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Encyclopedia > Karate

Karate
(空手)

Hanashiro Chomo
Also known as Karate-dō (空手道)
Focus Striking
Hardness full contact
Country of origin Flag of the Ryūkyū Kingdom Ryūkyū Kingdom
Creator Sakukawa Kanga; Matsumura Sokon; Itosu Anko; Gichin Funakoshi
Parenthood Chinese martial arts, indigenous martial arts of Ryukyu Islands (Naha-te, Shuri-te, Tomari-te)
Olympic Sport No

Karate (空手?) (listen ) or karate-do (空手道?) is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Islands from indigenous fighting methods[1][2] and Chinese kenpō.[1][2] It is primarily a striking art using punching, kicking, knee and elbow strikes. Open-handed techniques, grappling, locks, restraints, throws, and vital point strikes are taught in some styles.[3] A karate practitioner is called a karateka. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Karate may refer to: Karate, a martial art of Okinawan origin Karate (band), was a jazzy indie band, with some post-rock influences, formed in Boston in 1993. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Hanashiro_Chomo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The main building of Shuri Castle The flag of the Ryukyu Kingdom (1875-1879) The RyÅ«kyÅ« Kingdom (Ryukyuan: 琉球王国, Traditional Chinese: then officially 琉球國) was an independent kingdom which ruled most of the RyÅ«kyÅ« Islands from the 14th century to the 19th century. ... Kanga Sakukawa , 1782 - 1838 or 1862) was an Okinawan martial artist who developed Te, the precursor to modern karate. ... Sokon Matsumura , 1809 - 1899) was one of the well-known original karateka of Okinawa. ... Itosu Yasutsune, best known as Anko Itosu, is considered the father of modern karate although the same title is sometimes given to Gichin Funakoshi (mainly because Funakoshi actually made karate known throughout Japan. ... Gichin Funakoshi (船越 義珍 Funakoshi Gichin, 1868–1957) was one of Okinawan karate masters who introduced karate to the Japanese mainland in 1921. ... Kung fu redirects here. ... Location of Ryukyu Islands The Ryukyu Islands, in Japanese called the Nansei Islands ) are a chain of Japanese islands in the western Pacific Ocean at the eastern limit of the East China Sea. ... Naha-te is a pre-World War II term for a type of martial art indigenous to the area around Naha, the capital city of the island of Okinawa. ... Karate training at Shuri Castle c. ... Tomari-Te refers to a tradition of martial arts originating from the village of Tomari, Okinawa. ... Image File history File links Karate. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Location of Ryukyu Islands The Ryukyu Islands, in Japanese called the Nansei Islands ) are a chain of Japanese islands in the western Pacific Ocean at the eastern limit of the East China Sea. ... For other uses, see kempo (disambiguation). ... Two Karate practitioners engaging in competition style Karate. ...

Contents

Practice

Karate can be practiced as budo, as a sport, as a combat sport, or as self defense training. Traditional karate places emphasis on self development (budo).[4] Modern Japanese style training emphasizes the psychological elements incorporated into a proper kokoro (attitude) such as perseverance, fearlessness, virtue, and leadership skills. Sport karate places emphasis on exercise and competition. Weapons (kobudō) is important training activity in some styles. Budo (武道) is a term for Japanese martial arts. ... A combat sport is a competitive sport involving the use of punch, kick, throw, joint locks, and/or a weapon for attack and defence. ... For the legal usage, see Right of self-defense. ... Kobudō ), a Japanese term meaning old martial way, may refer to: Okinawan kobudō, the martial arts weaponry systems originating on the island of Okinawa KoryÅ«, a general term for old or traditional Japanese martial arts (originating prior to 1876) Category: ...


Karate training is commonly divided into kihon (basics or fundamentals), kata (forms), and kumite (sparring). Kihon (基本)(Japanese) is the term for the basic techniques that are taught and practiced as the foundation of most japanese budo arts. ... Kata (型 or 形) (literally: form) is a Japanese word describing detailed patterns of defense-and-attack movements practiced either solo or in pairs. ... Kumitaa doing kumite. ...

See also: Okinawan kobudō
See also: Japanese budō concepts

It has been suggested that Kobudo be merged into this article or section. ... Japanese martial arts refers to the enormous variety of martial arts native to Japan. ...

Kihon (Basics)

Choki Motobu in Naihanchi-dachi, one of the basic karate stances
Choki Motobu in Naihanchi-dachi, one of the basic karate stances
Main article: Kihon

Karate styles place varying importance on kihon. Typically this is performance in unison of a technique or a combination of techniques by a group of karateka. Kihon may also be prearranged drills in smaller groups or in pairs. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (426x665, 99 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Karate Motobu Choki Kata Naihanchi Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (426x665, 99 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Karate Motobu Choki Kata Naihanchi Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Motobu Choki The Okinawan karate practitioner Motobu Choki (1871–1944) was born in Akahira village of Shuri, Okinawa. ... Kihon (基本)(Japanese) is the term for the basic techniques that are taught and practiced as the foundation of most japanese budo arts. ...


Kata (Forms)

Main article: Karate kata

Kata (:かた) means literally "shape" or "model." Kata is a formalized sequence of movements which represent various attack and defense postures. These postures are based on idealized combat applications. This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ...


Some kata use low and wide stances. This practice develops leg strength, correct posture, and gracefulness. Vigorous arm movements enhance cardiovascular fitness and upper body strength. Kata vary in number of movements and difficulty. The longer kata require the karateka to learn many complex movements. Diligent training and correct mindfulness lead to real understanding of combat principles.


Kata were developed before literacy was commonplace in Okinawa or China. Physical routines were a logical way to preserve this type of knowledge. The various moves have multiple interpretations and applications. Because the applicability for actual self-defense is so flexible there is no definitively correct way to interpret all kata. That is why only high ranking practitioners are qualified to judge adequate form for their own style. Some of the criteria for judging the quality of a performance are: Absence of missteps; correct beginning and especially ending; crispness and smoothness; correct speed and power; confidence; and knowledge of application. Kata with the same name are often performed differently in other styles of karate. Kata are taught with minor variations among schools of the same style. Even the same instructor will teach a particular kata slightly differently as the years pass. This article is about the prefecture. ... Interpretation is the process establishing, either simultaneously (known as simultaneous interpretation) or consecutively (known as consecutive interpretation), oral or gestural communications between two or more speakers who are not able to use the same set of symbols (see interpreting). ...


To attain a formal rank the karateka must demonstrate competent performance of specific required kata for that level. The Japanese terminology for grades or ranks is commonly used. Requirements for examinations vary among schools.


Kumite (Sparring)

Main article: Kumite

Kumite (組手:くみて)is often called sparring. It literally means "meeting of hands." It has many incarnations. Sparring may be free sparring or it may be structured sparring. Free sparring consists of the participants taking a semistructured stance to allow mobility and flexibility for executing techniques. Structured kumite consists of the following general stages: Kumitaa doing kumite. ... Sparring in wushu (sport) using a dao (sword) and gun (staff) Sparring is a form of training common to many martial arts. ...

  1. Both parties prepare for an attack and a defense.
  2. The attacking side announces its attack (usually indicating the target of the attack and the technique used to deliver it).
  3. The defending side acknowledges the announced attack.
  4. The attacking side executes the attack.
  5. The defending side executes the prescribed block (pre-defined for the announced attack).

The above may be repeated for many types of techniques and for both the left and right sides.


Today kumite is practiced both as sport and for self-defense. Sport sparring tends to be one hit 'tag' type competition for points. Take downs and grappling may be practiced in sparring in addition to punching and kicking depending upon style and teacher. Levels of physical contact during sparring vary considerably. Some kumite is strict 'non-contact', and some is full-contact (usually with sparring armor). For other uses, see Armour (disambiguation). ...


Dojo Kun

Main article: Dojo kun

In the bushidō tradition dojo kun is a set of guidelines for kareteka to follow. These guidelines apply both in the dojo (training hall) and in everyday life. Generally accredited to Gichin Funakoshi (but rumoured to have been created by Sakugawa, an Okinawan karate enthusiast in the 18th century) the Dojo Kun, or dojo rules, serves as a set of five (5) guiding principles, recited at the begining of each Shotokan training session, intended to frame the practise... Japanese samurai in armour, 1860s. ... A dojo ) is a Japanese term which literally means place of the Way. Initially, Dojo were adjunct to temples. ...


