FACTOID # 29: 73.3% of America's gross operating surplus in motion picture and sound recording industries comes from California.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Karabakh War
Nagorno-Karabakh War

Armenian troops fighting against Azeri forces from trenches in Karabakh.
Date 1988–1994
Location Nagorno-Karabakh, Armenia, and Azerbaijan
Result Military victory by Armenian forces.

Cease-fire treaty signed in 1994 by representatives of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Nagorno-Karabakh (still in effect). Image File history File links ArmenianFighters1989. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ...

Casus belli Ethnic land dispute between Armenia and Azerbaijan
Territorial
changes
Nagorno-Karabakh becomes a de facto republic, but internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan. Peace talks are held between the two nations to decide the future of the disputed territory.
Combatants
Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh1

Republic of Armenia 2
CIS mercenaries Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nagorno-Karabakh. ... Anthem: Azat ou Ankakh Artsakh (Free and Independent Artsakh) Capital Stepanakert (Khankendi) Armenian Government Unrecognized  - President Arkady Ghoukasyan  - Prime Minister Anushavan Danielyan Independence from Azerbaijan   - Referendum December 10, 1991   - Proclaimed January 6, 1992   - Recognition none[1]  Area  - Total 4,400 km² 1,699 sq mi  Population  - 2002 estimate 145,000... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_CIS.svg Flag of the Commonwealth of Independent States. ... Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Member states 11 member states 1 associate member Working language Russian Executive Secretary Vladimir Rushailo Formation December 21, 1991 Official website http://cis. ... A mercenary is a soldier who fights or engages in warfare primarily for private gain, usually with little regard for ideological, national, or political considerations, however, when the term mercenary is used to refer to a soldier of a national, regular army, it usually is an insult, epithet or pejorative. ...

Republic of Azerbaijan
Afghan Mujahideen 3
Chechen Volunteers 4

CIS mercenaries Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Afghanistan_1992_free. ... Mujahideen (Arabic: ‎, , strugglers) is an Islamic term for Muslim holy-warriors. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chechen_Republic_before_2004. ... // Geography The Chechen people are mainly inhabitants of Chechnya, which is internationally recognized as part of Russia. ... One Brick volunteers help at a soup kitchen. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_CIS.svg Flag of the Commonwealth of Independent States. ...

Commanders
Samvel Babayan,
Hemayag Haroyan,
Monte Melkonian,
Vazgen Sarkisyan,
Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan
İsgandar Hamidov,
Suret Huseynov,
Rahim Gaziev,
Shamil Basayev
Casualties
~6,000 dead,
20,000 wounded
~17,000 dead,
30,000 wounded
1 Unrecognized

2 Involvement disputed
3 The ‘Afghan Alumni’ Terrorism
4 Chechen Fighters Samvel Babayan Samvel Babayan (Babaian), was the Commander in Chief of the Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army from 1994 to 2000. ... Hemayag Haroyan was a colonel in the Nagorno-Karabakh War and a key figure in Mountainous Karabakhs defense planning. ... Monte Melkonian (November 25, 1957 – June 12, 1993) was a famed Armenian military commander in the Nagorno-Karabakh war. ... Vasgen Sarkissian (1959 - October 26, 1999), also known as Vazgen Sarkisyan, was Prime Minister of Armenia for the Republican Party of Armenia from June 1999 until his death. ... Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan was a military leader of the Armenian forces during the Nagorno-Karabagh war. ... İsgəndər Məcid oğlu Həmidov[1] (also transliterated as Iskender Majid oglu Hamidov[2] or Iskander Medjid oglu Hamidov[3]) (born April 10, 1948 in Bagli Peya village, Kalbajar rayon[3]), is the former Minister of Internal Affairs in Azerbaijan under the Popular Front government of... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Nagorno-Karabakh War
Black JanuaryKhojalyMaragharRingSumgaitMardakert and MartuniSummer - Kelbajar - Shusha
Conflicts in the former Soviet Union
Nagorno-Karabakh – South Ossetia – Abkhazia – Georgia – North Ossetia – TransnistriaTajikistan1st ChechnyaDagestan2nd Chechnya
Nagorno-Karabakh is currently a de facto independent republic in the South Caucasus, but is officially recognized as part of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Enlarge
Nagorno-Karabakh is currently a de facto independent republic in the South Caucasus, but is officially recognized as part of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

The Nagorno-Karabakh War refers to the armed conflict that took place from February 1988 to May 1994, in the small ethnic enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in southwestern Azerbaijan, between the ethnic Armenian majority in the enclave and in the neighboring Republic of Armenia. As the war progressed, Armenia and Azerbaijan, both former Soviet Republics, became enveloped in a protracted, undeclared war as the latter attempted to curb a secessionist movement in Nagorno-Karabakh. The enclave's parliament had voted in favor of uniting itself with Armenia and a referendum was held with the vast majority of the Karabakh population voting in favor of independence. The demand to unify with Armenia, which proliferated in the late 1980s, began in a relatively peaceful manner; however, in the following months, as the Soviet Union's disintegration neared, it gradually grew into an increasingly violent conflict between the two ethnic groups. Soviet government troops arrest several Azeris in a clash with Popular Front protesters in Baku in January 1990. ... A photo of a child who survived Khojaly. ... Azeri armored vehicles approaching Maraghar on April 10, 1992 The Maraghar Massacre occurred on April 10, 1992, during the Nagorno-Karabakh War[1], a conflict in which both the Armenian and Azeri forces involved are reported to have committed acts of ethnic cleansing upon civilian populations. ... The operation appearing in the May 12 commentary section of the Moscow News newspaper. ... Sumgait (Sumqayit) is located about 30 kilometers (approximiately 20 miles) northwest of Azerbaijans capital Baku, near the Caspian Sea. ... An Armenian T-72 near a village in southern Karabakh. ... The 1993 Summer Offensives of the Nagorno-Karabakh War saw the captured of several Azerbaijani regions by Armenian military units in a series of battles from June to August 1993. ... Combatants Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army Azerbaijani military Commanders Gurgen Daribaltayan Monte Melkonian Shamil Askerov Strength Several hundred troops, including the crew members of tanks and armored fighting vehicles Unknown amount of infantry and tanks Casualties Unknown, at least 100 reported by Armenian commanders Contested by Armenians and Azerbaijani government; civilians... Combatants Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army Azerbaijani military Commanders Gurgen Daribaltayan Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Elbrus Orjuev Elkhan Orjuev Shamil Basayev [1] Strength 1,000 troops, including the crew members of tanks, armored fighting vehicles, and helicopters Unknown amount of infantry, tanks, complemented by a battery of BM-21 GRAD artillery Casualties... Georgian-Ossetian Conflict refers to the inter-ethnic conflict in Georgia’s former autonomous region of South Ossetia, which evolved in 1989 and developed into a civil war in 1991-1992. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Ossetian-Ingush conflict - armed conflict between Ossetian and Ingush people in Prigorodny District, region of North Ossetia-Alania, started in 1992. ... Combatants Transnistria Russian volunteers Ukrainian volunteers Moldova Casualties 823 Transnistrian fatalities;[1] unknown number of volunteer casualties ~1,000 total casualties Official figures: 172 combatants, ~400 civilians The War of Transnistria involved armed clashes on a limited scale that broke out between the Transnistrian separatists and the Moldovan police as... Combatants Russian Federation Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Commanders Pavel Grachev Aslan Maskhadov Strength Peaking at 45,000 3,000 regulars, thousands of irregulars The First Chechen War (Russian: первая чеченская война) occurred when Russian forces attempted to stop the southern republic of Chechnya from seceding in a two year period lasting from 1994... Combatants Russian Federation Islamic International Peacekeeping Brigade Islamic Shura of Dagestan Commanders Viktor Kazantsev Shamil Basayev Ibn al-Khattab Strength 17,000 600 to 1,400 Casualties 450 killed 1200 wounded 700 The Dagestan War (in Russia called by the name Chechen invasion of Dagestan) begun when Chechnya-based so... now. ... Image File history File links NK-Map. ... Image File history File links NK-Map. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... South Caucasus: Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan South Caucasus (also referred sometimes as Transcaucasus) is a name to the transitional region between Europe and Asia extending from the Greater Caucasus to the Turkish and Iranian borders, between the Black and Caspian seas. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... Separatism involves setting oneself or others apart. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ...


The war was the most destructive ethnic conflict in both terms of lives and property that emerged after the Soviet Union collapsed in December 1991.[1] Interethnic fighting between the two broke out shortly after the parliament of Nagorno-Karabakh, an autonomous oblast in Azerbaijan, voted to unify the region with Armenia on February 20, 1988. Along with the secessionist movements in the Baltic republics of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, the succeeding movement characterized and played a large role in bringing the downfall of the Soviet Union. As Azerbaijan declared its independence from the Soviet Union and removed the powers held by the enclave's government, the Armenian majority voted to secede from Azerbaijan, and in the process proclaimed the enclave the Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh. An oblast (Russian, Ukrainian: о́бласть) is a name for the subnational entity of Russian Federation, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Baltic can refer to: The Baltic Sea Council of the Baltic Sea States - an intergovernmental organization Baltic sea countries - countries with access to the Baltic Sea The Baltic region (Balticum) Baltic States - the independent countries of Estonia Latvia Lithuania Baltic Republics - term refers to the three Baltic states under the... Anthem: Azat ou Ankakh Artsakh (Free and Independent Artsakh) Capital Stepanakert (Khankendi) Armenian Government Unrecognized  - President Arkady Ghoukasyan  - Prime Minister Anushavan Danielyan Independence from Azerbaijan   - Referendum December 10, 1991   - Proclaimed January 6, 1992   - Recognition none[1]  Area  - Total 4,400 km² 1,699 sq mi  Population  - 2002 estimate 145,000...


Full-scale fighting erupted in the late winter of 1992. International mediation by several groups including Europe's OSCE failed to bring an end resolution that both sides could work with. In the spring of 1993, Armenian forces captured regions outside the enclave itself, threatening the involvement of other countries in the region. By the end of the war in 1994, the Armenians were in full control of not only the mountainous enclave but also held and currently control approximately 14% of Azerbaijan's territory. A Russian-brokered cease fire was signed in May of 1994 and peace talks, mediated by the OSCE Minsk Group, have been held ever since by Armenia and Azerbaijan. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ... The OSCE Minsk Group was created in 1992 by the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE, now Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)) to encourage a peaceful, negotiated resolution to the conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh. ...

