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Encyclopedia > Karakalpak
Karakalpak
Qaraqalpaq tili, Қарақалпақ тили
Spoken in: Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Russia 
Region: Karakalpakstan
Total speakers: 412,000 (1993)
Language family: Altaic
 Turkic
  Kypchak
   Kypchak-Nogay
    Karakalpak 
Official status
Official language in: Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan is the official area)
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: kaa
ISO 639-3: kaa 

Map showing locations of Karakalpak (red) within Uzbekistan

Karakalpak is a Turkic language mainly spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan), as well as by Bashkirs and Nogay. Ethnic Karakalpaks who live in the viloyatlar of Uzbekistan tend to speak local Uzbek dialects.[citation needed] Karakalpakstan (Uzbek: Qoraqalpogiston Respublikasi or Қорақалпоғистон Республикаси; Karakalpak: Қарақалпақстан Республикасы or Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası) is an autonomous republic of Uzbekistan. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... The Kypchak languages (also known as the Kipchak, Qypchaq, or Northeastern Turkic languages), are a major branch of the Turkic language family spoken by more than 12 million people in an area spanning from Lithuania to China. ... Karakalpakstan (Uzbek: Qoraqalpogiston Respublikasi or Қорақалпоғистон Республикаси; Karakalpak: Қарақалпақстан Республикасы or Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası) is an autonomous republic of Uzbekistan. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links KarakalpakMap. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The Turkic languages are a group of closely related languages that are spoken by a variety of people distributed across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China. ... The Karakalpaks are ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya and in the (former) delta of Amu Darya on the southern shore of the Aral Sea. ... Karakalpakstan (Uzbek: Qoraqalpogiston Respublikasi or Қорақалпоғистон Республикаси; Karakalpak: Қарақалпақстан Республикасы or Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası) is an autonomous republic of Uzbekistan. ... Uzbekistan is divided into twelve provinces (singular: viloyat, plural: viloyatlar) (capitals in parentheses)- Andijon Province (Andijon) Buxoro Province (Buxoro) Fargona Province (Fargona) Jizzakh Province (Jizzakh) Namangan Province (Namangan) Navoiy Province (Navoiy) Qashqadaryo Province (Qarshi) Samarqand Province (Samarqand) Sirdaryo Province (Guliston) Surxondaryo Province (Termiz) Toshkent Province (Toshkent) Xorazm Province...

Contents

Classification

Karakalpak is a member of the Kypchak Turkic family of languages, which includes Tatar, Kumyk, and Kazakh in addition to Karakalpak. The Kipchak family is a subgroup of the Turkic languages, which most linguists believe to be member of an Altaic language family. Within the Kipchak Turkic family, Karakalpak is most closely related to Kazakh and Nogai. Due to its proximity to the Uzbek language areal, much of the vocabulary and grammar has an Uzbek influence. The Kypchak languages (also known as the Kipchak, Qypchaq, or Northeastern Turkic languages), are a major branch of the Turkic language family spoken by more than 12 million people in an area spanning from Lithuania to China. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Kumyk (also Qumuq, Kumuk, Kumuklar, and Kumyki) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 200 thousands speakers (the Kumyks) in the Dagestan republic of Russian Federation. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Nogai (also Nogay or Nogai Tatar), is a Turkic language spoken in southwestern Russia. ... Uzbek (O‘zbek tili in Latin script, Ўзбек тили in Cyrillic script) is an Eastern Turkic language and the official language of Uzbekistan. ...


Like Finnish, Hungarian, and Turkish, Karakalpak has vowel harmony, is agglutinative and has no grammatical gender. Word order is usually Subject Object Verb. Vowel harmony (also metaphony) is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels. ... It has been suggested that Agglutination be merged into this article or section. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ...


Geographic Distribution

Karakalpak is spoken mainly in the Karakalpakstan Autonomous Republic of Uzbekistan. Approximately 2,000 people in Afghanistan speak Karakalpak and smaller diaspora in other parts of Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkey, and other parts of the world speak Karakalpak as well. Karakalpakstan (Uzbek: Qoraqalpogiston Respublikasi or Қорақалпоғистон Республикаси; Karakalpak: Қарақалпақстан Республикасы or Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası) is an autonomous republic of Uzbekistan. ...


Official Status

Karakalpak has official status in the Karakalpakstan Autonomous Republic.


Dialects

The Ethnologue identifies two dialects of Karakalpak: Northeastern and Southeastern. Menges mentions a third possible dialect spoken in the Fergana Valley. Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... The Fergana Valley or Farghana Valley (Uzbek: , Kyrgyz: Фергана өрөөнү, Tajik: водии Фaрғонa, Russian: , Persian: ) is a region in the Tian Shan mountain ranges of Central Asia spreading across eastern Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. ...


Sounds

Consonants

Karakalpak has 21 native consonant phonemes and regularly uses 4 non-native phonemes in loan words. Non-native sounds are shown in parentheses.

