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Encyclopedia > Karakorum (Mongolia)

Coordinates: 47°17′57″N, 102°33′38″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Click image for larger view. Silk routes of the Great Silk Road, including two hypothetical routes leading to Karakorum (lighter blue). No actual route to Karakorum has ever been found.
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Click image for larger view. Silk routes of the Great Silk Road, including two hypothetical routes leading to Karakorum (lighter blue). No actual route to Karakorum has ever been found.

Karakorum (also K'a-la-k'un-lun, Khara-khorin, Kharakhorum, Khara Khorum in Classical Mongolian) was an ancient palace and "capital city" of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century, although for only about 30 years. Today its ruins lie in the southeastern corner of the Arhangay Province of Mongolia or, to be more specific, in the upper part of the World Heritage Site entitled Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape (see references: 2.4MB map & University of Texas at Austin). The Silk Road in the 1st century CE. For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... Mongol Empires largest extent coloured in blue. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Arhangay aymag (Архангай аймаг) is one of the 21 provinces of Mongolia. ... Site #86: Memphis and its Necropolis, including the Pyramids of Giza (Egypt). ... Brief Description The 121,967-ha Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape encompasses an extensive area of pastureland on both banks of the Orkhon River and includes numerous archaeological remains dating back to the 6th century. ...


Archaeological evidence reveals that town life centered on metallurgy powered by the currents of the Orhon River. Other findings include arrowheads; iron cauldrons; wheel bushings; evidence of ceramic (tiles and sculpture) production, glass (glass beads) production and yarn (spindles) production; also Chinese silk and coins [1]. The palace itself had green-tiled floors, and "all the roofs, made of green and red tiles, had ornamentation of relief." Household utensils, porcelain pottery and bronze, silver and gold decorations have been unearthed as well. [2] Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and of materials engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... Orhon River in Mongolia The Orhon River (old Turkish Orkhon, Orchon and also Orhun) is a river in Mongolia. ... American Indian arrowheads of several shapes and functions Japanese arrowheads of several shapes and functions Arrowhead can refer to: the point of an arrow; some plants in the genus Sagittaria; the Arrowhead region of northeastern Minnesota; a place name in southern California, derived from an arrowhead-shaped geologic formation in... A cauldron or caldron (from Latin caldarium, hot bath) is a large metal-made pot (kettle) for cooking and/or boiling over an open fire, usually attached to a hanger with the shape of an arc. ... It has been suggested that Bush (mechanical) be merged into this article or section. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικος (keramikos, potters earth, or pottery). The term covers inorganic non-metallic materials whose formation is due to the action of heat. ... Mission, or barrel, roof tiles For the towns named Tile, see Tile, Somalia and Tile, Lebanon. ... An Italian Futurist sculpture by Umberto Boccioni at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City (MoMA). ... Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colours as shown in this ball from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ... Bead may refer to: // Decorative bead Decorative Beads Cloisonné beads A decorative bead is a small, decorative object that is pierced for threading or stringing. ... This article is about yarn fiber. ... The word spindle might (or might not) have several meanings: A spindle (shrub), a poisonous shrub or small tree of the genus Euonymus. ... Silk weaver Silk is a natural protein fiber that can be woven into textiles. ... A coin is usually a piece of hard material, generally metal and usually in the shape of a disc, which is issued by a government to be used as a form of money. ... ... It has been suggested that Porcelain tile be merged into this article or section. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Assorted ancient bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ...


This local region is surrounded by arable land and once hosted rich mining deposits. For all these finds, Karakorum has been dubbed the ancient "Empire of the Steppe" [3]. Some evidence indicates that early peoples may have inhabited the area as early as the 8th century (Encyclopædia Britannica). A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - step, Ukrainian: - step), pronounced in English as step, is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ...

Contents


Political history

The powerful Mongol leader "Ghengis Khan," or "Universal Ruler," settled in this region sometime around 1220 and made it a command post for his military conquest of China, marking the beginning of a time period that has become known as the Yuan Dynasty (Encyclopædia Britannica and Yuan Dynasty). Genghis Khan's real name was Temujin. He emerged as the strongest chieftain among a number of contending leaders in a confederation of clan lineages. His principal opponents in this struggle had been the Naiman Mongols, and he selected Karakorum (west-southwest of modern Ulaanbaatar, near modern Har Horin), their capital, as the seat of his new empire. Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Genghis Khan (Mongolian: Чингис Хаан, Jenghis Khan, Jinghis Khan, Chinghiz Khan, Jinghiz Khan, Chinggis Khan, Changaiz Khan, original name Temüjin, Temuchin, Mongolian: Тэмүүжин) (c. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368. ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ... The Naimans or Naiman Mongols (Naiman also means eight in Mongolian) were a Mongol people dwelling in central Asia, closely related to the Kara-Khitai, and subservient to them until 1177. ... September 2004 Ulan Bator, or Ulaanbaatar (Улаанбаатар, [UlaÉ£an BaÉ£atar]) in Mongolian, is the capital of Mongolia. ... Karakorum may refer to: the Karakoram Highway: the highest international road in the world, goes across the Karakoram mountain range. ...