Contents

Roots of the conflict

Main article: History of Nagorno-Karabakh

The territorial ownership of Nagorno-Karabakh today is still a heavily disputed issue between Armenia and Azerbaijan. Called Artsakh by Armenians, referring to the name it went by under the rule of Armenian princes, its history spans several centuries, where it came under the control of several different empires. Debate, however, is mired mainly in the aftermath of World War I. Shortly before the Ottoman Empire's capitulation in the war, the Russian Empire collapsed in November 1917 and fell into the control of the Bolsheviks. The three nations of the Caucasus, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, previously under the rule of the Russians, declared their independence to form the Transcaucasian Federation.[2] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Artsakh (Armenian - Արցախ, Azeri - Ərsak Russian - Арцах) is a historical Armenian name of the province of ancient Greater Armenia, that covered what is now mostly Nagorno-Karabakh. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem At the height of its power (1683) Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1924) Area Approx. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The Ethnolinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Russia Georgia Azerbaijan (Azer. ... The Trans-Caucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TCDFR, Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Рес&#1087...


Fighting soon broke out between the Democratic Republic of Armenia and the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan in three specific regions: Nakhichevan, Zangezur (today the Armenian province of Syunik), and Karabakh itself. Armenia and Azerbaijan quarreled as to where the boundaries would fall in accordance to the three provinces. The Karabakh Armenians attempted to declare their independence but failed to make contact with the Republic of Armenia.[2] National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... Motto: Odlar Yurdu Land of the Eternal Fire Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Capital Baku Largest city Baku Official language(s) Azerbaijani Government President Prime Minister Representative democracy Mammed Amin Rasulzade Fatali Khan Khoyski Independence - Declared - Formerly From the Russian Empire May... Momine Khatun Mausoleum in Nakhichevan. ... Syunik (also called Siunik or Syunia) is one of the provinces (marz) of Armenia. ...


Soviet division

Two months later, the Soviet 11th Army invaded the Caucasus and within three years, the Caucasian republics were formed into the Transcaucasian SFSR of the Soviet Union. The Bolsheviks, thereafter created a seven-member committee, the Caucasus Bureau (also written as Kavburo), which under the supervision of the future Soviet ruler Joseph Stalin, then the acting People's Commissar for Nationalities, was tasked to head up matters in the Caucasus.[3] Although the committee voted 4-3 in favor of allocating Karabakh to the newly created Soviet Socialist Republic of Armenia, protestations made by Azerbaijani leaders including the Communist Party leader of Azerbaijan Nariman Narimanov and an anti-Soviet rebellion in the Armenian capital Yerevan in 1921 embittered relations between Armenia and Russia. These factors lead the committee to reverse its decision and award Karabakh to Soviet Azerbaijan in 1921, and later into Azerbaijan proper in 1923; leaving it with a population that was 94% Armenian.[4] The capital was moved from Shusha to Khankendi where it was later renamed Stepanakert. The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with: :Sovnarkom. ... State motto: Armenian: Պրոլետարներ բոլոր երկրների, միացեք! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Yerevan Official language None. ... Nariman Kerbalay Nadzhaf ogly Narimanov (April 2, 1870, Tiflis - March 19, 1925, Moscow) was an Azerbaijani revolutionary, writer, publicist, politician and statesman. ... Yerevan (Armenian: Երեւան or Երևան; sometimes written as Erevan; former names include Erebuni and Erivan) (population: 1,088,300 (2004 estimate) [1]) is the largest city and capital of Armenia. ... Province: Shusha rayon (Azeri subdivsion) Shushi Marz/District (Nagrono Karabakh Republic Subdivsion) Area: Altitude: - Population: ~3000 Population density: - Latitude: - Longitude: - Mayor: - Shusha (Azerbaijani: Şuşa, Armenian: Շուշի; translit. ... Stepanakert is the capital of the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. ... Province: Stepanakert (City) Area: Altitude: 813 meter (2670 feet) Population: ~40,000 Population density: Latitude: 39° 48 55N Longitude: 46° 45 7E Mayor: Eduard Aghabekian Map of Azerbaijan showing town of Stepanakert within Nagorno-Karabakh. ...


Armenian and Azeri scholars have speculated that this was an attempt by Russia in accordance to the theory of "divide and rule."[2] This can be seen, for example, by the odd placement of the Nakhichevan exclave which is separated by Armenia but is a part of Azerbaijan. Armenia has always refused to recognize this decision and continued to protest its legality in the ensuing decades under Soviet rule. In politics and sociology, divide and rule (also known as divide and conquer) is a strategy of gaining and maintaining power by breaking up larger concentrations of power into chunks that individually have less power than the one implementing the strategy. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ...


February 1988, the revival of the Karabakh issue

   
Nagorno-Karabakh War
For Azerbaijan the issue of Karabakh is a matter of ambition, for the Armenians of Karabakh, it is a matter of life or death —Soviet dissident and human rights activist Andrei Sakharov
   
Nagorno-Karabakh War

As the new general secretary of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in 1985, his plans to reform the Soviet Union were two policies called Perestroika and Glasnost. While perestroika had more to do with economic reform, glasnost or openness granted limited freedom to Soviet citizens to express grievances about the Soviet system itself and its leaders. Capitalizing on this, the leaders of National Council of Karabakh decided to vote in favor of unifying the autonomous region with Armenia on February 20, 1988. Karabakh Armenian leaders complained that the region had neither Armenian language textbooks in schools nor in television broadcasting. Azerbaijan's Communist Party General Secretary Heidar Aliev had extensively attempted to "Azerify" the region and increase the influence and the number of Azeris living in Nagorno-Karabakh, while at the same time reducing its Armenian population (In 1987, Aliev would step down as General Secretary of Azerbaijan's Politbureau).[5] Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Andrei Sakharov, 1943 Dr. Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (Russian: , May 21, 1921 – December 14, 1989), was an eminent Soviet nuclear physicist, dissident and human rights activist. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... The term General Secretary (alternatively First Secretary) denotes a leader of various unions, parties or associations. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov ( , Mihail Sergeevič Gorbačëv, IPA: , commonly written as Mikhail Gorbachev; born March 2, 1931) was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. ... Poster showing Mikhail Gorbachev Perestroika ( , Russian: ) is the Russian word (which passed into English) for the economic reforms introduced in June 1987 by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... HeydÉ™r Əlirza oÄŸlu Əliyev (often transliterated Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev; sometimes Heidar Aliev or Geidar Aliev from the Russian Гейдар Алиев) (May 10, 1923? – December 12, 2003) served as president of Azerbaijan for the New Azerbaijan Party from June 1993 to October 2003, when his son Ä°lham Əliyev succeeded him. ... Azerification is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something ethnically non-Azerbaijani is made to become Azerbaijani. ... Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ...


The movement was spearheaded by popular Armenian figures and also members of the Russian intelligentsia such as dissident and Nobel Laureate Andrei Sakharov. Prior to the declaration, Armenians had begun to protest and stage workers strikes in Yerevan, demanding a unification with the enclave; prompting Azeri counter-protests in Baku. In reaction to the protests, Gorbachev stating that the borders between the republics would not change; citing it in accordance to Article 78 of the Soviet constitution.[6] Gorbachev also stated that several other regions in the Soviet Union were yearning for territorial changes and redrawing the boundaries in Karabakh would thus set a dangerous precedent. Armenians viewed the 1921 Kavburo decision with disdain and felt that in their efforts, they were correcting a historical error under the principle of self-determination, a right also granted in the constitution.[6] Azeris, on the other hand, found such calls for relenquishing their territory by the Armenians unfathomable and aligned with Gorbachev's position. The intelligentsia (from Latin: intelligentia) is a social class of people engaged in complex mental and creative labor directed to the development and dissemination of culture, encompassing intellectuals and social groups close to them (e. ... The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. ... Andrei Sakharov, 1943 Dr. Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (Russian: , May 21, 1921 – December 14, 1989), was an eminent Soviet nuclear physicist, dissident and human rights activist. ... Municipality: Baku Area: 1000 km² Altitude: -28 m Population: 2,074,300 census 2003 Population density: 1280 persons/km² Postal Code: +99450 Area code: 012 Municipality code: BA Latitude: 41° 01 52 N Longitude: 21° 20 25 E Weather types: 9 of 11 Mayor: Hajibala Abutalybov The Baku region. ... At the Seventh (Special) Session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Ninth Convocation on October 7, 1977, the fourth and last Soviet Constitution, also known as the Brezhnev Constitution, was unanimously adopted. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ...


Sumgait

   
Nagorno-Karabakh War
Congratulations on your earthquake. Nature has spared us the trouble —alleged quote cabled by Azerbaijan to Armenians after the Leninakan Earthquake
   
Nagorno-Karabakh War
Main article: Sumgait Pogrom
Images showing burnt automobiles and marauding rioters on the streets of the industrial city of Sumgait during the pogrom there in February 1988.
Images showing burnt automobiles and marauding rioters on the streets of the industrial city of Sumgait during the pogrom there in February 1988.

Ethnic infighting soon broke out between Armenians and Azerbaijanis living in Karabakh. On February 22, 1988, a direct confrontation between Azerbaijanis and Armenians near Askeran (in Nagorno-Karabakh, on the road Stepanakert - Agdam) degenerated into a skirmish. During the clashes, which left about 50 Armenians wounded, a local policeman, purportedly an Armenian, shot dead two Azerbaijani youths. On February 27, 1988 while speaking on Baku's Central television, the USSR Deputy Procurator Alexander Katusev mentioned the nationality of those killed. Within hours, a pogrom against Armenian residents began in the city of Sumgait, 25 kilometers north of Baku, where many Azerbaijani refugees resided, resulting in the deaths of 32 people, according to official Soviet statistics.[7] Image File history File links Cquote1. ... The Saint Saviour Church in Gyumri The Leninakan Earthquake was a tremor with a moment magnitude of 7. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... Sumgait (Sumqayit) is located about 30 kilometers (approximiately 20 miles) northwest of Azerbaijans capital Baku, near the Caspian Sea. ... Image File history File links Sumgaitrioting. ... Image File history File links Sumgaitrioting. ... Categories: Caucasus geography stubs | Cities in Azerbaijan ... The Sumgait Massacre is the name that refers to a pogrom led by Azeris that targeted Armenian living in the seaside town of Sumgait, in the former Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Agdam (Ağdam) is a rayon in southwestern Azerbaijan. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ...