Conditioning

Okinawan karate uses traditional conditioning equipment known as hojo undo. These are simple devices made of wood and stone. The makiwara is a striking post. The nigiri game is a large jar used for developing grip strength. These supplementary exercises are designed to increase strength, stamina, speed, and muscle coordination.[5] Sport Karate emphasises aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, power, agility, flexibility, and stress management.[6] All practices vary depending upon the school and the teacher. Hojo undō (補助運動) is a Japanese language term, translated as supplementary exercises, that refers to the conditioning exercises specifically used in martial arts. ... The makiwara is a padded striking post used as a training tool in various styles of traditional karate. ... Hojo undō (補助運動) is a Japanese language term, translated as supplementary exercises, that refers to the conditioning exercises specifically used in martial arts. ... Physical strength is the ability of a person or animal to exert force on physical objects using muscles. ... Look up Endurance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Explain the dystonias connected with motor coordination. ... Aerobic exercise refers to exercise that is of moderate intensity, undertaken for a long duration. ... Fox and Haskell formula Anaerobic exercise is typically used by athletes in non-endurance sports to build power and by body builders to build muscle mass. ... In physics, power (symbol: P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transmitted, or the amount of energy required or expended for a given unit of time. ... Agility definitions have traditionally centered around skills that are needed for the body to change direction at speed. ... Flexibility refers to the absolute range of movement in a joint or series of joints that is attainable in a momentary effort with the help of a partner or a piece of equipment. ... A cluttered environment with too many tasks can lead to stress. ...


Sport

Gichin Funakoshi (船越 義珍) said, "There are no contests in karate."[7] In pre-World War II Okinawa, kumite was not part of karate training.[8] Shigeru Egami relates that, in 1940, some karateka were ousted from their dojo because they adopted sparring after having learned it in Tokyo.[9] Shigeru Egami (1912-1981) was a student of the founder of modern karate - Gichin Funakoshi; and later the founder of the style he named shotokai. ...


Karate competition has three disciplines: sparring (kumite), empty-handed forms (kata), and weapons forms (kobudō kata). Competitors may enter either as individuals or as part of a team. Evaluation for kata and kobudo is performed by a panel of judges, whereas sparring is judged by a head referee, usually with assistant referees at the side of the sparring area. Sparring matches are typically divided by weight, age, gender, and experience. This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ...


International competition is well organized. The World Karate Federation (WKF) is recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as being responsible for karate competition in the Olympic games. The WKF has developed common rules governing all styles. The national WKF organisations coordinate with their respective National Olympic Committees. WKF Logo The World Karate Federation, or WKF, is the international governing body of sport karate. ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... National Olympic Committees (or NOCs) are the national constituents of the worldwide olympic movement. ...


Karate does not have 2012 Olympic status. In the 117th IOC Session (July 2005), karate received more than half of the votes, but not the two-thirds majority needed to become an official Olympic sport. The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... A large number of sports have been conducted at the Olympic Games. ...


There are other regional, national, and international organizations that hold competitions. The WKF accepts only one organization per country. The World Union of Karate-do Organizations (WUKO)[10] offers different styles and federations a world body they may join, without having to compromise their style or size. The WUKO accepts more than one federation or association per country.


Rank

A young student graduates up a rank in belt in front of his dojo.
A young student graduates up a rank in belt in front of his dojo.

In 1924 Gichin Funakoshi founder of Shotokan Karate adopted the Dan system from judo founder Jigoro Kano[11] using a rank scheme with a limited set of belt colors. Other Okinawan teachers also adopted this practice. In the Kyū/Dan system the beginner grades start with a higher numbered kyū (e.g., 9th Kyū) and progress toward a lower numbered kyū. The Dan progression continues from 1st Dan (Shodan, or 'beginning dan') to the higher dan grades. Kyū-grade karateka are referred to as "color belt" or mudansha ("ones without dan"). Dan-grade karateka are referred to as yudansha (holders of dan rank). Yudansha typically wear a black belt.Requirements of rank differ among styles, organizations, and schools. Kyū ranks stress stance, balance, and coordination. Speed and power are added at higher grades. Minimum age and time in rank are factors affecting promotion. Testing consists of demonstration of technique before a panel of examiners. Black belt testing is commonly done in a manner known as shinsa. This includes a written examination in additon to demonstration of kihon, kumite, kata, and bunkai (applications of technique). A dojo ) is a Japanese term which literally means place of the Way. Initially, Dojo were adjunct to temples. ... -1... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ... Dr. Jigorō Kanō (嘉納 治五郎 Kanō Jigorō, 1860 in Kobe, Japan - 1938) is the founder of Judo. ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ... KyÅ« (ç´š:きゅう) is a Japanese term used in martial arts, chadō, ikebana, go, shogi and in other similar activities to designate various degrees or levels of proficiency or experience. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Equilibrioception or sense of balance is one of the physiological senses. ... now. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ...

Philosophy

Gichin Funakoshi interpreted the "kara" of Karatedo to mean "to purge [oneself] of selfish and evil thoughts. For only with a clear mind and conscience can [the practitioner] understand that [knowledge] which he receives." Funakoshi believed that one should be "inwardly humble and outwardly gentle." Only by behaving humbly can one be open to Karate's many lessons. This is done by listening and being receptive to criticism. He considered courtesy of prime importance. He said that "Karate is properly applied only in those rare situations in which one really must either down another or be downed by him." Funakoshi did not consider it unusual for a devotee to use Karate in a real physical confrontation no more than perhaps once in a lifetime. He stated that Karate practitioners must "never be easily drawn into a fight." It is understood that one blow from a real expert could mean death. It is clear that those who misuse what they have learned bring dishonor upon themselves. He promoted the character trait of personal conviction. In "time of grave public crisis, one must have the courage...to face a million and one opponents." He taught that indecisiveness is a weakness.[12]


Etymology

The generic meaning of karate (i.e., "empty hand") implies that every unarmed combat system could accurately be called karate.[citation needed] This is not necessarily an acceptable conclusion. To separate fact from fancy requires understanding issues of nationalism, lineage, primacy, and philosophy. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


Chinese Hand

Karate was originally written as Chinese hand in kanji. It was later changed to a homophone meaning empty hand. The word karate was used for some time orally before it was first written.[citation needed] The original use of the word karate in print is attributed to Anko Itosu. He wrote it with the kanji (Chinese characters) 唐手:からて (Tang Dynasty hand) rather than the present usage of 空手:からて (empty hand). The Tang Dynasty of China ended in AD 907. The kanji representing it remained in use in Okinawa as a way to refer to China generally.[13] Thus the word karate was originally a way of expressing "Chinese hand," or "martial art from China." Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... This article is about the term in linguistics. ... Itosu Yasutsune, best known as Anko Itosu, is considered the father of modern karate although the same title is sometimes given to Gichin Funakoshi (mainly because Funakoshi actually made karate known throughout Japan. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ...

Since there are no written records it is not known definitely whether the kara in karate was originally written with the character 唐 meaning China or the character 空 meaning empty. During the time when admiration for China and things Chinese was at its height in the Ryukus it was the custom to use the former character when referring to things of fine quality...

It should be noted that use of the written character is not necessarily linked to the origins of karate.