Persian merchants and Chinese craftmen were main habitants in the cosmopolitan empire. Although Karakorum is often said to be the capital of the Mongol Empire, Temujin lived in the movable palaces outside the city like other nomadic rulers. Karakorum served as the supply base for the actual "capital." After Temujin's death in 1227 and in compliance with the will of the dead khan, a kuriltai at Karakorum in 1228 selected Ögedei as khan. Khan (sometimes spelled as Xan, Han) is a title with many meanings, originally commander, leader or ruler, in Mongolian and Turkish. ... Khuriltai was a emperial and tribal assemblies convened to determine, strategize and analyze military campaigns and assign individuals to leadership positions and titles. ... Ögedei Khan Ögedei, (also Ögädäi, Ögedäi, Ogotai, etc. ...


Ögedei rebuilt Karakorum in 1235 and re-established Karakorum's trade along the Silk Road. This ancient state of Mongolia in the 13th century was among the most famous and powerful of all in the world. Karakorum became a major site for world trade and politics. "The flow of ambassadors from France, sons of Georgian and Armenian sovereigns, Russian princes, and Chinese officials was unceasing" [4]. Ögedei erected walls to surround Karakorum and constructed a rectangular-shaped palace firmly held by 64 wooden columns resting upon on solid granite bases. Present day archaeological findings show that Karakorum was surrounded by walls occupying a space of approximately 1½ by 2½ kilometers [5]. Numerous brick buildings, shrines, mosques and tortoise sculptures were constructed as well (Encyclopædia Britannica). The Silk Road in the 1st century CE. For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ...


Eventually Ögedei's son Güyük succeeded him after his death in 1241. Ögedei's widow Töregene Khatun held power in Karakorum as regent between 1242 and 1246 (see Ögedei Khan). It was not until the summer of 1246 that a kuriltai assembled at Karakorum to select the successor to Ogedei, mainly because of political maneuvering by Batu Khan and other royal princes at Karakorum who had hopes of being elected. Güyük continued to rival with Batu and died in 1249. Güyük (c. ... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal Polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... Töregene Khatun ruled as regent of the Mongol Empire from the death of her husband Ögedei Khan in 1241 until the election of her eldest son Güyük Khan in 1246. ... Ögedei Khan Ögedei, (also Ögädäi, Ögedäi, Ogotai, etc. ... Batu Khan (Russian: ) (c. ...


In the two years that followed, Karakorum seems to have had no leader. Though most of the royal princes at Karakorum thought that Batu should be elected khan, Batu declined the offer and instead nominated Möngke Khan, the eldest son of Tolui. Möngke's nomination was confirmed by a kuriltai in 1251. When Möngke died in 1259 the overwhelming choice of the kuriltai as his successor was his equally brilliant brother, Kublai Khan. For the next few years, the new khan devoted his attention to administrative reforms of his vast empire. One major development under Kublai's generalship was his establishment in 1260 of a winter capital at Dadu, in modern day Beijing, China. By 1267, he had made Dadu the new capital of his empire (Encyclopædia Britannica). Möngke Khan (1208-1259, also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu) was the fourth khan of the Mongol Empire. ... Tolui (also rendered Toluy, 1190–1232) was the youngest son of Genghis Khan by Börte. ... Kublai Khan, Khubilai Khan or the last of the Great Khans (September 23, 1215 - February 18, 1294) (Mongolian: Хубилай хаан, Chinese: , also spelled as Kubilay Han in Turkic), was a Mongol military leader. ... Khanbaliq or Cambuluc (great residence of the khan) is the ancient Mongol name for Beijing, the current capital of China. ...


After Kublai Khan moved the "capital" to Dadu, Karakorum was degraded to a provincial city. Although the Northern Yuan temporarily put the capital there, the subsequent strife between the Forty Mongols and Four Oirats ruined it. Chinese invaders sacked the city and massacred its inhabitants in 1388. About 70,000 Mongols were taken prisoner, and Karakorum was destroyed [6]. Though Karakorum was partially reconstructed later, it was nevertheless eventually deserted (Encyclopædia Britannica). Kublai Khan, Khubilai Khan or the last of the Great Khans (September 23, 1215 - February 18, 1294) (Mongolian: Хубилай хаан, Chinese: , also spelled as Kubilay Han in Turkic), was a Mongol military leader. ... Khanbaliq or Cambuluc (great residence of the khan) is the ancient Mongol name for Beijing, the current capital of China. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus; Chinese: 元朝) (1271-1368), also called the Mongol Dynasty, was a significant ruling family in Asia. ... Oirats (also spelled Oyrats or Oyirads; Mongolian: Ойрадын Ojradyn) refers to both a Western Mongol people of Europe and Asia and, historically, to a Turkic people now known as the Altays. ... Events Beginning of prosecution of Lollards in England The Battle of Otterburn between England and Scotland A Chinese army under Xu Da sacks Karakorum Births September 14 - Claudius Claussön Swart, Danish geographer September 29 - Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, second son of Henry IV of England (d. ...