The manner of which many Armenians were killed reverberated amongst Armenians who felt the pogrom was backed by government officials to intimidate those involved in the Karabakh movement. As the violence escalated, Gorbachev finally decided to send in Soviet Interior troops to Armenia in September 1988. By October 1989, over 100 people were estimated to have been killed since the revived idea of unification with Karabakh in February 1988.[8] The issue temporarily absolved as a devastating earthquake hit the Armenian city of Leninakan on December 7 1988, killing over 25,000 people. Gyumri, formerly known by the following names in chronological order: Alexandropol, Kumayri, Gyumri, Leninakan, and Gyumri (again), is the capital of the Shirak province of Armenia, and a fortress of great strength. ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Gorbachev's attempts to stabilize the region were to no avail as both sides were equally intransigent. Armenians refused to allow the issue to subside despite concessions made by Gorbachev, including a promise of 400 million rubles packaged to revitalize Armenian language textbooks and television programming in Karabakh. Azerbaijan was unwilling to cede any territory to Armenia. Furthermore, the newly formed Karabakh Defense Committee, which comprised eleven members including the future president of Armenia Levon Ter-Petrosyan, were jailed by Moscow officials in the ensuing chaos after the quake. Such actions polarized relations between Armenia and the Kremlin; Armenians lost faith in Gorbachev and despised him even more in his mishandling of the earthquake and his uncompromising stature in regards to Nagorno-Karabakh. Levon Ter-Petrossian was the President of Armenia from 1991 to 1998. ... Kremlin (Russian: Кремль IPA: ) is the Russian word for fortress, citadel, or castle and refers to any major fortified central complex found in historical Russian cities. ...


Black January

   
Nagorno-Karabakh War
If Gorbachev wants a second Afghanistan, he will get it in Azerbaijan. —Ekhtibar Mamedov, Azeri representative of the Popular Front in Baku
   
Nagorno-Karabakh War
Main article: Black January

Interethnic strife began to take a toll on both countries' populations, forcing most of the Armenians in Azerbaijan to flee back to Armenia and most of the Azeris in Armenia to Azerbaijan. In January 1990, another pogrom against Armenians in Baku forced Gorbachev to declare a state of emergency and sent MVD troops to restore order. A curfew was established and violent clashes between the soldiers and the surging Azerbaijan Popular Front were common, in one instance over 120 Azeris and eight MVD soldiers were killed in Baku.[9] During this time, however, Azerbaijan's Communist Party had fallen and that the belated order to send the MVD had more to do with keeping the Party in power than merely to protect the city's Armenian population.[10] The events, referred to as Black January, also delineated the relations between Azerbaijan and Russia. Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... Soviet government troops arrest several Azeris in a clash with Popular Front protesters in Baku in January 1990. ... Modern emblem of Russian MVD Russian Gendarme officers in the 1860s The Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del (MVD) (Министерство внутренних дел) was the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the imperial Russia, later USSR, and still bears the same name in the Russian Federation. ... The Azerbaijan Popular Front (Azərbaycan Xalq Cəbhəsi Partiyası) ( boy thats some language theyve got) is the main opposition political party in Azerbaijan, founded in 1992 by Abulfez Elchibey. ...


Other instances of fighting spread through other cities in Azerbaijan, including in December of that year in Ganja, where eight people were killed, four of them soldiers, when Soviet army units attempted to stop attacks directed at Armenians. The situation in Nagorno-Karabakh had grown so out of hand that, in January 1989, the Soviet leadership in Moscow temporarily took control of the region, a move welcomed by many Armenians. In the summer of 1989, Popular Front leaders and their ever-increasing supporters managed to pressure the Azeri SSR to instigate a railway and air blockade against Armenia, effectively crippling Armenia's economy as 85% of the cargo and goods arrived through rail traffic (this also cut off Nakhichevan from the rest of the Soviet Union).[11] Municipality: Ganja Area: 1000 km² Altitude: 408 m Population: 300,000 census 2003 Postal Code: AZ1000 Area code: 016 Municipality code: GA Latitude: 40° 40 58 N Longitude: 46° 21 38 E Mayor: Eldar Azizov For the city in Tajikistan, see Panj. ... AIR is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: The Annals of Improbable Research, a monthly magazine devoted to scientific humour All India Radio - Indias Government Radio service AIR, a popular electronica band from France. ... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ...


Operation Ring

Main article: Operation Ring

In the spring of 1991, President Gorbachev held a special countrywide referendum called the Union Treaty which would decide if the Soviet republics would remain together. Newly elected, non-communist leaders had come into place in the Soviet republics including Boris Yeltsin of Russia (Gorbachev remained the president of the Soviet Union proper), Levon Ter-Petrosyan of Armenia and Ayaz Mutalibov of Azerbaijan. Armenia and several other republics boycotted the referendum (Armenia would hold its own referendum and declared its independence from the USSR on September 21, 1991), whereas Azerbaijan voted in compliance to the Treaty. The operation appearing in the May 12 commentary section of the Moscow News newspaper. ... Yeltsin redirects here. ... Ayaz Niyazi Olgy Mutalibov (or Ayaz Niyaziyevich Mutalibov) (born 1938) was an Azerbaijan Communist political figure. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As many Armenians and Azeris in Karabakh began an arms build up (by acquiring weaponry located in caches throughout Karabakh) in order to defend themselves, Mutalibov touted support from Gorbachev in launching a joint military operation (in this case, the Azerbaijani militia force called the OMON) in order to disarm Armenian militants in the region. Known as Operation Ring, the assault forcibly deported Armenians living in villages in the region of Shahumyan. It was perceived by both Soviet officials from the Kremlin and from the Armenian government as a method of intimidating the Armenian populace to giving up their demands for unification.[11] The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The OMON insignia OMON (Russian: Отряд милиции особого назначения; Otryad Militsii Osobogo Naznacheniya, Special Purpose Detachment of Militsiya) is a generic name for the system of special units of militsiya within the Russian and earlier the Soviet, Ministerstvo Vnutrennih Del (MVD; Ministry of Internal Affairs). ... The operation appearing in the May 12 commentary section of the Moscow News newspaper. ... The Shahumian region is claimed by Armenians as a part of Nagorno-Karabakh. ...


The events were counter-productive to what the operation had originally sought to accomplish. The initial resistance put up by Armenians managed to recruit more irregulars from Armenia and only reinforced the conclusion to Armenians that the only solution to the Karabakh conflict was through an out-right armed conflict.[2] Monte Melkonian, an Armenian-American who had served in revolutionary groups in the 1980s and would later rise to be perhaps the most famed commander of the war, argued that Karabakh be "liberated" and contended that if it remained in Azeri hands, the region of Syunik would then be annexed by the Azeris and the rest of Armenia would follow thereafter, concluding "the loss of Artsakh could be the loss of Armenia."[12] Velayat Kuliev, a writer and the deputy director of Azerbaijan's Literary Institute disputed this, "Lately the Armenian nationalists, including some quite influential people, have started talking again about 'Greater Armenia'. Its not just Azerbaijan. They want to annex parts of Georgia, Iran and Turkey."[13] Monte Melkonian (November 25, 1957 – June 12, 1993) was a famed Armenian military commander in the Nagorno-Karabakh war. ... An Armenian-American is a citizen of the United States who is of Armenian ancestry. ... Syunik (also called Siunik or Syunia) is one of the provinces (marz) of Armenia. ...


Weapons vacuum

   
Nagorno-Karabakh War
Here's perestroika for you. The Russians gave us weapons, and they gave the Armenians weapons. And they are guilty. —Alakhverdi Bagirov, commander of Popular Front forces near Askeran
   
Nagorno-Karabakh War
From top clockwise: The 366th's barracks on fire after being shelled by Azeri artillery; Armenian officers negotiating with soldiers in the 366th to turn over any vehicles left in their armory; an MT-LB exiting their motor pool with artillery in tow.
From top clockwise: The 366th's barracks on fire after being shelled by Azeri artillery; Armenian officers negotiating with soldiers in the 366th to turn over any vehicles left in their armory; an MT-LB exiting their motor pool with artillery in tow.

As the disintegration of the USSR became a reality for Soviet citizens in the autumn of 1991, both sides sought to acquire weaponry from military caches located throughout Karabakh. The initial advantage tilted in Azerbaijan's favor. During the Cold War, the Soviet military doctrine for defending the Caucasus had outlined a strategy where Armenia would be a combat zone in the case NATO member Turkey invaded from the west. Thus, the Armenian SSR had only three divisions and no airfields while the Azeri SSR had a total of five divisions and five military airfields. Furthermore, Armenia had approximately 500 railroad cars of ammunition, dwarfed by the Azeris' 10,000.[14] Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1264x856, 1272 KB)A collage of several pictures relating to the 366th division in Nagorno-Karabakh and the bequeathment of Soviet weapons to Armenian forces. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1264x856, 1272 KB)A collage of several pictures relating to the 366th division in Nagorno-Karabakh and the bequeathment of Soviet weapons to Armenian forces. ... A barracks housing conscripts of Norrbottens regemente in Boden, Sweden. ... Historically, artillery (from French artillerie) refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... An armory is a military depot used for the storage of weapons and ammunition. ... The MT-LB is a Soviet multi-purpose fully-amphibious armoured personnel carrier which was first introduced in the 1970s. ... For other uses, please see Cold War (disambiguation). ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[1] (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... Look up division in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Airport (disambiguation). ... A railroad car (or, more briefly, car), also known as an item of rolling stock in British parlance, is a vehicle on a railroad or railway that is not a locomotive - one that provides another purpose than purely haulage, although some types of car are powered. ... Boxes of ammunition clog a warehouse in Baghdad Ammunition is a generic military term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ...


As MVD forces began pulling out, they bequeathed the Armenians and Azerbaijanis a vast arsenal of ammunition and stored armored vehicles. The government forces initially sent by Gorbachev three years earlier were from other republics of the USSR and many had no wish to remain any longer. Most were poor, young conscripts and many simply sold their weapons for cash or even vodka to either side, some even trying to sell tanks and APCs. The Azeris purchased a large quantity of these vehicles, as reported by the Azeri Foreign Ministry in November 1993, which said it had acquired 286 tanks, 842 armored vehicles, and 386 artillery pieces from the power vacuum.[2] Several black markets also sprang up which included weaponry from the West.[15] Armor or armour (see spelling differences) is protective clothing intended to defend its wearer from intentional harm in combat and military engagements, typically associated with soldiers. ... APC is an abbreviation of: General A Perfect Circle, rock band Advanced process control Air Pollution Control in municipal solid waste incineration plants Angled Physical Contact Fiber Optic Connector Antipop Consortium, an alternative hip-hop group Armoured personnel carrier Armour-piercing capped shot and shell Automatic Passenger Counter Automatic Performance... Historically, artillery (from French artillerie) refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... The or underground market is the part of economic activity involving illegal dealings, typically the buying and selling of merchandise or services (for example sexual services in many countries) illegally. ...


