FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Karabakh khanate

This article is part of the series on: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (834x1178, 1059 KB) Photograph of Armenian man and woman taken during the late 19th century - 20th century; author unknown. ...


History of Nagorno-Karabakh To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Early History
Artsakh
Foreign Rule
Persian Rule
Karabakh Khanate
Imperial Russian Rule
Early 20th Century
History (1915-1921)
Sovietization
Soviet Rule
Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast
Independence
Nagorno-Karabakh War
Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh

The Karabakh khanate (Qarabağ xanlığı in Azeri) was a Persian ruled[1] feudal state that existed in 1748-1822 in the present-day Nagorno-Karabakh and adjacent lowland areas. Artsakh (Armenian - Արցախ, Azeri - Ərsak Russian - Арцах) is a historical Armenian name of the province of ancient Greater Armenia, that covered what is now mostly Nagorno-Karabakh. ... The history of Nagorno-Karabakh (1915-1923) refers to the transitional period of the end of the First World War in the Russian Empires Caucasian provinces of Armenia, Azerbaijan, the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh to the Sovietization phase of the region that followed after the Bolsheviks took power in... The Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast was an autonomous oblast of the Soviet Union created in the Azerbaijan SSR in 1923. ... Combatants Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh1 Republic of Armenia 2 CIS mercenaries Republic of Azerbaijan Afghan Mujahideen 3 Chechen Volunteers 4 CIS mercenaries Commanders Samvel Babayan, Hemayag Haroyan, Monte Melkonian, Vazgen Sargsyan, Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Ä°sgandar Hamidov, Suret Huseynov, Rahim Gaziev, Shamil Basayev Casualties 6,000 dead, 25,000 wounded 17... Anthem: Azat ou Ankakh Artsakh (Free and Independent Artsakh) Capital Stepanakert (Khankendi) Armenian Government Unrecognized  - President Arkady Ghoukasyan  - Prime Minister Anushavan Danielyan Independence from Azerbaijan   - Referendum December 10, 1991   - Proclaimed January 6, 1992   - Recognition none[1]  Area  - Total 4,400 km² 1,699 sq mi  Population  - 2002 estimate 145,000... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of Republic of Azerbaijan. ... Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ...

Contents

History

Khanate was founded as a feudal mulk (landholding) given to Qajar-related Ziyadoglu family in 1606. The founder of the independent khanate was Ali Panah khan from the clan of Javanshir (1693-1761). Following the death of Nadir shah Afshar in 1747,the central government in Iran collapsed and the Iranian state has split into numerous small independent khanates. The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid...


Panah Khan took advantage of the enmity between the five Armenian meliks (princes) of the region, who were referred to as Khamsa (five in Arabic), and subordinated them.[2] The capital of the khanate was first a castle of Bayat in 1748, followed by newly build town of Panahabad in 1750-1752. It was established to control Karabakh meliks with support of Melik Shah-Nazar of Varanda, who was the first to accept suzerainty of Ali Panah khan. Panahabad during Ibrahim-Khalil khan's reign, son of Panah Ali khan, became a large town and was renamed Shusha, apparently after the name of the nearest village of Shüshükent. Panah Ali khan expanded the territory of Karabakh khanate subjugating territory of Karabakh, Meghri, Tatev, Sisian, Kapan in Zangezur and Nakchivan Khanate. Ðœelik (Armenian: , prince, from Arabic malik —king) — was a hereditary Armenian noble title, in various Eastern Armenian principalities known as melikdoms encompassing modern Yerevan, Kars, Nakhichevan, Sevan, Lori, Artsakh, Tabriz and Syunik starting from the Late Middle Ages until the end of the 19th century. ... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... Province: Shusha rayon (Azeri subdivsion) Shushi Marz/District (Nagrono Karabakh Republic Subdivsion) Area: Altitude: - Population: ~3000 Population density: - Latitude: - Longitude: - Mayor: - Shusha (Azerbaijani: ÅžuÅŸa, Armenian: Õ‡Õ¸Ö‚Õ·Õ«; translit. ... The Karabakh horse has a reputation for its good temper, speed, elegance and intelligence. ... Meghri (Armenian: Õ„Õ¥Õ²Ö€Õ«; Persian: مغری) is a city in southern Armenia, located in the Syunik province, near the border with Iran. ... The monastery of Tatev is located in the village of the same. ... Sisian (Armenian: ) - city in Armenia in Syunik province. ... Kapan (Ô¿Õ¡ÕºÕ¡Õ¶ in Armenian, former names include Ghapan, Kafan, and Madan) is a town in the Syunik province of Armenia, about one kilometre from the Azerbaijani border. ... Syunik is one of the provinces (marz) of Armenia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In less than a year after Shusha was founded, the Karabakh khanate was attacked by Muhammed Hassan khan Qajar, one of the major claimants to the Iranian throne. During the Safavid Empire Karabakh was for almost two centuries ruled by the Turkic-speaking clan of Qajar, and therefore, Muhammed Hassan khan considered Karabakh his hereditary estate. The Karabakh horse has a reputation for its good temper, speed, elegance and intelligence. ...