Empty Hand

The original use of "Chinese hand," "Tang hand," “Chinese fist,” or "Chinese techniques" (depending on interpretation of 唐手) reflects the documented Chinese influence on karate. The first documented use of a homophone of the logogram pronounced kara by replacing the character meaning Tang Dynasty (唐 から) with the character meaning empty (空 から) took place in in Karate Kumite. This is a book by Hanashiro Chomo (1869–1945) which was published in August 1905. In the early 20th century Japan did not have good relations with China. In 1932 Japan attacked China and occupied its northern territory. At that time referring to Chinese origins of karate was considered politically incorrect. [14] For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Kung fu redirects here. ... This article is about the term in linguistics. ... Egyptian hieroglyphs, which have their origins as logograms. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

In 1933, the Okinawan art of karate was recognized as a Japanese martial art by the Japanese Martial Arts Committee known as the "Butoku Kai". Until 1935, "karate" was written as "唐手" (Chinese hand). But in 1935, the masters of the various styles of Okinawan karate conferred to decide a new name for their art. They decided to call their art "karate" written in Japanese characters as "空手" (empty hand).[15]

The Way and The Hand

Another nominal development is the addition of (道:どう) to the end of the word karate. is a suffix having numerous meanings including road, path, route, and way. It is used in many martial arts that survived Japan's transition from feudal culture to modern times. It implies that these arts are not just fighting systems but contain spiritual elements when promoted as disciplines. In this context dō is usually translated as "the way of." Examples are aikido (合気道:あいきどう), judo (柔道:じゅうどう), and kendo (剣道:けんどう). Thus karatedō is more than just empty hand techniques. It is The Way Of The Empty Hand. Look up do in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aikido ) is a Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs. ... Kendo ), or way of the sword, is the martial art of Japanese fencing. ...


History

Okinawa

See also: Okinawan martial arts

Karate began as a fighting system known as "ti" (or "te") among the pechin class of the Ryukyuan. During the Taira-Minamoto war, some samurai from the Minamoto clan arrived in Okinawa from Japan and became allies with the Ryukyuan nobles. The samurai may have taught their new allies the martial art of Daito-ryu aiki-jujutsu which the pechin could have combined with their own fighting system.[16][17] After trade relationships were established with the Ming dinasty China by Chuzan King Satto in 1372, many forms of Chinese martial arts were introduced to Ryukyu Islands by the visitors from China, mainly Fukien Province. A group of 36 Chinese families moved to Okinawan around 1392 for the purposes of cultural exchange. The political centralization of Okinawa by King Shohashi in 1429 and the 'Policy of Banning Weapons', enforced in Okinawa after the invasion of Shimazu clan in 1609, are also factors that furthered the development of okinawan unarmed combat techniques.[2] Karate training at Shuri Castle c. ... Karate training at Shuri Castle c. ... Pechin(Satunushi) The Pechin ) is the Okinawan/Ryukyuan equivalent of the Japanese Samurai. ... Ryukyuans (Japanese: 琉球民族, Ryūkyū minzoku; Okinawan: ウチナンチュ, Uchinanchu) are the indigenous peoples of the Ryukyu Islands of Japan between the islands of Kyūshū and Taiwan. ... The Genpei or Gempei War (源平合戦、寿永・治承の乱) (1180-1185) was a war of ancient Japan, fought between the Taira and Minamoto clans. ... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ... Seiryoji, a temple in Kyoto, was once a villa of Minamoto no Toru (d. ... Okinawa Island heads up the Ryukyu islands chain, a part of Japan. ... Daitō-ryū aiki-jūjutsu (大東流合気柔術), originally called Daito-ryū jujutsu (大東流柔術), is a Japanese martial art that first became widely known in the early 20th century under the headmastership of Sokaku Takeda (武田 惣角 Takeda Sōkaku). ... In this year, the city of Aachen, Germany begins adding a Roman numeral Anno Domini date to a few of its coins. ... Kung fu redirects here. ... Location of Ryukyu Islands The Ryukyu Islands, in Japanese called the Nansei Islands ) are a chain of Japanese islands in the western Pacific Ocean at the eastern limit of the East China Sea. ... Fujian (Chinese: 福建; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal System Pinyin: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of China. ... January 10 - Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, founds the European Order of the Golden Fleece February 12 - Battle of Rouvray (or of the Herrings). English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army of William de la Pole, 4th Earl of Suffolk at... Grave of Shimazu family at Mount Koya. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ...


There were few formal styles of ti, but rather many practitioners with their own methods. One surviving example is the Motobu-udun ti school passed down from the Motobu family by Seikichi Uehara.[18] Early styles of karate are often generalized as Shuri-te, Naha-te, and Tomari-te, named after the three cities from which they emerged.[19] Each area and its teachers had particular kata, techniques, and principles that distinguished their local version of ti from the others. Karate training at Shuri Castle c. ... Naha-te is a pre-World War II term for a type of martial art indigenous to the area around Naha, the capital city of the island of Okinawa. ... Tomari-Te refers to a tradition of martial arts originating from the village of Tomari, Okinawa. ...


Members of the Okinawan upper classes were sent to China regularly to study various political and practical disciplines. The incorporation of empty-handed Chinese wu shu into Okinawan martial arts occurred partly because of these exchanges. Many karate kata bear a strong resemblance to Fujian martial arts such as Fujian White Crane, Five Ancestors, and Gangrou-quan (Hard Soft Fist; pronounced "Gōjūken" in Japanese).[20] Further influence came from Southeast Asia— particularly Sumatra, Java, and Melaka. The similarities between karate and silat may be found in the unarmed forms and in the weapon forms. Many Okinawan weapons such as the sai, tonfa, and nunchaku originated in and around Southeast Asia. Wushu (武術 or 武术; pinyin: wǔshù) literally means martial art. It is commonly used much the same way as the popular term kung fu, referring specifically to Chinese martial arts, but is in China also used as a general and formal term for any martial art. ... This article is about the Fujian style of White Crane. ... Five Ancestors Fist (Chinese: 五祖拳; Pinyin: ; Minnan: ngó chó kûn) is a Southern Chinese martial art that consists of techniques from five different styles: the hand techniques and the complementary softness and hardness of Yin/Yang of White Crane (白鶴拳) the agility and footwork of Monkey (猴拳) the precision and efficient movement... Taijitu, the traditional symbol representing the forces of Yin and Yang. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Java island. ... State motto: Bersatu Teguh (Malay, United We Stand) Capital Malacca Town Governor Tun Datuk Seri Utama Mohd Khalil Yaakob Chief Minister Datuk Seri Haji Mohd Ali Mohd Rustam Area 1,650 km² Population  - Estimated 648,500 State anthem Melaka Maju Jaya This article is about a state in Malaysia. ... Silat or Pencak Silat is an umbrella term for a martial art form originating from the regions of the Malay Archipelago. ... Two sai For other meanings of the word sai, see Sai (disambiguation). ... A Wooden Tonfa The tonfa, also known as tong fa or tuifa, is a traditional Okinawan weapon from which the modern side-handled police baton is derived. ... For Nintendos Wii Remote Nunchuk attachment, see Nunchuk. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Sakukawa Kanga (1782–1838) had studied pugilism and staff (bo) fighting in China (according to one legend, under the guidance of Kosokun, originator of kusanku kata). In 1806 he started teaching a fighting art in the city of Shuri that he called Tudi Sakukawa which meant Sakukawa of China Hand. This was the first known recorded reference to the art of Tudi. Written as 唐手. Around the 1820s Sakukawa's most significant student Matsumura Sokon (1809–1899) taught a synthesis of te (Shuri-te and Tomari-te) and Shaolin (Chinese 少林) styles. Matsumura's style would later become the Shorin-ryū style. Kanga Sakukawa , 1782 - 1838 or 1862) was an Okinawan martial artist who developed Te, the precursor to modern karate. ... Gun event at the 10th All China Games The Chinese word Gun (Chinese: ; pinyin: gùn) refers to a long Chinese staff weapon used in Chinese martial arts. ... Kusanku, also called Kankudai (観空大) (translated as gazing heavenward, viewing the sky, or contemplating the sky), is an open hand karate kata that is studied by many practitioners of Okinawan and Japanese karate. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Sokon Matsumura , 1809 - 1899) was one of the well-known original karateka of Okinawa. ... Ever since 1669, when Huang Zongxi first described Chinese martial arts in terms of a Shaolin or external school versus a Wudang or internal school,[1] Shaolin has been used as a synonym for external Chinese martial arts regardless of whether or not the particular style in question has any...