Further evidence also showed that Azerbaijan received substantial military aid and provisions from Iran, Israel, Turkey, and numerous Arab countries.[12] Most weaponry was Russian-made or came from the former Eastern bloc countries however some improvisation was made by both sides. The Armenian Diaspora managed to donate a significant amount of money to be sent to Armenia and even managed to push for legislation in the United States Congress to pass a bill entitled Section 907 of the Freedom Support Act in response to Azerbaijan's blockade against Armenia; restricting a complete ban on military aid from the United States to Azerbaijan in 1992.[16] While Azerbaijan charged that the Russians were initially helping the Armenians, it was said that "the Azeri fighters in the region [were] far better equipped with Soviet military weaponry than their opponents."[17] The Arabs (Arabic: عرب) are a heterogeneous ethnic group who are predominantly speakers of the Arabic language, mainly found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc. ... Armenian diaspora map. ... A congress is a gathering of people, especially a gathering for a political purpose. ... A bill can refer to: Look up bill in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


With Gorbachev resigning as USSR General-Secretary on December 26, 1991, the remaining republics including the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia declared their independence and the Soviet Union ceased to exist on December 31, 1991. This dissolution gave way to any barriers that were keeping Armenia and Azerbaijan from waging a full scale war. One month prior, on November 21, the Azerbaijani Parliament rescinded Karabakh's status as an autonomous oblast and renamed it "Xankandi". In response, on December 10, a referendum was held in Karabakh by parliamentary leaders (with the local Azeri community boycotting it) where the Armenians voted overwhelmingly in favor of independence. On January 6 1992, the region declared its independence from Azerbaijan.[11] December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The withdrawal of the Soviet interior forces from Nagorno-Karabakh in the Caucasus region was only temporary. By February 1992, the former Soviet forces, now consolidated as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). While Azerbaijan abstained from joining, Armenia, fearing a possible invasion by Turkey in the escalating conflict, entered the CIS which would have protected it under a "collective security umbrella." In January 1992, the CIS forces then moved in and established a headquarters at Stepanakert and took up a slightly more active role in peacekeeping, incorporating old units including the 366th Motorized Regiment and 4th Army, both which desperately attempted to keep the peace between the warring factions. About 1,400 CIS troops were stationed in the capital of Stepanakert and slated for withdrawal by late February. Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Member states 11 member states 1 associate member Working language Russian Executive Secretary Vladimir Rushailo Formation December 21, 1991 Official website http://cis. ...


Building armies

The sporadic battles between Armenians and Azeris that had since intensified after Operation Ring recruited thousands of volunteers into improvised armies from both Armenia and Azerbaijan. In Armenia, a recurrent and popular theme at the time compared and idolized the separatist fighters to the Armenian fedayeen guerilla groups and revered individuals such as Andranik Ozanian and Garegin Njdeh, who fought against the Ottoman Empire during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In addition to the government's conscription of males aged 18-45, many Armenians volunteered to fight and formed jokats, or detachments, of about forty men, which combined with several others were under the command of a Shtabee Bed, or Chief of Headquarters. Initially, many of these men chose when and where to serve and acted on their own behalf, rarely without any oversight, when attacking or defending areas. Direct insubordination was common as many of the men simply did not show up, looted the bodies of dead soldiers, and commodities such as diesel oil for armored vehicles disappeared only to be sold in black markets.[12] Many women enlisted in the Armenian military; however, they more often served in auxiliary roles such as providing first-aid and evacuating wounded men from the battlefields than taking part in the fighting. Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... Andranik Toros Ozanian, or Zoravar Andranik, (Armenian: or Զորավար Անդրանիկ) (1865—1927) was an Armenian military commander and national hero. ... Garegin Njdeh Garegin Njdeh (Armenian: , real name Garegin Ter-Harutiunian, 1 January 1886 - late 1955) was an Armenian statesman, military, and political thinker, native of Nakhichevan. ... Star of Life symbol First Aid symbol First Aid is the immediate and temporary proper aid provided to a sick or injured person or animal until medical treatment can be provided. ...


Azerbaijan's military functioned in much the same manner; however, it was more organized during the beginning years of the war's beginning. The Azeri government also conscripted and many Azeris enthusiastically enlisted for combat in the first months after the Soviet Union collapsed. Azerbaijan's National Army consisted of roughly 30,000 men in addition to nearly 10,000 in its OMON paramilitary force and several thousand made up of volunteers from the Popular Front. Suret Huseynov, a wealthy Azeri also improvised by creating his own military brigade, the 709th Azerbaijani Army, and purchasing many weapons and vehicles from the 23rd division's arsenal. İsgandar Hamidov's bozkurt or Grey Wolves brigade also mobilized for action. The government of Azerbaijan also poured a great deal of money into hiring mercenaries from other countries through the revenue it was making from its oil field assets on and near the Caspian Sea. The estimated amount of manpower and military vehicles each political entity involved in the conflict had in the 1993-1994 time period was: Ä°sgÉ™ndÉ™r MÉ™cid oÄŸlu HÉ™midov[1] (also transliterated as Iskender Majid oglu Hamidov[2] or Iskander Medjid oglu Hamidov[3]) (born April 10, 1948 in Bagli Peya village, Kalbajar rayon[3]), is the former Minister of Internal Affairs in Azerbaijan under the Popular Front government of... Grey Wolves (Bozkurtlar in Turkish) is the youth organization of the Turkish Nationalist Movement Party (Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi, MHP), an ultra-nationalist[1] movement founded by Alparslan TürkeÅŸ in 1969. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest lake on Earth by both area and volume,[1] with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometres (143,244 mi²) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometres (18,761 mi³).[2] It is a landlocked endorheic body of water and lies between...

Entity Military Personnel Artillery Tanks Armored personnel carriers Armored fighting vehicles Fighter aircraft
Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh 20,000 16 13 120 N/A N/A
Republic of Armenia 20,000 170 160 240 200 N/A
Republic of Azerbaijan 42,000 330 280 360 480 170 [18]

In an overall military comparison, the number of men eligible for military service in Armenia, of an age group of 17-32 year olds, was 550,000 while in Azerbaijan it was 1.3 million. Most men from both sides had served in the Soviet Army and so had some form of military experience prior to the conflict. About 60% of Karabakh Armenians had served in the Soviet Army.[18] Most Azeribaijanis, while serving in the military were often subject to discrimination and relegated to work in construction battalions rather than fighting corps. Despite the establishment of two officer academies including a naval school in Azerbaijan, the lack of such military experience was one factor that rendered Azerbaijan unprepared for the war.[19] Anthem: Azat ou Ankakh Artsakh (Free and Independent Artsakh) Capital Stepanakert (Khankendi) Armenian Government Unrecognized  - President Arkady Ghoukasyan  - Prime Minister Anushavan Danielyan Independence from Azerbaijan   - Referendum December 10, 1991   - Proclaimed January 6, 1992   - Recognition none[1]  Area  - Total 4,400 km² 1,699 sq mi  Population  - 2002 estimate 145,000... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ...


Spring 1992, Early Armenian victories

Khojaly

   
Nagorno-Karabakh War
They just shot and shot and shot —Raisa Aslanova, a refugee from Khojaly commenting in an interview to HRW
   
Nagorno-Karabakh War
Main article: Khojaly Massacre
The corpse of an Azeri child killed during the Khojaly Massacre
The corpse of an Azeri child killed during the Khojaly Massacre

Officially, the newly created Republic of Armenia publicly denied any involvement in providing any weapons, fuel, food, or other logistics to the secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh. However, Ter-Petrosyan's later did admit to supplying them with only logistical supplies and paying the salaries of the separatists but denied sending any of its own men to combat. Armenia was facing a debilitating blockade by the now Republic of Azerbaijan as well as pressure coming from all sides, including Turkey, which had begun to build a close relationship with Azerbaijan. The only land connection Armenia had with Karabakh was through the narrow mountainous Lachin corridor which could only be reached by helicopters. The only airport that existed in Karabakh was in the small town of Khojaly, which was seven kilometers north of Stepanakert with an estimated population of 6,000-10,000 people. Additionally, the town had been serving as an artillery base and since Feburary 23, was shelling Armenian and Russian units in the capital.[20] By late February, Khojaly had largely been cut off. On February 26, Armenian forces, with the aid of armored vehicles in the 366th, mounted an offensive to capture Khojaly. Image File history File links Cquote1. ... This page is about the Egyptian deity. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... A photo of a child who survived Khojaly. ... Image File history File links Khojaly_Massacre. ... Image File history File links Khojaly_Massacre. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Azerbaijanis. ... A photo of a child who survived Khojaly. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... Fuel is any material that is capable of releasing energy when its chemical or physical structure is changed or converted. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lachin (Laçın) is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... TO GENOCIDE EVENTS IN KHOJALI Over the night from February 25 to 26, 1992 Armenian armed forces implemented the capture of the Khojali city with support of hard equipment and the personnel of the infantry guards regiment #366 of former Soviet Union. ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer) (symbol: km) is a unit of length equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words khilia = thousand and metro = count/measure). ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


According to the Azeris and the affirmation of other sources including Human Rights Watch and the Moscow based human rights organization Memorial, after Armenian forces captured Khojaly, they proceeded to massacre several hundred civilians evacuating from the town. Armenian forces had previously stated they would attack the city and left a land corridor for them to escape through. However, when the attack finally began, an Armenian force of approximately 2,000 fighters easily outnumbered and overwhelmed the defenders who along with the civilians attempted to retreat north to the Azeri held city of Agdam. The airport's runway was found to have been intentionally destroyed, rendering it temporarily useless. The attacking forces then went on to pursue those fleeing through the corridor and opened fire upon them, killing scores of civilians. A video shot several days later showed the corpses of both women and children, some burned, dismembered, and mutilated to unrecognizable degrees.[2] Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Memorial (Russian: Мемориал) is an international historical and civil rights society that operates in a number of post-USSR states with the following missions stated in its charter: To promote mature civil society and democracy based on the rule of law and thus to prevent a return to totalitarianism; To assist... A civilian is a person who is not a member of a military. ... Look up Corridor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Visits by foreign correspondents also counted similar fates done to Azeri soldiers.[21] Many more froze or starved to death as they trekked over the snow covered hills towards Agdam. Assad Faradzhev, an aide to the region's Azeri governor, also reported that many "women and children had been scalped". Facing such charges, Armenian government officials denied the occurrence of a massacre and pointed to the artillery shelling coming from Khojaly. They alleged that the mutilations had been done by the Azeris themselves, citing an interview by Mutalibov.[22] The Azeri government charged the Armenian government with intentional genocide. The 366th, which after the attack was suspended from withdrawing, also faced scathing criticism and denied participating in the attack. An exact body count was never ascertained but conservative estimates have placed the number to 485.[2] Look up Genocide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Subtle admissions of guilt later laid blame on Armenian irregulars acting at their own initiative. Military commanders also pointed out that many of fighters had been from Baku and Sumgait, the sites of the Azeri pogroms against Armenians.[2] The aftermath of the attack erupted in Azerbaijan. Mutalibov, was called to step down from his post by many, with perhaps the most vocal being members of the Popular Front. Despite his protestations, he was charged for failing to protect the civilians in Khojaly and forced to resign amid the hail of criticism on March 6. March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ...