Muhammed Hassan khan besieged Shusha (Panahabad at that time) but soon had to retreat, because of the attack on his khanate of his major opponent to the Iranian throne Kerim khan Zend. His retreat was so hasty that he even left his cannons under the walls of Shusha fortress. Panah Ali khan counterattacked the retreating troops of Muhammad Hassan khan and even briefly took Ardabil across the Araks River in South (Iranian) Azerbaijan.


In 1759 Shusha and the Karabakh khanate underwent a new attack from Fatali khan Afshar, ruler of Urmia. With his 30,000-strong army Fatali khan also managed to gain support from the meliks (feudal vassals) of Jraberd and Talish (Gulistan), however melik Shah Nazar of Varan continued to support Panah Ali khan. Siege of Shusha lasted for six months and Fatali khan eventually had to retreat.


After Panah Ali khan's death his son Ibrahim Khalil Panah Khan became the ruler of the Karabakh khanate. Under him Karabakh khanate became one of the strongest state formations in 18th century Azerbaijan and Shusha turned into a big town. According to travellers who visited Shusha at the end of 18th-early 19th centuries the town had about 2,000 houses and approximately 10,000 population, which was mostly Musim Azeri Persians. Province: Shusha rayon (Azeri subdivsion) Shushi Marz/District (Nagrono Karabakh Republic Subdivsion) Area: Altitude: - Population: ~3000 Population density: - Latitude: - Longitude: - Mayor: - Shusha (Azerbaijani: ÅžuÅŸa, Armenian: Õ‡Õ¸Ö‚Õ·Õ«; translit. ...


In summer 1795 Shusha underwent major attack of Aga Muhammad khan Qajar, son of Muhammad Hassan khan who attacked Shusha in 1752. Aga Muhammad khan Qajar's goal was to end with the feudal fragmentation and to restore the old Safavid State in Iran and Azerbaijan. For this purpose he also wanted to proclaim himself shah (king) of Iran. However, according to the Safavid tradition, shah had to take control over the whole of South Caucasus before his coronation. Therefore, Karabakh khanate and its fortified capital Shusha were the first and major obstacle to achieve these ends. Agha Mohammad Khan by a European Engraver Agha Muhammad Khan (1742 - June 17, 1797) was the chief of a Turkic tribe, the Qajars. ...


Aga Muhammad khan Qajar besieged Shusha with his 80,000-strong army. Ibrahim Khalil Panah khan mobilized the population for long-term defense. The number of militia in Shusha reached 15,000. Women fought together with men. The Armenian population of Karabakh also actively participated in this struggle against the invaders and fought side by side with Muslim population jointly organizing ambushes in the mountains and forests.


The siege lasted for 33 days. Not being able to capture Shusha, Agha Muhammad khan ceased the siege and advanced to Tiflis (present-day Tbilisi), which despite desperate resistance was occupied and exposed to unprecedented destruction. Province: Shusha rayon (Azeri subdivsion) Shushi Marz/District (Nagrono Karabakh Republic Subdivsion) Area: Altitude: - Population: ~3000 Population density: - Latitude: - Longitude: - Mayor: - Shusha (Azerbaijani: ÅžuÅŸa, Armenian: Õ‡Õ¸Ö‚Õ·Õ«; translit. ...