William of Rubruck

William of Rubruck, a Flemish Franciscan missionary and explorer to Karakorum in 1254, wrote of his visit and travels, a work which has become one of the great masterpieces of medieval geographical literature. Because William was a good observer and excellent writer, and because he asked many questions along the way without taking folk tale and fable as truth, his account of Karakorum is held in high esteem (see William of Rubruck): William of Rubruck (also William of Rubruk, Guillaume de Rubrouck, Willielmus de Rubruquis, born ca. ... The geographical region and former county of Flanders contains not only the two Belgian provinces but also the present-day French département of Nord, in parts of which there is still a Flemish-speaking minority, and the southern part of the Dutch province of Zeeland known as Zeeuws-Vlaanderen... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... William of Rubruck (also William of Rubruk, Guillaume de Rubrouck, Willielmus de Rubruquis, born ca. ...

...a great palace, situated next to the city walls, enclosed within a high wall like those which enclose monks' priories among us. Here is a great palace.... There are there many buildings as long as barns, in which are stored his provisions and his treasures. In the entry of this great palace, it being unseemly to bring in there skins of milk and other drinks, master William the Parisian had made for him a great silver tree, and at its roots are four lions of silver, each with a conduit through it, and all belching forth white milk of mares. And four conduits are led inside the tree to its tops, which are bent downward, and on each of these is also a gilded serpent, whose tail twines round the tree. And from one of these pipes flows wine, from another cara cosmos, or clarified mare's milk, from another bal, a drink made with honey, and from another rice mead, which is called terracina; and for each liquor there is a special silver bowl at the foot of the tree to receive it. Between these four conduits in the top, he made an angel holding a trumpet, and underneath the tree he made a vault in which a man can be hid. And pipes go up through the heart of the tree to the angel. In the first place he made bellows, but they did not give enough wind. Outside the palace is a cellar in which the liquors are stored, and there are servants all ready to pour them out when they hear the angel trumpeting. And there are branches of silver on the tree, and leaves and fruit.
And the palace is like a church, with a middle nave, and two sides beyond two rows of pillars, and with three doors to the south, and beyond the middle door on the inside stands the tree, and the Chan sits in a high place to the north, so that he can be seen by all; and two rows of steps go up to him: by one he who carries his cup goes up, and by the other he comes down. The space which is in the middle between the tree and these steps by which they go up to him is empty; for here stands his cup-bearer, and also envoys bearing presents; and he himself sits up there like a divinity. (Waugh, 2004)

In 1585 Abadai Khan of the Khalkha built a Tibetan Buddhist monastery called Erdene Zuu (Erdeni Juu) on the site. Various construction materials were taken from the ruin to build this monastery. 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ... The Khalkha, or Halh (Халх [χɑɬχ]) in modern Khalkha Mongolian, is a subgroup of the Mongols. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ...


The ruins of Karakorum were discovered by the Russian expedition of Nikolai Przhevalsky in 1889, several months after its leader's death. In Mongolia, some people favored relocating the national capital from Ulaanbaatar to nearby Har Horin. Nikolai Mikhaylovich Przhevalsky, also spelled Przewalski and Prjevalsky (Russian: ) (April 12, 1839—November 1, 1888 (Gregorian calendar)), was a Russian geographer and explorer in central and eastern Asia. ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... September 2004 Ulan Bator, or Ulaanbaatar (Улаанбаатар, [Ulaɣan Baɣatar]) in Mongolian, is the capital of Mongolia. ... Karakorum may refer to: the Karakoram Highway: the highest international road in the world, goes across the Karakoram mountain range. ...


Between 1948 and 1949 the Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. explored the ancient site. Their findings include the discovery of the palace built by Ögedei and a Buddhist shrine built around 1300 (Encyclopædia Britannica). Soviet redirects here. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ...


Modern times

The government of Mongolia recently announced that it would like to build a new capital for Mongolia on the site of ancient Karakorum. The new capital would be named Karakorum and would be the symbol of a united, free, and prosperous Mongolia.


See also

  • kara koto the Black City

Online bibliographic references


 
 

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