The capture of Shusha

Main article: Battle of Shusha
Children standing next to the rubble of a building in Stepanakert after a shelling barrage.
Children standing next to the rubble of a building in Stepanakert after a shelling barrage.

In the ensuing months after the capture of Khojaly, Azeri commanders holding out in the region's last bastion of Shusha, began a large scale artillery bombardment with GRAD rocket launchers against Stepanakert. By April, the shelling had forced many of the 50,000 people living in Stepanakert to seek refuge in underground bunkers and basements. Facing ground incursions near the cities outlying areas, military leaders in Nagorno-Karabakh organized an offensive to take the town. Combatants Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army Azerbaijani military Commanders Gurgen Daribaltayan Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Elbrus Orjuev Elkhan Orjuev Shamil Basayev [1] Strength 1,000 troops, including the crew members of tanks, armored fighting vehicles, and helicopters Unknown amount of infantry, tanks, complemented by a battery of BM-21 GRAD artillery Casualties... Image File history File links Damage_to_Stepanakert. ... Image File history File links Damage_to_Stepanakert. ... Province: Shusha rayon (Azeri subdivsion) Shushi Marz/District (Nagrono Karabakh Republic Subdivsion) Area: Altitude: - Population: ~3000 Population density: - Latitude: - Longitude: - Mayor: - Shusha (Azerbaijani: ÅžuÅŸa, Armenian: Õ‡Õ¸Ö‚Õ·Õ«; translit. ...


On May 8, a force of several hundred Armenian troops accompanied by tanks and helicopters attacked the Shusha citadel. Fierce fighting took place in the town's streets and several hundred men were killed on both sides. Overwhelmed by the numerically superior fighting force, the Azeri commander in Shusha ordered a retreat and fighting ended on May 9. May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ...


The capture of Shusha resonated loudly in neighboring Turkey. Its relations with Armenia had grown better after it had declared its independence from the USSR; however they gradually worsened as a result of Armenia's gains in the Nagorno-Karabakh region. A deep resentment towards Turkey by Armenia predated the Soviet era and this enmity stemmed in part from the Armenian Genocide. Many Armenians collectively referred to Azeris as "Turks" since they are considered ethnic cousins. Turkey's prime minister, Suleyman Demirel said that he was coming under intense pressure by his people to have his country intervene and aid Azerbaijan. Demirel however, was opposed to such an intervention, saying that Turkey's entrance into the war would trigger an even greater Muslim-Christian conflict (Turks are predominantly Muslims).[23] Armenian Genocide photo. ... Süleyman Demirel with French president Jacques Chirac Süleyman Demirel (born November 1, 1924) is a Turkish politician who served as prime minister five times and was the 9th President of Turkey. ...


Turkey never did actively contribute troops to Azerbaijan but did send a great deal of military aid and advisers. In May 1992, the military commander of the CIS forces, Marshal Yevgeny Shaposhnikov, issued a warning to Western nations, especially the United States, to not interfere with the conflict in the Caucasus; stating it would "place us [the Commonwealth] on the verge of a third world war, and that cannot be allowed."[11] Yevgeny Ivanovich Shaposhnikov (Russian: Евгений Иванович Шапошников) (b. ...


Sealing Lachin

Armenian forces in the May 1992 move in to secure the Lachin corridor. The capture of Lachin allowed Armenia to send in supply convoys to aid the Karabakh separatists and also opened up a route for Armenian refugees to evacuate through.
Armenian forces in the May 1992 move in to secure the Lachin corridor. The capture of Lachin allowed Armenia to send in supply convoys to aid the Karabakh separatists and also opened up a route for Armenian refugees to evacuate through.
Azeri artillery shelling Armenian positions in the onset of the 1992 summer offensive.
Azeri artillery shelling Armenian positions in the onset of the 1992 summer offensive.

The loss of Shusha led the Azeri parliament to lay the blame on Mamedov, which removed him from power and cleared Mutalibov of any responsibility after the loss of Khojaly; reinstating him as President on May 15 1992. Many Azeris saw this act as a coup in addition to the cancellation of the parliamentary elections slated in June of that year. The Azeri parliament at that time was made up of former leaders from the country's communist regime and the losses of Khojaly and Shusha only aggrandized their desires for free elections to be held. Mutalibov declared a state of emergency and an end to all political demonstrations to sort through the disarray. Image File history File links MovingtoLachin. ... Image File history File links MovingtoLachin. ... The Lachin corridor is a strip of Azerbaijan territory in Lachin raion military controlled by Armenian separatists in order to have a direct link with Armenia from Nagorno-Karabakh. ... Image File history File linksMetadata AzeriArtillery. ... Image File history File linksMetadata AzeriArtillery. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ...


To contribute to the turmoil, an offensive was launched by Armenian forces on May 18 to take the city of Lachin in the narrow corridor separating Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh. The city itself was poorly guarded and, within the next day, Armenian forces took control of the town and cleared any remaining Azeris to open the road that linked the region to Armenia. The taking of the city then allowed an overland route to be connected with Armenia itself with supply convoys beginning to trek up the mountainous region of Lachin to Karabakh.[24] May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... Lachin (Laçın) is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ...


The loss of Lachin was the final blow to Mutalibov's regime. Demonstations were held despite Mutalibov's ban and an armed coup was staged by Popular Front activists. Fighting between government forces and Popular Front supporters escalated as the political opposition seized the parliament building in Baku as well as the airport and presidential office. Deaths and injuries were relatively low. On June 16, 1992, Abulfaz Elchibey became Azerbaijan's first democratically elected leader and many political leaders from the Azerbaijan Popular Front Party were elected into the parliament. The instigators characterized Mutalibov as an undedicated and weak leader in the war in Karabakh. Elchibey was staunchly against receiving any help from the Russians, instead favoring closer ties to Turkey and stating that Azerbaijan would not join the CIS. June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... Abulfaz Elchibey (Əbülfəz Elçibəy in Azerbaijani; b. ... The Azerbaijan Popular Front Party (Azərbaycan Xalq Cəbhəsi Partiyası) is the main opposition political party in Azerbaijan, founded in 1992 by Abulfez Elchibey. ...


Escalation of the conflict

Azeri Offensive in June 1992

On June 12, 1992, the Azeri military, along with Huseynov's own brigade, used a large amount of tanks, armored personnel carriers and attack helicopters to launch a large three-day offensive from the relatively unguarded region of Shahumian, north of Nagorno-Karabakh, in the process taking back several dozen villages in the Shauhmian region originally held by Armenian forces. Another reason the front collapsed so effortlessly was because it was manned by the same volunteer detachments from Armenia which had abandoned the lines to go back to their country after the capture of Lachin. The offensive prompted the Armenian government to openly threaten Azerbaijan that it would overtly intervene and assist the separatists fighting in Karabakh. June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


The assault forced Armenian forces to retreat south towards Stepanakert where Karabakh commanders contemplated destroying a vital hydroelectric dam in the Martakert region if the offensive was not halted. An estimated 30,000 Armenian refugees were also forced to flee to the capital as the assaulting forces had taken back nearly half of Nagorno-Karabakh. However, the thrust made by the Azeris grounded to a halt when their armor were driven off by helicopter gunships. It was also revealed that many of the crew members of the armored units in the Azeri launched assault were Russians from the 104th Division based out of Ganja and, ironically enough, so were the units who eventually stopped them. According to an Armenian government official, they were able to persuade Russian military units to bombard and effectively halt the advance within a few days; allowing the Armenian government to recuperate for the losses and reorganize a counteroffensive to restore the original lines of the front.[2] Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... Scrivener Dam, in Canberra, Australia, was engineered to withstand a once-in-5000-years flood A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. ... Martakert is a province of Nagorno-Karabakh. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...


Attempts to mediate peace

In the summer of 1992, the CSCE (later to become the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe), created the Minsk Group in Helsinki which was comprised of eleven nations and was co-chaired by France, Russia, and the United States with the purpose of mediating a peace deal with Armenia and Azerbaijan. However, in their annual summit in 1992, the organization failed to address and solve the many new problems that had arisen since the Soviet Union collapsed, much less the Karabakh conflict. The civil war in Yugoslavia, Moldova's war with the breakaway republic of Transnistria, the growing desire for independence from Russia by Chechen separatists, and Georgia's renewed disputes with Russia, Abkhazia and Ossetia were all top agenda issues that involved various ethnic groups fighting each other. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... The OSCE Minsk Group was created in 1992 by the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE, now Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)) to encourage a peaceful, negotiated resolution to the conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh. ... Founded 1550 Country Finland Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Area[1] - Of which land - Rank 185. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in South Slavic languages, Југославија (Serbian, Macedonian Cyrillic): Land of the South Slavs) describes three separate political entities that existed on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Motto: For the right to live on this land[citation needed] Anthem: Anthem of Transnistria Capital (and largest city) Tiraspol Russian, Ukrainian, Moldovan Government Semi-presidential  - President Igor Smirnov Independence from Moldova   - Declared September 2, 1990   - Recognition unrecognized  Area  - Total 4,163 km² 1,607 sq mi   - Water (%) 2. ... Chechen can mean: Chechen people, an ethnic group Chechen language Related to Chechnya This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Official languages Abkhaz, with Russian having co-official status and widespread use by government and other institutions Political status De facto independent Capital Sukhumi Capitals coordinates President Sergei Bagapsh Prime Minister Alexander Ankvab Independence  â€“ Declared  â€“ Recognition From Georgia  23 July 1992  none Currency Russian ruble Official languages Abkhaz and... Map of Ossetia Ossetia is a region in the northern Caucasus Mountains, inhabited by the Ossetians, an Iranian people who speak the Ossetic language, (an Iranian Language). ...


The CSCE proposed the use of NATO and CIS peacekeepers to monitor cease-fires and protect shipments of humanitarian aid being sent to displaced refugees. Several cease fires were put into effect after the June offensive but the implementation of a European peacekeeping force, endorsed by Armenia, never came to fruition. The idea of sending 100 international observers to Karabakh was once raised but talks broke down completely between Armenian and Azeri leaders in July. Russia was especially opposed to allowing a multinational peacekeeping force from NATO to entering the Caucasus, seeing it as a move that encroached on its "backyard".[11] Peacekeeping is a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for sustainable peace. ...