Ankō Itosu Grandfather of Modern Karate
Ankō Itosu
Grandfather of Modern Karate

Matsumura taught his art to Itosu Ankō (1831–1915) among others. Itosu adapted two forms he had learned from Matsumara. These are kusanku and chiang nan. He created the ping'an forms ("heian" or "pinan" in Japanese) which are simplified kata for beginning students. In 1901 Itosu helped to get karate introduced into Okinawa's public schools. These forms were taught to children at the elementary school level. Itosu's influence in karate is broad. The forms he created are common across nearly all styles of karate. His students became some of the most well known karate masters including Gichin Funakoshi, Kenwa Mabuni, and Choki Motobu. Itosu is sometimes known as the Grandfather of Modern Karate.[21] Image File history File linksMetadata Itosu_Anko. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Itosu_Anko. ... Ankō Itosu ) is considered by many the father of modern karate, although this title is also often given to Gichin Funakoshi because the latter spread karate throughout Japan. ... Kenwa Mabuni was a peer of Funakoshi Kenwa Mabuni, Motobu Choki and other Okinawans were actively teaching karate in Japan prior to this point when Gichin Funakoshi officially brought karate from Okinawa to mainland Japan Shito-ryu (糸東流) is a form of karate that was developed by Kenwa MabuniShito-ryu (糸東流) is... Motobu Choki The Okinawan karate practitioner Motobu Choki (1871–1944) was born in Akahira village of Shuri, Okinawa. ...


In addition to the three early ti styles of karate a fourth Okinawan influence is that of Kanbun Uechi (1877–1948). At the age of 20 he went to Fuzhou in Fujian Province, China, to escape Japanese military conscription. While there he studied under Shushiwa. He was leading figure of Chinese Nanpa Shorin-ken at that time.[22] He later developed his own style of Uechi-ryu karate based on the Sanchin, Seisan, and Sanseiryu kata that he had studied in China.[23] Kanbun Uechi (1877–1948?) was a famous martial arts master from Okinawa. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chou; BUC: Hók-ciÅ­; EFEO: Fou-Tcheou; also seen as Foochow or Fuchow) is the capital and the largest prefecture-level city of Fujian (福建) province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Uechi Ryu (上地流) is a style of Okinawan Karate originated by Kanbun Uechi (上地完文). // Early history Kanbun Uechi studied Pangai-noon (half-hard, half-soft) Kung Fu under Shushiwa, also known as Chou Tsu Ho, in the Fukien province of mainland China in the late 1800s and early 1900s. ...


Japan

See also: Japanese martial arts
Masters of karate in Tokyo (c. 1930s) Kanken Toyama, Hironori Ohtsuka, Takeshi Shimoda, Gichin Funakoshi, Choki Motobu, Kenwa Mabuni, Genwa Nakasone, and Shinken Taira (from left to right)
Masters of karate in Tokyo (c. 1930s)
Kanken Toyama, Hironori Ohtsuka, Takeshi Shimoda, Gichin Funakoshi, Choki Motobu, Kenwa Mabuni, Genwa Nakasone, and Shinken Taira (from left to right)

Gichin Funakoshi, founder of Shotokan karate, is generally credited with having introduced and popularized karate on the main islands of Japan. Actually many Okinawans were actively teaching, and are thus equally responsible for the development of karate. Funakoshi was a student of both Asato Ankō and Itosu Ankō (who had worked to introduce karate to the Okinawa Prefectural School System in 1902). During this time period, prominent teachers who also influenced the spread of karate in Japan included Kenwa Mabuni, Chojun Miyagi, Choki Motobu, Kanken Tōyama, and Kanbun Uechi. This was a turbulent period in history in the region. It includes Japan's annexation of the Okinawan island group in 1874, the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), the annexation of Korea, and the rise of Japanese expansionism (1905–1945). Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Japanese martial arts refers to the enormous variety of martial arts native to Japan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1089x760, 154 KB) (l-r) Toyama Kanken, Ohtsuka Hironori, Shimoda Takeshi, Funakoshi Gichin, Motobu Choki, Mabuni Kenwa, Nakasone Genwa and Taira Shinken File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1089x760, 154 KB) (l-r) Toyama Kanken, Ohtsuka Hironori, Shimoda Takeshi, Funakoshi Gichin, Motobu Choki, Mabuni Kenwa, Nakasone Genwa and Taira Shinken File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Anko Asato , Azato Yasutsune in Japanese, 1827–1906) was an Okinawan master of karate. ... Ankō Itosu ) is considered by many the father of modern karate, although this title is also often given to Gichin Funakoshi because the latter spread karate throughout Japan. ... Kenwa Mabuni was a peer of Funakoshi Kenwa Mabuni, Motobu Choki and other Okinawans were actively teaching karate in Japan prior to this point when Gichin Funakoshi officially brought karate from Okinawa to mainland Japan Shito-ryu (糸東流) is a form of karate that was developed by Kenwa MabuniShito-ryu (糸東流) is... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Motobu Choki The Okinawan karate practitioner Motobu Choki , 1870 - 1944) was born in Akahira village of Shuri, Okinawa. ... Kanken Tōyama Kanken Tōyama (遠山寬賢 Tōyama Kanken, 24 September 1888 – 24 November 1966) was a Japanese schoolteacher and karate master, who developed the foundation for the ShÅ«dōkan karate style. ... Combatants  Qing Dynasty (China)  Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army  Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army  Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese... Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... During the first part of the Shōwa era, Japan, with the Great Depression turned to military totalitarianism, like some occidental countries. ...


Japan was invading China at the time, and Funakoshi knew that the art of Tang/China hand would not be accepted; thus the change of the art's name to "way of the empty hand." The suffix implies that karatedō is a path to self knowledge, not just a study of the technical aspects of fighting. Like most martial arts practiced in Japan, karate made its transition from -jutsu to - around the beginning of the 20th century. The "" in "karate-dō" sets it apart from karate "jutsu", as aikido is distinguished from aikijutsu, judo from jujutsu, iaido from iaijutsu and Taido from Taijutsu. Belligerents China United States1 Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army2 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Albert Wedemeyer Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jujutsu )  , literally meaning the art of softness, is a Japanese martial art consisting primarily of grappling techniques. ... Respect shown to the sword (To·ne·rei) before and after practice. ... Iaido (居合道 iaidō), also sometimes called iaijutsu (居合術 iaijutsu) or battojutsu (抜刀術 battōjutsu) is the art of drawing the katana, cutting down the opponent, flipping blood from the blade, and then re-sheathing the katana in one fluid movement. ... Taido ( 躰道 / taidō ) is a Japanese martial arts or budo created in 1965 by Seiken Shukumine (1925 - 2001). ... Taijutsu ), literally meaning body skill or body art, is a term for Japanese martial arts techniques that rely on a science of body movements. ...

Gichin Funakoshi Founder of Shotokan Karate
Gichin Funakoshi
Founder of Shotokan Karate

Funakoshi changed the names of many kata and the name of the art itself (at least on mainland Japan), doing so to get karate accepted by the Japanese budo organization Dai Nippon Butoku Kai. Funakoshi also gave Japanese names to many of the kata. The five pinan forms became known as heian, the three naihanchi forms became known as tekki, seisan as hangetsu, chinto as gankaku, wanshu as empi, and so on. These were mostly political changes, rather than changes to the content of the forms, although Funakoshi did introduce some such changes. Funakoshi had trained in two of the popular branches of Okinawan karate of the time, Shorin-ryū and Shorei-ryū. In Japan he was influenced by kendo, incorporating some ideas about distancing and timing into his style. He always referred to what he taught as simply karate, but in 1936 he built the Shotokan dojo in Tokyo and the style he left behind is usually called Shotokan. Image File history File linksMetadata Funakoshi_Gichin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Funakoshi_Gichin. ... Budo (武道) is a term for Japanese martial arts. ... The Great Japan Martial Arts Virtues Association was founded between 780 and 806 C.E. by Kanmu, the 50th Emperor of Japan. ...