Consonant phonemes
  Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Plosive p b t d     k g q      
Affricate     (t͡s)   (t͡ʃ)              
Fricative (f) (v) s z ʃ ʒ x ɣ     h  
Nasal m n     ŋ        
Flap/Tap     r                
Lateral     l                
Approximant w     j            

Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ...

Vowels

Image File history File links Karakalpak_vowel_chart. ...


Vowel Harmony

Vowel harmony functions in Karakalpak much as it does in other Turkic languages. Words borrowed from Russian or other languages may not observe rules of vowel harmony, but the following rules usually apply: Vowel harmony (also metaphony) is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels. ...

Vowel May be followed by:
a a, ɯ
æ e, i
e e, i
i e, i
o a, o, u, ɯ
œ e, i, œ, y
u a, o, u
y e, œ, y
ɯ a, ɯ

Vocabulary

Personal Pronouns

men I, sen you (singular), ol he, she, it, that, biz we, siz you (plural), olar they


Numbers

bir 1, eki 2, u'sh 3, to'rt 4, bes 5, altı 6, jeti 7, segiz 8, tog'ıs 9, on 10, ju'z 100, mın' 1000


Writing system

Karakalpak was written in the Arabic alphabet and in Persian until 1928, in the Latin alphabet (with additional characters) from 1928 to 1940, after which the Cyrillic alphabet was introduced. Following Uzbek independence in 1991 the decision was made to drop Cyrillic and to revert to the Latin alphabet. Whilst the use of Latin script is now widespread in Tashkent, its introduction into Karakalpakstan remains gradual. The Cyrillic and Latin alphabets are shown below with their equivalent representations in the IPA. Cyrillic letters with no representation in the Latin alphabet are marked with asterisks. The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ...

Cyrillic Latin IPA     Cyrillic Latin IPA     Cyrillic Latin IPA
Аа Aa a     Ққ Qq q     Фф Ff f
Әә A'a' æ     Лл Ll l     Хх Xx x
Бб Bb b     Мм Mm m     Ҳҳ Hh h
Вв Vv v     Нн Nn n     Цц* ts ʦ
Гг Gg g     Ңң N'n' ŋ     Чч* sh ʧ
Ғғ G'g' ɣ     Оо Oo o     Шш SHsh ʃ
Дд Dd d     Өө O'o' œ     Щщ* sh ʃ
Ее Ee e     Пп Pp p     Ъъ*    
Ёё* yo jo     Рр Rr r     Ыы ɯ
Жж Jj ʒ     Сс Ss s     Ьь*    
Зз Zz z     Тт Tt t     Ээ Ee e
Ии İi i     Уу Uu u     Юю* yu ju
Йй Yy j     Үү U'u' y     Яя ya ja
Кк Kk k     Ўў Ww w          

References

  • www.karakalpak.com

Menges, Karl H. (1947). Qaraqałpaq Grammar. Morningside Heights, New York: King's Crown Press. 


Johanson, Lars and Csató, Éva Ágnes (1998). The Turkic Languages. London: Routledge. 


External links

Wikimedia Incubator
Karakalpak test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator
  • Ethnologue report for Karakalpak
v  d  e
Turkic languages
Oghur Bulgar† | Chuvash | Hunnic† | Khazar† | Turkic Avar†
Uyghur Old Turkic† | Aini²| Chagatay† | Ili Turki | Lop | Uyghur | Uzbek
Kypchak Altay | Baraba | Bashkir | Crimean Tatar¹ | Cuman† | Karachay-Balkar | Karaim | Karakalpak | Kazakh | Kipchak† | Krymchak | Kumyk | Kyrgyz | Nogai | Old Tatar† | Tatar | Urum¹
Oghuz Afshar | Azerbaijani | Crimean Tatar¹ | Gagauz | Khorasani Turkish | Ottoman Turkish† | Pecheneg† | Qashqai | Salar | Turkish | Turkmen | Urum¹
Arghu Khalaj
Northeastern Chulym | Dolgan | Fuyü Gïrgïs | Khakas | Shor | Tofa | Tuvan | Western Yugur | Sakha/Yakut
Notes: ¹Listed in more than one group, ²Mixed language, ³Disputed, †Extinct

  Results from FactBites:
 
AllRefer.com - Karakalpak Republic (CIS And Baltic Political Geography) - Encyclopedia (332 words)
The population, concentrated in the delta, consists of Turkic-speaking Karakalpaks (31%), Uzbeks (31%), Kazakhs (26%), Turkmens, Russians, and Tatars.
The Karakalpak, known since the 16th cent., when they lived along the lower and middle courses of the Syr Darya River, were partly subjugated by the Kazakhs.
The economy and the environment in Karakalpak are deteriorating due to the evaporation of the Aral Sea and misuse of agricultural chemicals.
Language - Religion (490 words)
Karakalpak written language is rooted from the foundation of Karakalpakistan (1925).
Karakalpak language is close to the languages of Nogay and Kazakh.
Karakalpak language had become a written language in the Soviet period for the first time and an alphabet was developed that was based on the Arabic letters at first.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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