Renewed fighting

An Armenian fighter firing an NSV heavy machine gun, often found on tank turrets, in a trench in Hadrut in the summer of 1992.
An Armenian fighter firing an NSV heavy machine gun, often found on tank turrets, in a trench in Hadrut in the summer of 1992.
Azeri troops in Karabakh.
Azeri troops in Karabakh.

In late June, a new, smaller Azeri offensive was planned, this time against the town of Martuni in the southeastern half of Karabakh. The attack force consisted of several dozen tanks and armored fighting vehicles along with a compliment of several infantry companies massing along the Majgalashen and Jardar fronts near Martuni and Krasnyi Bazar. Martuni's regimental commander, Monte Melkonian, referred now by his men as "Avo", although lacking heavy armor, managed to stave off repeated attempts by the Azeri forces.[12] Image File history File linksMetadata FightinginHadrut. ... Image File history File linksMetadata FightinginHadrut. ... The NSV is a 12. ... The Hadrut region is a region in Nagorno-Karabakh. ... Image File history File links Azeribaijan_karabakh_war_troops. ... Image File history File links Azeribaijan_karabakh_war_troops. ... An Armenian T-72 near a village in southern Karabakh. ...


In late August 1992, Nagorno-Karabakh's government found itself in a disorderly state and its members resigned on August 17. Power was subsequently assumed by a council called the State Defense Committee which was chaired by Robert Kocharyan, stating it would temporarily govern the enclave until the conflict ended. At this time, Azerbaijan also attacks by fixed wing aircraft, often bombing civilian targets. Kocharyan condemned the international community to what he believed were intentional attempts to kill civilians by the Azeris and also to what he alleged was Russia's passive and unconcerned attitude towards allowing its army's weapons stockpiles to be sold or transferred to Azerbaijan.[25] Robert Sedraki Kocharian (Armenian: Ռոբերտ Քոչարյան) (born August 31, 1954) is the second president of the third republic of Armenia. ...


There were also reports, for the first time, of incursions by Azeri militants into villages north of Yerevan and Armenia itself, drawing the ire of government officials into strengthening their support for the Karabakh Armenians.


On September 24, Russian defense minister Pavel Grachev, met with the defense ministers of Armenian and Azerbaijan in the Russian coastal town of Sochi in an attempt to sign the sixth cease fire between the two groups. Defense ministers Vazgen Sarkisyan of Armenia and Rahim Gaziev of Azerbaijan negotiated for a two month halt in the fighting. However, before the truce was to take place, Azeri forces backed away from the peace accordance which led Armenian government leaders to announce that they too would in turn refuse to accept it.[26] Attacks were launched by the Azeris and the outlying villages around Martuni were besieged once more; however, Armenian forces were again able to thwart the assaults and launched successful counterattack thereafter. September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years). ... Russian Defence Minister Pavel Grachev speaking in the State Duma in 1994. ... Sochi Coat of Arms, adopted on 15 June 1967 Sochi (Russian: Со́чи) is the most popular Russian resort, situated in the Krasnodar Krai, near the Russian border with Abkhazia, Georgia. ... Vasgen Sarkissian (1959 - October 26, 1999), also known as Vazgen Sarkisyan, was Prime Minister of Armenia for the Republican Party of Armenia from June 1999 until his death. ...


Winter thaw

As the winter of 1992 approached, both sides largely abstained from launching full scale offensives so as to reserve resources, such as gas and electricity, for domestic use. Despite the opening of an economic highway to the residents living in Karabakh, both Armenia and the enclave suffered a great deal due to the economic blockades imposed by Azerbaijan and while not completely closing it, the material aid sent through Turkey arrived sporadically. Experiencing both food shortages and power shortages, after the close down of the Metsamor nuclear power plant, Armenia's economic outlook appeared bleak: in Georgia, a new bout of civil wars against separatists in Abkhazia and Ossetia began, who raided supply convoys and repeatedly destroyed the only oil pipeline leading from Russia to Armenia. Similar to the winter of 1991-1992, the 1992-1993 winter was especially cold, as many families throughout Armenia and Karabakh were left without heating and hot water. Armenia was however able to sustain food commodities for itself through its agricultural farming. A city in the Armavir region of Armenia, and home of the nuclear power plants. ...


Other goods such as grain were more difficult to procure. The Armenian Diaspora living in raised money and donated supplies to be sent to Armenia. In December, two shipments of 33,000 tons of grain and 150 tons of infant formula arrived from the United States via the Black Sea port of Batumi, Georgia.[27] In February 1993, the European Community sent 4.5 million ECUs to Armenia.[27] Azerbaijan was also struggling to rehabilitate its petroleum industry, the country's chief export. Its oil refineries were not generating at full capacity and production quotas fell well short of estimates. In 1965, the oil fields in Baku were producing 21.5 million tons of oil annually; by 1988, that number had dropped down to almost 3.3 million. Outdated Soviet refinery equipment and a reluctance by Western oil companies to invest in a war region where pipelines would routinely be destroyed prevented Azerbaijan from fully exploiting its oil wealth. Map of the Black Sea. ... A general view of Batumi Batumi (Georgian: , formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ... The European Community (EC), most important of two European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The European Currency Unit (â‚ ; ECU) was a basket of the currencies of the European Community member states, used as the unit of account of the European Community before being replaced by the euro. ...


Summer 1993, the war spills out

Conflicts at home

Despite the grueling winter both countries had suffered, the new year was viewed enthusiastically by both sides. President Elchibey expressed optimism towards bringing an agreeable solution to the conflict with Armenia's Ter-Petrosian. Glimmers of such hope however, quickly began to fade as in January 1993, despite the calls for a new cease fire by Yeltsin and Bush, hostilities in the region brewed up once more. Armenian forces began a new bout of offensives that overran villages in northern Karabakh that had been held by the Azeris since the previous autumn.


Frustration over these military defeats took a toll in the domestic front in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan's military had grown more disparate and insubordination by defense minister Gaziev and Huseynov's brigade to turn to Russian help ran against Elchibey's policies. Political infighting and arguments on where to shift military units between the country's ministry of the interior, İsgandar Hamidov, and Gaziev led to the latters' resignation on February 20. A political shakedown also was occurring in Armenia when Ter-Petrossian dismissed the country's prime minister, Khosrov Arutyunyan and his cabinet for failing to implement a viable economic plan for the country. Protests by Armenians against Ter-Petrossian's leadership were also suppressed and put down. Ä°sgÉ™ndÉ™r MÉ™cid oÄŸlu HÉ™midov[1] (also transliterated as Iskender Majid oglu Hamidov[2] or Iskander Medjid oglu Hamidov[3]) (born April 10, 1948 in Bagli Peya village, Kalbajar rayon[3]), is the former Minister of Internal Affairs in Azerbaijan under the Popular Front government of... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Kelbajar

   
Nagorno-Karabakh War
We're tank-rich! The Azeris are arming two armies—theirs and ours. May God keep Elchibey in good health —Armenian fighters joking after inheriting the vast amounts of abandoned Azeri weaponry
   
Nagorno-Karabakh War
Main article: Battle of Kelbajar

Situated west of northern Karabakh, out of the boundaries of the region, was the rayon of Kelbajar which bordered alongside Armenia. With a population of about 45,000, the several dozen villages were made up of Azeris and Kurds. In March of 1993, the Armenian-held areas near the Sarsang reservoir in Mardakert were reported to having been coming under attack by the Azeris. After successfully defending the Martuni region, Melkonian's fighters were tasked to move to capture the region of Kelbajar, where the incursions and purported artillery shelling were said to have been coming from. Scant military opposition by the Azeris allowed Melkonian's fighters to quickly gain a foothold in the region and also captured several abandoned armored vehicles and tanks. At 2:45 P.M., on April 2, Armenian forces from two different directions advanced towards Kelbajar in an attack that quickly struck against Azeri armor and troops entrenched near the Ganje-Kelbjar intersection. Azeri forces were unable to halt advances made by Armenian armor units and nearly all died defending the area. The second attack towards Kelbajar also quickly overran the defenders. By April 3, Armenian forces had captured Kelbajar.[12] Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... Combatants Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army Azerbaijani military Commanders Gurgen Daribaltayan Monte Melkonian Shamil Askerov Strength Several hundred troops, including the crew members of tanks and armored fighting vehicles Unknown amount of infantry and tanks Casualties Unknown, at least 100 reported by Armenian commanders Contested by Armenians and Azerbaijani government; civilians... Kalbacar is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... The Sarsang reservoir is a large lake in Nagorno-Karabakh formed by a hydroelectric dam. ... Martakert is a province of Nagorno-Karabakh. ...


The offensive provoked international rancor against the Armenian government, marking the first time Armenian forces had crossed the boundaries of the enclave itself and into Azerbaijan's territory. On April 30, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) passed Resolution 822, co-sponsored by Turkey and Pakistan, affirming Nagorno-Karabakh as part of Azerbaijan's territorial integrity and demanding that Armenian forces withdraw from Kelbajar.[28] April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is the organ of the United Nations charged with maintaining peace and security among nations. ...

An Azeri man weeping in the ruins of a home in Agdam after an Armenian artillery bombardment.
An Azeri man weeping in the ruins of a home in Agdam after an Armenian artillery bombardment.
An Armenian engineer repairing a tank captured by Armenian forces. Note the crescent emblem on the turret of the tank.
An Armenian engineer repairing a tank captured by Armenian forces. Note the crescent emblem on the turret of the tank.


The political repercussions were also felt in Azerbaijan when Huseynov embarked on what was called his "march to Baku" from his base in Ganje. Frustrated with what he felt was Elchibey's incompetence in dealing with the conflict and demoted from his rank of colonel, his brigade advanced towards Baku to unseat the President in early June. Advancing virtually unopposed, Elchibey stepped down from office on June 18 and power was assumed by then parliamentary member Heidar Aliev. On July 1, Huseynov was appointed by prime minister of Azerbaijan.[29] Image File history File linksMetadata Agdammancrying. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Agdammancrying. ... Image File history File links Captured_azeri_tank. ... Image File history File links Captured_azeri_tank. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ...


Agdam, Fizuli, Jebrail, and Zangelan

While the people of Azerbaijan were adjusting to the new political landscape, many Armenians were coping with the death of Melkonian who was killed earlier on June 12 in a skirmish near the town of Merzuli as his death was publicly mourned at a national level in Yerevan. The Armenian forces exploited the political crisis in Baku, which had left the Karabakh front almost undefended by the Azerbaijani forces. The following four month of political instability in Azerbaijan led to the loss of control over five districts, as well as the North of Nagorny Karabakh. Azerbaijani military forces were unable to put up any resistance to Armenian advances and left most of the areas without any serious fighting.[2] In late June, they were driven out from Martakert, losing their final foothold of the enclave. By July, the Armenian forces were preparing to attack and capture the region of Agdam, another rayon nestled outside of Nagorno-Karabakh, claiming that they were attempting to bolster a greater security buffer to keep Azeri artillery out of range. The 1993 Summer Offensives of the Nagorno-Karabakh War saw the captured of several Azerbaijani regions by Armenian military units in a series of battles from June to August 1993. ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... Agdam (AÄŸdam) is a rayon in southwestern Azerbaijan. ...