The modernization and systemization of karate in Japan also included the adoption of the white uniform that consisted of the kimono and the dogi or keikogi—mostly called just karategi—and colored belt ranks. Both of these innovations were originated and popularized by Jigoro Kano, the founder of judo and one of the men Funakoshi consulted in his efforts to modernize karate. A traditional wedding kimono The kimono literally something worn) is the national costume of Japan. ... DOGI is an acronym for Department of Good Ideas. ... Keikogi (稽古着 or 稽古衣) is a Japanese word which means uniform for training (keiko means practice, gi means dress or clothes), another posibility is to use the word Dogi which means the uniform you wear on the path that you have been chosen, if you put the name of the sport itself... Karategi (空手着 or 空手衣) is the Japan name for the Karate training dress. ...


In 1922, Hironori Ohtsuka attended the Tokyo Sports Festival, where he saw Funakoshi's karate. Ohtsuka was so impressed with this that he visited Funakoshi many times during his stay. Funakoshi was, in turn, impressed by Ohtsuka's enthusiasm and determination to understand karate, and agreed to teach him. In the following years, Ohtsuka set up a medical practice dealing with martial arts injuries. His prowess in martial arts led him to become the Chief Instructor of Shindō Yōshin-ryū jujutsu at the age of 30, and an assistant instructor in Funakoshi's dojo. Shindō Yōshin-ryÅ« ), meaning True Way of the Willow Heart School is a traditional school (koryÅ«) Japanese martial arts, teaching the art of jujutsu. ...


By 1929, Ohtsuka was registered as a member of the Japan Martial Arts Federation. Okinawan karate at this time was only concerned with kata. Ohtsuka thought that the full spirit of budō, which concentrates on defence and attack, was missing, and that kata techniques did not work in realistic fighting situations. He experimented with other, more combative styles such as judo, kendo, and aikido. He blended the practical and useful elements of Okinawan karate with traditional Japanese martial arts techniques from jujitsu and kendo, which led to the birth of kumite, or free fighting, in karate. Ohtsuka thought that there was a need for this more dynamic type of karate to be taught, and he decided to leave Funakoshi to concentrate on developing his own style of karate: Wadō-ryū. In 1934, Wadō-ryū karate was officially recognized as an independent style of karate. This recognition meant a departure for Ohtsuka from his medical practice and the fulfilment of a life's ambition—to become a full-time martial artist. Budo shuji, brushed by Kondo Katsuyuki, Menkyo Kaiden, Daito ryu Budō (武道:ぶどう) is a Japanese term describing martial arts. ... Kumitaa doing kumite. ...


Ohtsuka's personalized style of Karate was officially registered in 1938 after he was awarded the rank of Renshi-go. He presented a demonstration of Wado-ryu karate for the Japan Martial Arts Federation. They were so impressed with his style and commitment that they acknowledged him as a high-ranking instructor. The next year the Japan Martial Arts Federation asked all the different styles to register their names; Ohtsuka registered the name Wado-Ryu. In 1944, Ohtsuka was appointed Japan's Chief Karate Instructor.


Isshin-ryū is a style of Okinawan karate founded by Shimabuku Tatsuo, a student of Motobu Choki, and named by him on January 15, 1956. Isshin-ryū karate is largely a synthesis of Shorin-ryū karate, Gojū-ryū karate, and Kobudo. The name means, literally, "one heart method." The style, while not very popular in Okinawa, spread to the United States via the Marines stationed on the island after they returned home, and has also spread to other countries. After the passing of Shimabuku, many variations of the system formed and exist to this day. This article is about the modern school of karate. ... Shimabuku Tatsuo (島袋 龍夫; September 19, 1908 – May 30, 1975) was the founder of Isshin-ryu (Whole Heart Style, One Heart Way) karate. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A new form of karate called Kyokushin was developed in 1964 by Masutatsu Oyama (who was born a Korean, Choi Yeong-Eui). Kyokushin taught a curriculum that emphasized contact, physical toughness, and practical application of karate techniques to self-defense situations. Because of its emphasis on physical, full-force sparring, Kyokushin is now often called "full contact karate." Many other karate organizations based are descended from the Kyokushin curriculum. Kyokushin is a style of stand-up, full contact karate, founded in 1964 by Masutatsu Oyama (大山倍達) who was born under the name Choi Yeong-Eui (최영의). Kyokushinkai is Japanese for the society of the ultimate truth. ... Masutatsu Oyama (大山倍達 Ōyama Masutatsu), also known as Mas Oyama was a karate master who founded Kyokushinkai, a major style of full contact karate. ... Sparring in wushu (sport) using a dao (sword) and gun (staff) Sparring is a form of training common to many martial arts. ... Full-contact karate is popular in the U.S.. Full contact karate has many different derivatives but two main fundamental styles. ...


The Federation of All Japan Karatedo Organization recognizes four traditional styles of karate: Federation of All Japan Karatedo Organization or FAJKO, is an independent governing body in Japan that monitors the four recognized traditional styles of Japanese karate. ...

  • Shōtōkan-ryū
  • Shitō-ryū
  • Gōjū-ryū
  • Wadō-ryū

Styles that do not belong to one of these schools are not necessarily considered to be 'illegitimate' or 'bad' karate, but simply not one of the traditional schools. For example, the styles listed by the World Union of Karate-do Organizations (WUKO)[24] are Gōjū-ryū, Shitō-ryū, Shōtōkan-ryū, Wadō-ryū, Shōrin-ryū, Uechi-ryū, Kyokushinkai, and Budōkan. Many schools would be affiliated with, or heavily influenced by, one or more of these traditional styles. GōjÅ«-ryÅ« ), (Japanese for Hard-soft style) is a style of karate that uses a combination of hard and soft techniques. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Shotokan-ryu ) is a school of karate, developed from various martial arts by Gichin Funakoshi (1868–1957) and his son Yoshitaka Funakoshi (1906–1945). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Uechi RyÅ« (上地流 — Japanese for Way of Uechi) is a style of Okinawan karate. ... Kyokushin (極真) or Kyokushinkai (極真会) is a style of Karate founded by Masutatsu Oyama (大山倍達) in 1964. ... Budokan Karate-do is a style of Karate recognized by World Union of Karate-do Organizations (WUKO). ...


Issues within Karate

Dishonest Practice

Due to the popularity of martial arts, both in mass media and real life, a large number of disreputable, fraudulent, or misguided teachers and schools have arisen over the last 40 years or so. Commonly referred to as a "McDojo" or a "Black Belt Mill," these schools are frequently headed by martial artists of either dubious skill, dubious business ethics, or both. McDojo is a pejorative term used by some Western martial artists to describe a martial arts school where image or profit is of a higher importance than technical standards. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... McDojo is a pejorative term used by some Western martial artists to describe a martial arts school where image or profit is of a higher importance than technical standards. ... In many martial arts, each practitioners level is marked by the colour of the belt. ...


Kata and Kobudo

Many applications from karate kata seem very mysterious or impractical. It has been claimed that most antique karate kata were developed for use with weapons rather than as open hand techniques.[25]


Karate outside Japan

Korea

Due to past conflict between Korea and Japan, most notably during the Japanese occupation in the 20th century, the influence of karate on Korean martial arts is a contentious issue. During the occupation, many Koreans went to Japan[26] and were exposed to Japanese martial arts. After regaining independence from Japan, many Korean martial arts schools were founded by masters with training in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean martial arts. Flag of the Japanese Empire Anthem Kimi ga Yoa Korea under Japanese Occupation Capital Keijo Language(s) Korean, Japanese Religion Shintoisma Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor of Japan  - 1910–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1925 Emperor Taisho  - 1925–1945 Emperor Showa Governor-General of Korea  - 1910–1916 Masatake Terauchi  - 1916–1919 Yoshimichi...


For example, Hong Hi Choi, a significant figure in taekwondo history had studied Shotokan karate under Gichin Funakoshi. Karate also provided an important comparative model for the early founders of taekwondo in the formalization of their art inheriting some kata and the belt rank system. It should be noted that contemporary taekwondo is technically very different from karate (e.g. relies much more on legs than hands, involves high kicks on the heels, more jumps, etc). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Taekwondo (태권도; IPA: ) is a Korean martial art and combat sport. ... A hyung, poomsae or tul (casually referred to as forms) is a martial arts form that is typically used in a Korean martial art. ... Taekwondo (태권도; IPA: ) is a Korean martial art and combat sport. ... Taekwondo (태권도; IPA: ) is a Korean martial art and combat sport. ...


