnish) are traditional pasties from North Karelia, Finland. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ...

External links

  • Karelians (The Peoples of the Red Book)
  • The Many Karelias - Virtual Finland
  • Demography and history of Karelia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Karelia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (840 words)
Karelia is the land of the Karelian people, that vast inhabited area in Northern Europe, of historical significance for Finland, Russia and Sweden.
Tver Karelia denotes the villages in the Tver Oblast that are inhabited by Karelians.
The dialect spoken mainly in South Karelia is one of the southeastern dialects of Finnish.
Republic of Karelia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (847 words)
Karelia is populated chiefly by Russians (73.6% of the population) and (ethnically Finnic) Karelians (10.0%).
Historically Karelia was a region to the northwest of Russia, east of present-day Finland, controlled by the Novgorod Republic.
The Constitution of the Republic of Karelia was adopted on February 12, 2001.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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