On July 4, an artillery bombardment was commenced by Armenian forces against the region's capital of Agdam, destroying many parts of the town. As the civilians began to evacuate Agdam, so did the soldiers. Facing a military collapse, Aliev attempted to mediate with the de-facto Karabakh government and Minsk Group officials. In mid-August, Armenians massed a force to take the Azeri regions of Fizuli and Jebrail, south of Nagorno-Karabakh proper. For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... Look up De facto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fizuli is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... Cabrayil is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ...


In light of the Armenians' advance into Azerbaijan, Turkey's prime minister Tansu Çiller, warned the Armenian government not to attack Nakhichevan and demanded that Armenians pull out of Azerbaijan's territories. Thousands of Turkish troops were sent to the border between Turkey and Armenia in early September. Russian Federation forces in Armenia countered their movements and thus warded off any possibility that Turkey might play a military role in the conflict.[30] Tansu Çiller International Phonetic Alphabet: (born 9 October 1946) is an economist and politician in Turkey. ...


By early September, Azeri forces were nearly in complete disarray. Much of the heavy weapons they had received and bought by the Russians were either taken out of action or abandoned during the battles. Since the June 1992 offensive, Armenian forces captured dozens of tanks, light armor and artillery from the Azeris.[31] Further signs of Azerbaijan's desperation included the recruitment by Aliev of 1,000-1,500 Afghan and Arab mujahadeen fighters from Afghanistan. Although the Azerbaijani government denied this claim, correspondence and photographs captured by Armenian forces indicated otherwise.[11] The United States-based petroleum company, MEGA OIL, also hired several American military trainers as a prerequisite for it to acquire drilling rights to Azerbaijan's oil fields.[32] Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ...


1993-1994, final clashes

The final borders of the conflict after the 1994 cease-fire was signed. Armenian forces currently control 14% of Azeri territory.
Enlarge
The final borders of the conflict after the 1994 cease-fire was signed. Armenian forces currently control 14% of Azeri territory.
T-72s of the Nagorno-Karabakh Defense force on parade in Stepanakert's main square in May, 1995.
Enlarge
T-72s of the Nagorno-Karabakh Defense force on parade in Stepanakert's main square in May, 1995.

In October 1993, Aliev was formally elected as President, and promised to bring social order to the country in addition to recapturing the lost regions. In October, Azerbaijan joined the CIS. The winter season was marked with similar conditions as in the previous year, both sides scavenging for wood and harvesting foodstuffs months in advance. Two subsequent UNSC resolutions were passed, (874 and 884), in October and November and, although reemphasizing the same points as the previous two, they acknowledged Nagorno-Karabakh as a party to the conflict.[28] Meanwhile, fighting brewed up once more when in January, the Azeri defense ministry claimed that it had recaptured several parts of Agdam after repulsing an Armenian offensive, purportedly killing 200 Armenian soldiers and destroying several armored vehicles. Karabakh's State Defense Committee disputed the claims however, saying that they had actually made gains into the region at the loss of only five men while killing 90 Azeri troops in the offensive. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x500, 234 KB) Image is modified image of Clevelanders original map. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x500, 234 KB) Image is modified image of Clevelanders original map. ... Image File history File links Nkr-army6. ... Image File history File links Nkr-army6. ... The T-72, a Soviet main battle tank entered production in 1971. ... The Nagorno-Karabakh (NKR) Defense Army was officially established on May 9, 1992 as the formal defense force of the unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, uniting previously disorganized self-defense units which were formed in the early 1990s in order to protect the ethnic Armenian population of Nagorno-Karabakh from the...


In early January, Azerbaijani forces recaptured most of Fizuli district, including the railway junction of Horadiz on the Iranian border. On January 10, 1994, an offensive was launched by Azerbaijan towards the region of Mardakert in an attempt to recapture the northern section of the enclave. The offensive managed to advance and take back several parts of Karabakh in the north and to the south of but soon stalled. The Republic of Armenia began sending conscripts and regular Army and Interior Ministry troops to stop Azerbaijani advancements in Karabakh. To bolster the ranks of its army, the Armenian government issued a decree, instituting a three-month call-up for men up to age forty-five and resorted to press-gang raids to enlist recruits. Several active-duty Armenian Army soldiers were captured by the Azerbaijani forces.[33] January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Enacting peace proposals and enforcing cease-fires proved just as difficult as before. In mid-February, another Russian-brokered cease-fire was signed by Armenia's and Azerbaijan's defense ministers in the midst of more fighting. Set to begin on March 1, it lasted for only several days before collapsing. Azerbaijan's offensives grew more dire as men as young as 16 with little to no training at all were recruited and sent to take part in ineffective human wave attacks, tactics once employed by Iran during the Iran-Iraq War. The two offensives that took place in the winter cost Azerbaijan as many as 5,000 men (at the loss of several hundred Armenians).[11] Armenian soldiers in Karabakh claimed that the youths were demoralized and lacked a sense of purpose and commitment to fighting the war: "The difference is in what you do and what you do it for. You know a few miles back is your family, children, women and old people, and therefore you're duty-bound to fight to the death so that those behind you will live", as one Armenian fighter put it.[34] March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... Human wave attack is a military term describing a type of assault performed by infantry units, in which soldiers attack in successive line formations, often in dense groups, generally without the support of other arms or with any sophistication in the tactics used. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


Final cease-fire

After six years of intensive fighting, both sides were ready for a cease-fire. Azerbaijan, after exhausting nearly all its manpower was relying on a cease-fire to be put forth by either the CSCE or by Russia. Armenian commanders said their forces had an unimpeded path towards Baku. The borders however remained confined to Karabakh and the immediate rayons surrounding it. Diplomatic channels increased between Armenia and Azerbaijan in the month of May. The final battle of the conflict took place near Shahumyan when Armenian troops took the town of Gulistan. Municipality: Baku Area: 1000 km² Altitude: -28 m Population: 2,074,300 census 2003 Population density: 1280 persons/km² Postal Code: +99450 Area code: 012 Municipality code: BA Latitude: 41° 01 52 N Longitude: 21° 20 25 E Weather types: 9 of 11 Mayor: Hajibala Abutalybov The Baku region. ...


On May 16, the leaders of the Armenian, Azerbaijan, Nagorno-Karabakh, and Russia met in Moscow to sign a truce that would establish the following conditions: the cease-fire, troop withdrawals by all factions of at least 3-6 miles, the establishment of 49 observer posts led by the Russians, and 1,800 troops from the CIS to be temporarily stationed between them. In Azerbaijan, the truce was met with both relief and disappointment. Many welcomed the end of hostilities, while others felt that the peacekeeping troops should have been a multinational force rather than solely from Russian led CIS forces. Sporadic fighting continued in some parts of the region but all sides affirmed that they would stay committed to honoring the cease-fire. The six year war had come to an end after several dozen cease-fires and the lives of tens of thousands.


A frozen conflict

Approximately 250,000 Armenians and 600,000 Azeris were displaced from the fighting. Above, an Iranian built camp housing some of the refugees from Azerbaijan.
Approximately 250,000 Armenians and 600,000 Azeris were displaced from the fighting. Above, an Iranian built camp housing some of the refugees from Azerbaijan.
An estimated 35,000 people were killed after fighting ended in 1994.
An estimated 35,000 people were killed after fighting ended in 1994.

Today, the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict remains one of several frozen conflicts in the post-Soviet states along with Georgia's breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia as well as Moldova's troubles with Transnistria. Karabakh remains under the jurisdiction of the unrecognized de facto independent Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh and maintains its own uniformed military, the Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army. Contrary to media reports which nearly always mentioned the religions of the Armenians and Azeris, the war's religious aspects never gained enough significance as an additional casus belli and remained more or less a territorial debate.[35] Image File history File linksMetadata AzerirefugeesinIran. ... Image File history File linksMetadata AzerirefugeesinIran. ... Image File history File links Dead_karabakh_war. ... Image File history File links Dead_karabakh_war. ... Post-Soviet states in alphabetical order: 1. ... Official languages Abkhaz, with Russian having co-official status and widespread use by government and other institutions Political status De facto independent Capital Sukhumi Capitals coordinates President Sergei Bagapsh Prime Minister Alexander Ankvab Independence  â€“ Declared  â€“ Recognition From Georgia  23 July 1992  none Currency Russian ruble Official languages Abkhaz and... Official language Ossetian Capital Tskhinvali President Eduard Djabeevich Kokoity Prime Minister Igor Viktorovich Sanakoyev Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water  3,900 km²  n/a Population  â€“ Total  â€“ Density (2004)  70,000 (approx)  18/km² Independence  â€“ Declared  â€“ Recognition From Georgia  â€“ November 28, 1991  â€“ none Currency Russian ruble, Georgian lari Time zone UTC +3 Detailed... Motto: For the right to live on this land[citation needed] Anthem: Anthem of Transnistria Capital (and largest city) Tiraspol Russian, Ukrainian, Moldovan Government Semi-presidential  - President Igor Smirnov Independence from Moldova   - Declared September 2, 1990   - Recognition unrecognized  Area  - Total 4,163 km² 1,607 sq mi   - Water (%) 2. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The Nagorno-Karabakh (NKR) Defense Army was officially established on May 9, 1992 as the formal defense force of the unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, uniting previously disorganized self-defense units which were formed in the early 1990s in order to protect the ethnic Armenian population of Nagorno-Karabakh from the... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ...