Soviet Union

Karate appeared in the Soviet Union in the mid-1960s, during Khruschev's policy of improved international relations, and the first Shotokan clubs were opened in Moscow's universities.[citation needed] In 1973, however, the government banned karate—together with all other foreign martial arts—endorsing only the Soviet martial art of sambo. Karate schools went underground and lost all international contacts, evolving and mutating wildly.[citation needed] Failing to suppress these uncontrolled groups, the USSR's Sport Committee formed the Karate Federation of USSR in December 1978. This was an exclusive, state-controlled organization with rules and methods intentionally incompatible with all foreign karate federations.[citation needed] On 17 May 1984, the Soviet Karate Federation was disbanded and all karate became illegal again. In 1988, karate practice became legal again, but under strict government regulations. Only after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1992 did independent karate schools resume functioning, and so federations were formed and national tournaments in authentic styles began.[27] Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Sambo (Russian: ) -- (also called Sombo in the US and sometimes written in all-caps) is a modern martial art, combat sport and self-defense system developed in the former Soviet Union, and recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee in 1938, presented by Anatoly Kharlampiev. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ...


United States

Karate entered the United States through members of the US military who had learned it in Okinawa or Japan and opened schools on their return. In 1961 Hidetaka Nishiyama, a co-founder of the JKA and student of Gichin Funakoshi began teaching in the United States.[28] As a trial case in spreading the art of karate, Masatoshi Nakayama arrange to send Teruyuki Okazaki to the United States in 1961 where he started a karate dojo in Philadelphia.[citation needed] Takayuki Mikami were sent by the JKA in 1963.[29] The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hidetaka Nishiyama (born on October 10, 1928) is a Japanese Shotokan karate instructor. ... JKA may stand for: Japan Karate Association Star Wars Jedi Knight: Jedi Academy This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Nakayama Masatoshi (jap. ... Teruyuki Okazaki (1931-present), a ninth degree black belt in shotokan karate, is the founder, chairman and chief instructor of the International Shotokan Karate Federation (ISKF), which functions under the Japan Karate Association (JKA). ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Takayuki Mikami (1933-present) is an eighth degree black belt in the martial art of shotokan karate. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ...


United Kingdom

In the 1950s and 1960s, several Japanese karate masters began to teach the art in the United Kingdom. In 1965, Tatsuo Suzuki began teaching Wadō-ryū in London. In 1966, members of the former British Karate Federation established the Karate Union of Great Britain (KUGB) under Hirokazu Kanazawa as chief instructor[30] and affiliated to JKA. Keinosuke Enoeda came to England at the same time as Kanazawa, teaching at a dojo in Liverpool. Kanazawa left the UK after 3 years and Enoeda took over. After Enoeda’s death in 2003, the KUGB elected Andy Sherry as Chief Instructor. Shortly after this, a new association split off from KUGB, JKA England. The KUGB - Karate Union of Great Britain - is a democratic body controlled by its membership and operates under an approved constitution. ... Kanazawa Hirokazu (1931 - Present) is one of the world’s most renowned and respected traditional karate masters alive. ... JKA may stand for: Japan Karate Association Star Wars Jedi Knight: Jedi Academy This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Karate in film and popular culture

Karate spread rapidly in the West through popular culture. In 1950s popular fiction, karate was at times described to readers in near-mythical terms, and it was credible to show Western experts of unarmed combat as unaware of Eastern martial arts of this kind.[31] By the 1970s, martial arts films had formed a mainstream genre that propelled karate and other Asian martial arts into mass popularity. The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Martial arts film is a film genre that originated in the Pacific Rim. ...


The Karate Kid (1984) is a film relating the fictional story of an American adolescent's introduction into karate. The Karate Kid is a 1984 John G. Avildsen film starring Ralph Macchio and Pat Morita. ...


Some well-known stars who have related styles are:

Van Damme redirects here. ... Fumio Demura (born in Yokohama, Japan in 1938) is a martial artist and martial arts teacher. ... Dolph Lundgren (born Hans Lundgren, November 3, 1957[1]) is a Swedish actor, director and karateka. ... Shinichi Chiba ), also known as Sonny Chiba (born January 23, 1939) in Fukuoka, Japan is a Japanese actor. ...

See also

This table compares styles of karate. ... Japanese martial arts refers to the enormous variety of martial arts native to Japan. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Karate training at Shuri Castle c. ... This is a list of martial arts, broken down by region and style. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Higaonna, Morio (1985). Traditional Karatedo Vol. 1 Fundamental Techniques, 17. ISBN 0-87040-595-0. 
  2. ^ a b c http://www.wonder-okinawa.jp/023/eng/001/001/index.html history of Okinawan Karate
  3. ^ Bishop, Mark (1989). Okinawan Karate, 153-166. ISBN 0-7136-5666-2.  Chapter 9 covers Motobu-ryu and Bigeikan, two 'ti' styles with grappling and vital point striking techniques. Page 165, Seitoku Higa: "Use pressure on vital points, wrist locks, grappling, strikes and kicks in a gentle manner to neutralize an attack."
  4. ^ [http://www.itkf.org/tk.html International Traditional Karate Federation (ITKF)”
  5. ^ Higaonna, Morio (1985). Traditional Karatedo Vol. 1 Fundamental Techniques, 67. ISBN 0-87040-595-0. 
  6. ^ Mitchell, David (1991). Winning Karate Competition. ISBN 0-7136-3402-2 pages = 25. 
  7. ^ Shigeru, Egami (1976). The Heart of Karate-Do, 111. ISBN 0-87011-816-1. 
  8. ^ Higaonna, Morio (1990). Traditional Karatedo Vol. 4 Applications of the Kata, 136. ISBN 0-87040-848-9. 
  9. ^ Shigeru, Egami (1976). The Heart of Karate-Dō, 113. ISBN 0-87011-816-1. 
  10. ^ WUKO - World Union of Karate-Do Organizations
  11. ^ Hokama, Tetsuhiro (2005). 100 Masters of Okinawan Karate. Okinawa: Ozata Print, 20. 
  12. ^ Funakoshi, Gichin. "Karate-Do Kyohan - The Master Text" Tokyo. Kodansha International; 1973.
  13. ^ [1] Names of China
  14. ^ http://www.newpaltzkarate.com/article/Article1SA.html, Levitz, Maurey (1998) What's In A Name? How the meaning of the term karate has changed, New Paltz Karate Academy, Inc.
  15. ^ Higaonna, Morio (1985). Traditional Karatedo Vol. 1 Fundamental Techniques, 19. ISBN 0-87040-595-0. 
  16. ^ (Japanese) Old Ryukyu: Establishment of a unified dynasty at Ryukyu Cultural Archives
  17. ^ A Brief History of Kata at Practical Martial Arts
  18. ^ Bishop, Mark (1989). Okinawan Karate, 154. ISBN 0-7136-5666-2.  Motobu-ryu & Seikichi Uehara
  19. ^ Higaonna, Morio (1985). Traditional Karatedo Vol. 1 Fundamental Techniques, 19. ISBN 0-87040-595-0. 
  20. ^ Bishop, Mark (1989). Okinawan Karate, 28. ISBN 0-7136-5666-2.  For example Chojun Miyagi adapted Rokkishu of White Crane into Tensho
  21. ^ [http://www.koryu-uchinadi.com/thinking_outside_the_box.htm Patrick McCarthy, footnote #4
  22. ^ Kanbun Uechi history
  23. ^ Hokama, Tetsuhiro (2005). 100 Masters of Okinawan Karate. Okinawa: Ozata Print, 28. 
  24. ^ WUKO World Union of Karate-do Organizations
  25. ^ The Great Karate Myth, 2006, Wykeham Press
  26. ^ Nozaki, Yoshiko; Hiromitsu Inokuchi, Tae-young Kim. Legal Categories, Demographic Change and Japan’s Korean Residents in the Long Twentieth Century. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  27. ^ History of Shotokan (Russian). Retrieved on 2007-05-15.
  28. ^ nishiyama
  29. ^ All South Karate
  30. ^ International Association of Shotokan Karate (IASK)
  31. ^ For example, Ian Fleming's book Goldfinger (1959, p.91-95) describes the protagonist James Bond, an expert in unarmed combat, as utterly ignorant of Karate and its demonstrations, and describes the Korean 'Oddjob' in these terms: Goldfinger said, "Have you ever heard of Karate? No? Well that man is one of the three in the world who have achieved the Black Belt in Karate. Karate is a branch of judo, but it is to judo what a spandau is to a catapult...". Such a description in a popular novel assumed and relied upon Karate being almost unknown in the West.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the author. ... For other uses, see Goldfinger. ... This article is about the spy series. ... Oddjob is a henchman to the villain Auric Goldfinger in the James Bond film and novel, Goldfinger. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the 1980s New Wave group, see Spandau Ballet. ... Drawing of a Roman catapult For the handheld Y-shaped weapon, see slingshot. ...