In 1797 Agha Muhammad shah Qajar, who by that time has already managed to declare himself Shah (albeit he did not succeed in conquering the Caucasus as the tradition required) decided to carry out a second attack on Karabakh.


Trying to revenge for the previous humiliating defeat Qajar devastated the surrounding villages near Shusha. The population could not recover from the previous 1795 attack and also suffered from serious draught which lasted for three years. The artillery of the enemy also caused serious losses to the city defenders. Thus, in 1797 Aga Muhammed shah succeeded to seize Shusha and Ibrahim Khalil Panah Khan was forced to flee to Dagestan.


However, several days after seizure of Shusha, Aga Muhammed shah was killed in enigmatic circumstances by his bodyguards. The Iranian troops left without head run away and soon afterwards, Ibrahim Khalil khan returned to Shusha and restored his authority as khan of Karabakh.


During the rule of Ibrahim-Khalil khan, the Karabakh khanate grew in importance and established ties with other neighbouring khanates as well as with Iran, Ottoman and Russian Empires. In 1805, a Kurekchay Treaty was signed between the Karabakh khanate and the Russian Empire. According to the Kurekchay Treaty, the Karabakh khan recognized supremacy and dominance of the Russian Empire, gave up his right to carry out independent foreign policy and took obligation to pay the Russian Treasury 8 thousand gold roubles a year. In its turn, the Czarist government took obligation not to infringe upon the right of the legitimate successors of the Karabakh khan to administer the internal affairs of their possessions. Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897...


However in the same year, Russians reneged on the treaty, apparently acting on suspicion that Ibrahim-Khalil Panah Khan was a traitor. His family was executed in Shusha by Major Lisanevich and he had to flee to Balkh region today's Afghanistan.


Russian Empire consolidated its power in Karabakh, following the Treaty of Gulistan in 1813 and Treaty of Turkmenchay of 1828, when following two brief Russo-Persian Wars, Iran recognized belonging of the Karabakh khanate, along with many other Azerbaijani khanates, to Russia. The Karabakh horse has a reputation for its good temper, speed, elegance and intelligence. ... Gulistan Peace Treaty of 1813, a peace treaty between imperial Russia and Persia, signed on October 24 (November 5) in a village of Gulistan in Karabakh at the end of the Russo-Persian War of 1804-1813. ... Treaty of Turkmenchay (also Turkmenchai, Torkamanchay) was signed on February 10, 1828 between Persia (now Iran) and Russia. ... The Russo-Persian Wars were wars fought between the Russian Empire and Persia in 18-20th centuries. ...


In 1822 Russian Empire abolished Karabakh khanate, just like all other Azerbaijani khanates it subdued by the early 19th century. A Karabakh province was created in its place, administered by Russian officials.


The Panah Khan descendants subsequently following scattered around the Persian Kingdom with some left in the same territory.Abdul Wakil Panah Khan became the Emir of Khorasan/Balkh which would be today Afghanistan's northern provinces territory.


Rulers

1 Khans - Ziyad oghlu Qajar dynasty -


1722-1728 Davud Khan


1728-1730 Makhitar


1730-1738 Ughurlu Khan


Javanshir dynasty


1747-1761 Panah Khan Ali Bey


1761-1806 Ibrahim Khalil Panah Khan


1806-1822 Mehdi Qulu Khan Muzaffar


1822- khanate abolished


Sources

  • Abbasqulu Bakihanov, Gulistan-i-Iram, 1841 (Baku, Elm, 1991)
  • Mirza Karabaghi, Karabakh-name

References

  1. ^ Encyclopaedia Brittanica Online: History of Azerbaijan [1]
  2. ^ Raffi. Melikdoms of Khamsa

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nagorno-Karabakh (233 words)
In the early 17th century, it passed to Persia, which allowed local autonomy, and in the mid-18th century the Karabakh khanate was formed.
Karabakh passed to the Russians by the Treaty of Gulistan[?] in 1813.
In 1822 the Karabakh khanate was dissolved and the area became a Russian province.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m