External links


Naha-te is a pre-World War II term for a type of martial art indigenous to the area around Naha, the capital city of the island of Okinawa. ... Karate training at Shuri Castle c. ... Tomari-Te refers to a tradition of martial arts originating from the village of Tomari, Okinawa. ... Ashihara kaikan ) is a stand-up, full contact, Japanese martial art that was founded by Hideyuki Ashihara (December 5, 1944-April 24, 1995) in 1980 and existed under his direction until his death, by ALS, in 1995. ... Budokan ) is a style of Karate recognized by World Union of Karate-do Organizations (WUKO). ... Butokukan karate is a Japanese style of karate and, as of 2006, is chiefly present in Washington state and British Columbia. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Enshin kaikan ) is a style of knockdown, full contact karate founded in 1988 with dojo and students in various countries around the world. ... Gensei-ryu ) is a karate style with roots in Shuri-Te, one of the three original karate styles on Okinawa (a Japanese island). ... Genwakai is a style of Karate-do. ... GōjÅ«-ryÅ« ), (Japanese for Hard-soft style) is a style of karate that uses a combination of hard and soft techniques. ... This article is about the modern school of karate. ... The two shields of Kenpo Kai - Kenpo Kai is a traditional Japanese martial art. ... The Tomoe, or insignia of Kiyojute Ryu Kempo. ... Kobayashi Shorin-ryu, also called Kobayashi-ryu, is a style of Okinawan karate that descended from Chosin Chibana. ... Koei-Kan Karate-Do is an original style of martial arts that was developed by Master Onishi Eizo in 1952. ... Kosho Shorei Ryu Kempo is a system of Kempo based upon the teachings of James Mitose. ... Kuma-Ryu is an Okinawan-based system of karate utilizing upright stances, fast closing of space, and short-distance close-fighting techniques. ... Kyokushin is a style of stand-up, full contact karate, founded in 1964 by Masutatsu Oyama (大山倍達) who was born under the name Choi Yeong-Eui (최영의). Kyokushinkai is Japanese for the society of the ultimate truth. ... Shoshin Nagamine and son Takayoshi Nagamine. ... Mushindo Kempo is a form of karate which concentrates also upon the spiritual and health giving aspects of the Sino-RyÅ«kyÅ«an martial art. ... Ryu-te , lit. ... Ryuei-ryu ) is an Okinawan style of karate. ... Ryukyu Kempo is a style of Karate that emphasizes Kyusho-jitsu (pressure points) and tuite-jitsu (stand-up grappling) techniques found in kata). ... Seido juku ) is a style of karate founded by Kaicho (Grandmaster) Tadashi Nakamura in 1976. ... Shidokan ) karate is sometimes described as the triathlon of Martial arts, as it encompasses knockdown (otherwise known as bare knuckle) karate, Muay Thai, and grappling. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Shohei-ryu Karate is a version of Uechi Ryu Karate. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Stories about the origins of karatedo and the lives of its masters are rich in folklore. ... Shotokai ) is the organisation formed in 1936 by Gichin Funakoshi to teach karate. ... Shotokan-ryu ) is a school of karate, developed from various martial arts by Gichin Funakoshi (1868–1957) and his son Yoshitaka Funakoshi (1906–1945). ... Toyama Kanken ShÅ«dōkan (修道館), literally the hall for the study of the [karate] way, is a school of karate developed by Kanken Toyama (1888 – 1966). ... Miyake Shukokai International logo Shukokai ) is a group of closely related styles of karate, based on Tani-ha Shito-ryÅ«, a branch of Shito-ryÅ« developed by Chojiro Tani in the late 1940s. ... This article or section contains too much jargon and may need simplification or further explanation. ... Tōon-ryÅ« ), is a style of Okinawan Karate taught and named by Kyoda Juhatsu. ... Uechi RyÅ« (上地流 — Japanese for Way of Uechi) is a style of Okinawan karate. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Yoseikan Karate (Yoseikan Ryu Karate) is the name given to the Karate (Shotokan) taught at the Yoseikan Dojo in Shizuoka, Japan, under the direction of Minoru Mochizuki (望月 稔 Mōchizuki Minoru, 1907–2003). ... Yoshukai ) karate is a branch discipline of the Japanese/Okinawan martial art, Karate-do, or Way of the Empty Hand. ... This table compares styles of karate. ... A block is a technique in martial arts that prevents an attack from making contact with the body. ... Bunkai is a Japanese term used in Karate. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... For other uses, see Kick (disambiguation). ... Kumitaa doing kumite. ... In the context of unarmed combat or melee, a punch is a thrusting blow, esp. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Bājíquán (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally eight extremes fist; Japanese: , Hakkyokuken) is a Chinese martial art that features explosive, short range power and is famous for its elbow strikes. ... For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ... Angkorian warriors as depicted on bas reliefs at Angkor Wat Bokator/Boxkator, or more formally, Labok Katao(which means wielding a wooden stick to fight lions) (ល្បុក្កតោ), is an ancient Khmer martial art said to be the predecessor of all Southeast Asian kickboxing styles. ... Capoeira (IPA: ,Tupi-Guarani word for - clear area) is a Brazilian blend of martial art, game, and dance originated in Brazil, from the regions known as Bahia, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo. ... This article is about the Fujian style of White Crane. ... For other uses, see kempo (disambiguation). ... Kicking to left side Kickboxing refers to sport-fighting using kicks and punches and sometimes throws and bows representing a certain martial art or can be practiced for general fitness, or as a full-contact sport. ... BAMA LETHWEI Lethwei or Lethawae (Read as Let-whae, but quickly) ; also known as Burmese Boxing and Myanmar Traditional Boxing, is a form of kickboxing which originated in Myanmar (Burma). ... For the drink with a similar-sounding name, see Mai Tai. ... Pradal Serey (; English: Khmer Boxing) is the name of the centuries old kickboxing martial arts of Cambodia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Savate (pronounced ), also known as boxe française, French boxing, French Kickboxing or French Footfighting, is a French martial art which uses both the hands and feet as weapons and combines elements of western boxing with graceful kicking techniques. ... SIKARAN is a form of Philippine Martial Arts whose history dates back to the early 1500s before the Spaniards came, It is the art of foot-fighting where the farmers use their strong legs to drive the partners outside the designated line (pitak). ... Silat or Pencak Silat is an umbrella term for a martial art form originating from the regions of the Malay Archipelago. ... Subak, (or Subakhi, Subak-chigi) is a Korean traditional martial art. ... Ever since 1669, when Huang Zongxi first described Chinese martial arts in terms of a Shaolin or external school versus a Wudang or internal school,[1] Shaolin has been used as a synonym for external Chinese martial arts regardless of whether or not the particular style in question has any... Taekyon, or Taekkyon is a traditional Korean martial art, probably stemming from Subak. ... Taekwondo (태권도; IPA: ) is a Korean martial art and combat sport. ... Taido ( 躰道 / taidō ) is a Japanese martial arts or budo created in 1965 by Seiken Shukumine (1925 - 2001). ... Wing Chun, occasionally romanized as Ving Tsun or Wing Tsun (literally spring chant and alternatively as forever spring, or substituted with the character for eternal springtime[1]) is a Chinese martial art that specializes in aggressive close-range combat. ... WingTsunâ„¢, often shortened to WT, is a particular school of the Wing Chun style of Kung Fu developed by a student of Grandmaster Yip Man named Leung Ting. ... Like other southern Chinese martial arts, Choy Lei Fut features Five Animal techniques based on the tiger, dragon, crane, leopard, and snake but is distinguished from other southern styles by long, swinging, circular movements and twisting body motions more indicative of northern styles. ... For other uses, see Grapple. ... Aikido ) is a Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs. ... Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) is a martial art and combat sport that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting with the goal of gaining a dominant position and using joint-locks and chokeholds to force an opponent to submit. ... Catch wrestling is a popular style of wrestling. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ... Jujutsu )  , literally meaning the art of softness, is a Japanese martial art consisting primarily of grappling techniques. ... Kinomichi, calligraphy by Masamichi Noro Kinomichi 氣之道 is a Martial art (budo 武道 in Japanese ), founded by Masamichi Noro 野呂昌道 in Paris, France, in 1979. ... Kurash is the native ancient type of upright jacket wrestling practiced in Uzbekistan. ... Mallayuddha (literally wrestling combat)[1] is the martial art of classical Indian wrestling. ... Mongolian wrestling is a traditional Mongolian sport that has existed in Mongolia for centuries. ... Varzesh-e Pahlavani (Persian varzeÅ¡-e pahlavānÄ« ورزش پهلوانی) meaning the Sport of the Heroes, also known as Varzesh-e Bastani (Persian varzeÅ¡-e bāstnÄ« ورزش باستانی), meaning the Sport of the Ancients, is a traditional discipline of gymnastics and wrestling of Iran, which was originally an academy of physical training for... Pehlwani Modern wrestling, or Pehlwani , is a synthesis of an indigenous Aryan form of wrestling that dates back at least to the 5th century BC [1] and a Persian form of wrestling brought into South Asia by the Mughals. ... Sambo (Russian: ) -- (also called Sombo in the US and sometimes written in all-caps) is a modern martial art, combat sport and self-defense system developed in the former Soviet Union, and recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee in 1938, presented by Anatoly Kharlampiev. ... Shuai jiao (Chinese: 摔跤 or 摔角; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shuai-chiao) is the modern Chinese term for Chinese and Mongolian wrestling. ... Image:Ssireum-1. ... For other uses, see Sumo (disambiguation). ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ... YaÄŸlı GüreÅŸ (IPA:) is the Turkish national sport. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... Battōjutsu ) is a Japanese term meaning techniques for drawing a sword. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the sport, which is distinguished from stage fencing and academic fencing (mensur). ... Gatka (Punjabi: , ) is a traditional Sikh martial art. ... Haidong Gumdo, also spelled Haedong Kumdo, is a name coined around 1982 and used for several Korean martial art organizations that use swords. ... Hojōjutsu (捕縄術) or Nawajutsu, (縄術) is the traditional Japanese martial skill of restraining a person using cord or rope. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Iaido (居合道 iaidō), also sometimes called iaijutsu (居合術 iaijutsu) or battojutsu (抜刀術 battōjutsu) is the art of drawing the katana, cutting down the opponent, flipping blood from the blade, and then re-sheathing the katana in one fluid movement. ... Jōdō ), meaning the way of the jō, or jōjutsu ) is a Japanese martial art using short staves called jō. The art is similar to bōjutsu, and is strongly focused upon defense against the Japanese sword. ... Jogo do Pau. ... JÅ«kendō ) is the Japanese martial art of bayonet fighting. ... Juttejutsu is the Japanese martial art of using a jitte or jutte. ... Kendo ), or way of the sword, is the martial art of Japanese fencing. ... Kenjutsu ) is the Japanese martial art specializing in the use of the Japanese sword (katana). ... This article contains a trivia section. ... KyÅ«jutsu ) is the traditional Japanese martial art of wielding a bow. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Naginatajutsu (なぎなた術, 長刀術 or 薙刀術) is the Japanese Martial art of wielding the naginata, a weapon resembling the medieval European glaive. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shurikenjutsu ) is a general term describing the traditional Japanese martial arts of throwing shuriken, which are small, hand-held weapons such as metal spikes (bo shuriken), circular plates of metal known as hira shuriken, and knives (tantō). Shuriken-jutsu was usually taught among the sogo-bugei, or comprehensive martial arts... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sōjutsu (槍術, sometimes incorrectly read as yarijutsu) is the art of fighting with the Japanese spear, yari (槍). Sōjutsu is typically only a single component of curriculum in comprehensive Japanese koryu schools; for example Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto-ryu includes spear fighting techniques. ... For the fighting styles that combine different arts, see hybrid martial arts. ... Hybrid martial arts (also known as hybrid fighting systems) refer to martial arts or fighting systems that incorporate techniques and theories from several particular martial arts. ... BāguàzhÇŽng is one of the major internal (a. ... the Tiger Defense Bando or animal system is the ancient art of self-defense from Burma. ... Bartitsu is an eclectic martial art and self defence method originally developed in England during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... The Bujinkan (武神館) is a martial arts organization practicing the art commonly referred to as Bujinkan Budō Taijutsu (武神館武道体術). The art is widely considered to be the last legitimate ninpo, or ninja, martial art, particularly because of the influence of Togakure ryu. ... This article is about Martial art. ... Hwa Rang Do is a Korean martial art that was created in its modern form by Joo Bang Lee and his brother, Joo Sang Lee. ... Jeet Kune Do (Chinese: 截拳道 Cantonese: Jitkyùndou Pinyin: Jiéquándào, lit. ... Kajukenbo is a hybrid martial art that combines karate, judo, jujutsu, kenpo, and kung fu. ... Kalarippayattu (IPA: [kaÉ­aɾipːajatɨ̆], Malayalam: കളരിപയറ്റ്) is a Dravidian martial art practised in Kerala and contiguous parts of neighboring Tamil Nadu of Southern India. ... Krav Maga (Hebrew קרב מגע: contact combat) is a martial art, at first developed in Czechoslovakia in the 1930s. ... Kuk Sool Won is a Korean martial arts system founded by In Hyuk Suh in 1958. ... MCMAP logo The Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP) is a combat system developed by the United States Marine Corps to combine existing and new hand-to-hand and close combat techniques with morale and team-building functions and instruction in what the Marine Corps calls the Warrior Ethos.[1... Northern Praying Mantis (Chinese: ; pinyin: tánglángquán; literally praying mantis fist) is a style of Chinese martial arts, sometimes called Shandong Praying Mantis after its province of origin. ... This article is about a Japanese martial art. ... Pankration was an ancient sport introduced in the Greek Olympic games in 648 BC. Many historians believe that, although Pankration was not one of the first Olympic sports, it was likely the most popular. ... This article is about martial art forms practiced in Indonesia. ... The leitai of the 2004 China National Sanda Championships Sanshou (Chinese: 散手, lit. ... Shidokan karate is sometimes described as the triathlon of Martial Arts, as it encompasses knockdown (otherwise known as bare knuckle) karate, Thai kick-boxing, and grappling. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... ISFA logo Shootfighting is a combat sport and martial art, with competitions governed by the International Shootfighting Association (ISFA). ... Shorinji Kempo (少林寺拳法 Shōrinji Kenpō -- note that the World Shorinji Kempo Organization prefers the Romanization kempo to kenpo) is a martial art form of Kempo that was invented by Doshin So (å®— 道臣, 1911-1980) in 1947, who incorporated Japanese Zen Buddhism into the fighting style. ... For other uses, see Systema (disambiguation). ... Tai chi chuan (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: tàijíquán; Wade-Giles: tai4 chi2 chüan2) is an internal Chinese martial art often practiced with the aim of promoting health and longevity. ... Vajra Mushti (or Vajra Mukti)/Diamond Fist is one of the oldest martial arts of India . ... Vovinam is a type of Vietnamese martial arts. ... Xingyiquan is one of the three major internal Chinese martial arts—the other two being Tai Chi Chüan and Baguazhang—and is characterised by aggressive, seemingly linear movements and explosive power. ...


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