Since 1995, the OSCE has been mediating with the governments of Armenia and Azerbaijan to settle for a new solution. Numerous proposals have been made which have primarily been based on both sides making several concessions. One such proposal stipulated that as Armenian forces withdrew from the seven regions surrounding Karabakh, Azerbaijan would share some of its economic assets including profits from an oil pipeline that would go from Baku through Armenia to Turkey. Other proposals also included that Azerbaijan would provided the broadest form of autonomy to the enclave next to granting it full independence. Armenia has thus been excluded from major economic projects throughout the region, including the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline.[36] The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline (sometimes abbreviated as BTC pipeline) transports crude oil 1,776 km from the Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli oil field in the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Most autonomy proposals have been rejected, however, by the Armenians, which consider it as a matter that is not negotiable. Likewise, Azerbaijan has refused to let the matter subside. On March 30, Robert Kocharyan was elected President and continued to reject calls for making a deal to resolve the conflict. In 2001, Kocharyan and Aliev met at Key West, Florida to discuss the issues and, while several Western diplomats expressed optimism, mounting opposition against any concessions by both countries thwarted hopes for a peaceful resolution.[37] March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (90th in leap years). ... Map of Key West Key West is a city located in Monroe County, Florida. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Refugees displaced from the fighting account to nearly one million people from both sides. An estimated 250,000 Armenians living in Azerbaijan fled to Armenia or Russia and a further 30,000 came from Karabakh. Many of those who left Karabakh returned after the war ended.[38] An estimated 528,000 Azeris were displaced from the fighting including those from both Armenia and the enclave. Various other ethnic groups living in Karabakh were also forced to live in refugee camps built by both the Azeri and Iranian governments.[39] Although the issue of amount of territory has often been claimed to be 20% and even as high 40%, the number is believed to be, taking into account the exclave of Nakhichevan, 13.65% or 14%,[2] or according to the CIA, 16%.[40] The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ...


The ramifications of the war were said to have played a part in the February 2004 murder of Armenian Lieutenant Gurgen Markaryan who was hacked to death with an axe by his Azeri counterpart, Ramil Safarov at a NATO training seminar in Budapest, Hungary.[41] Gurgen Markaryan (Armenian Ô³Õ¸Ö‚Ö€Õ£Õ¥Õ¶ Õ„Õ¡Ö€Õ£Õ¡Ö€ÕµÕ¡Õ¶) was born on September 26th, 1978 in Yerevan, Armenia. ... Ramil Safarov is a lieutenant in the Azerbaijani Army. ... Nickname: Paris of the East, Pearl of the Danubeor Queen of the Danube Location of Budapest in Hungary Country Hungary County Pest Mayor Gábor Demszky (SZDSZ) Area    - City 525,16 km²  - Land n/a km²  - Water n/a km² Population    - City (2006) 1,695,000  - Density 3570/km...


Air war

A frontal view of the radar-guided, ZSU-23-4 "Shilka" anti-aircraft system. It had four 23 mm cannons mounted on a swiveling turret above the chassis. This one in use by Armenian forces for air defense.
A frontal view of the radar-guided, ZSU-23-4 "Shilka" anti-aircraft system. It had four 23 mm cannons mounted on a swiveling turret above the chassis. This one in use by Armenian forces for air defense.

The air war in Karabakh involved primarily fighter jets and attack helicopters. The primary transport helicopters of the war were the Mi-8 and its cousin, the Mi-17 and were used extensively by both sides. Armenia's active air force consisted of only two Su-25 ground support bombers, one of which was, ironically, accidentally shot down by the Armenians themselves. There were also several Su-22s and Su-17s however these aging craft took a backseat for the duration of the war. Image File history File links Shilka_AA.JPG‎ This image is a screenshot of a copyrighted television program or station ID. As such, the copyright for it is most likely owned by the company or corporation that produced it. ... Image File history File links Shilka_AA.JPG‎ This image is a screenshot of a copyrighted television program or station ID. As such, the copyright for it is most likely owned by the company or corporation that produced it. ... The ZSU-23-4 Shilka is a lightly armoured, self-propelled, radar guided anti-aircraft weapon system (SPAAG). ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... A chassis (plural: chassis) consists of a framework which supports an inanimate object, analogous to an animals skeleton; for example in the construction of an automobile or of a firearm. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... Russian Mi-8 Hip The Mil Mi-8 (NATO reporting name Hip) is a large transport helicopter that can also act as a gunship. ... The Mil Mi-17 (Also known as the Mi-8MT, NATO reporting name Hip-H) was a Soviet cargo helicopter. ... Su-25 of the Russian Air Force The Su-25 (NATO reporting name Frogfoot) is a battlefield attack, close air support, and anti-tank aircraft designed by the Soviet Union. ... Two aircraft share the designation Su-17. ... Two aircraft share the designation Su-17. ...


Azerbaijan's air force was composed of forty-five combat aircraft which were often piloted by experienced Russian and Ukrainian mercenaries from the former Soviet military. They flew mission sorties over Karabakh with such sophisticated jets as the Mig-25 and Sukhoi Su-24 "Fencer" and with more archaic Soviet fighter bombers, such as the Mig-21. They were reported to have being paid a monthly salary of over 5,000 rubles and flew bombing campaigns from air force bases in Azerbaijan often bombing the capital at Stepanakert. These pilots, like the men from the Soviet interior forces in the onset of the conflict, were also poor and took the jobs as a means of supporting their families. Several were shot down over the city by Armenian forces, and according to one of the pilots' commanders, with assistance provided by the Russians. Many of these pilots faced the threat of execution by Armenian forces if they were shot down. The setup of the defense system severely hampered Azerbaijan's ability to carry out and launch more air strikes.[42] Mercenary (disambiguation). ... MiG 25 Foxbat The MiG-25 (NATO reporting name Foxbat) is a high-speed interceptor and reconnaissance aircraft produced by the Soviet Unions Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau. ... Sukhoi-24 The Sukhoi Su-24 (NATO reporting name Fencer) was the Soviet Unions most advanced all-weather interdiction and attack aircraft in the 1970s and 1980s. ... A ground attack aircraft is an aircraft that is designed to operate very close to the ground, supporting infantry and tanks directly in battle. ... Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (NATO reporting name Fishbed) is a fighter aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan and Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union. ... 1998 Russian Federation one rouble coin. ...


Perhaps the most widely used helicopter gunship by both the Armenians and Azeris was the Soviet-made Mil Mi-24 Krokodil. The Krokodil was used effectively in a support role for advancing infantry; however, many were shot down throughout the war. A helicopter gunship is a military helicopter armed for attacking targets on the ground, using automatic cannon and machinegun fire, rockets, and precision guided missiles such as the Hellfire. ... Mi-24D Hind-D of the Polish Army. ...


The Russian role

An Armenian soldier practices his aim with a Russian-made Dragunov Sniper Rifle.
An Armenian soldier practices his aim with a Russian-made Dragunov Sniper Rifle.

Russia, the largest republic of the former Soviet Union, played a dual and often obfuscated role during the war. The hardline members of the Soviet government supported Azerbaijan in the initial stages of the war because "until the Soviet Union's collapse...Azerbaijan was the last bastion of communist orthodoxy in the Caucasus."[17] A contingent of troops during the war consisted of a 23,000-man force housed at the Russian 102nd Military Base near Gyumri. In Azerbaijan, Russian forces sped up the process of withdrawing after the assault on Khojaly and completely withdrew in 1993, one year ahead of schedule. Russian support during the war remained officially neutral. However, despite this stance, both sides accused the Russian military of favoritism.[12] Image File history File links Arm_gun_karabakh_war. ... Image File history File links Arm_gun_karabakh_war. ... Pair of Dragunovs imported to US as Tigers. ... In the vernacular, hardline means taking an intellectual or political position that is extreme and uncompromising. ... The 102nd Military Base is a Russian military base in Gyumri, Armenia, part of the Transcaucasian Group of Forces. ... Gyumri (Armenian: Ô³ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ´Ö€Õ«) is the capital and largest city of the Shirak province in northwest Armenia. ... TO GENOCIDE EVENTS IN KHOJALI Over the night from February 25 to 26, 1992 Armenian armed forces implemented the capture of the Khojali city with support of hard equipment and the personnel of the infantry guards regiment #366 of former Soviet Union. ...


Although it is well known that Russians among other ethnic groups of the former Soviet Union fought as mercenaries on both sides, official Russian military support relied primarily on the accounts of eyewitnesses. Russian military units were said to have been cooperating with Armenian units when they took Khojaly and similarly with Azerbaijan during its summer 1992 offensive. But even after the 366th regiment was officially withdrawn from Karabakh, many Russian mercenaries kept on fighting on the Armenian side. A Boston Globe correspondent witnessed in March 1992 "a fair sprinkling of non-Armenian troops in and around Stepanakert." Among them was lieutenant colonel Yury Nikolayevich, who was said to have been the deputy commander of the 366th Motorized Regiment, who went over to the Armenian fighters with a large part of the regiment's military hardware.[43]


While Azerbaijan alleged involvement of Russian Army units based in Armenia during the Armenian offensives on Azerbaijani positions, the Armenian side claimed that Russian combatants were volunteers. On September 11, 1992, Azerbaijani forces captured six Russian special forces (spetznaz) troops of the 7th Russian Army based in Armenia near the village of Merjimek in Kelbajar. The men reportedly were paid in Russian rubles by the Armenian Ministry of Defense for action near the village of Srkhavend, Nagorno-Karabakh, in June 1992. Soldiers of Armenian descent serving in the Russian 127th Division based in Armenia were captured in Kelbajar province, Azerbaijan, in January 1994.[44] But, as Melkonian notes, Russia welcomed the Armenian victories, namely Kelbajar's:

   
Nagorno-Karabakh War
The Armenian offensive came at a time of escalating military threats to Russia: Washington was eager to push NATO right up to Russia's western doorstep, to set up military bases in Central Asia, and to abrogate the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. Chechnya teetered on the brink of secessionist rebellion in the high Caucasus, while...the newly independent Republic of Georgia, was tearing itself up in civil war. And now Azerbaijan, the former Soviet Republic, once again turned its eyes toward Russia's age-old enemy, Turkey....Only Armenia held any promise as a reliable Russian ally in the southern Caucasus.[12]
   
Nagorno-Karabakh War

In 1997, Russian parliamentary member and chairman of the parliamentary defense committee, Lev Rokhlin released a report detailing Russian arms shipments transferred to Armenia at the worth of $1 billion dollars including 84 T-72 tanks, 50 armored personnel vehicles, 72 howitzers, 24 Scud missile systems and several million rounds of ammunition from 1994-1996.[45] The shipment of the arms were said to have been originally authorized by defense minister Pavel Grachev and purportedly sent during the height of the war in 1992-1994. Azerbaijan demanded that the weapons be returned lest fighting broke out once more (Armenia retained the weapons). Relations with Russia and Azerbaijan have been strained since then as it has looked more to the West for support. Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM treaty or ABMT) was a treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against missile-delivered nuclear weapons. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... The T-72, a Soviet main battle tank entered production in 1971. ... Loading a WW1 British 15 in (381 mm) howitzer 155 mm M198 Howitzer A howitzer or hauwitzer is a type of field artillery. ... Polish missile wz. ... Russian Defence Minister Pavel Grachev speaking in the State Duma in 1994. ...


Misconduct

   
Nagorno-Karabakh War
Could God ever forgive a person who had killed a dog out of revenge?...That depends, was it a four-legged dog or two-legged dog? —An Armenian soldier asking a priest —and receiving the answer— on the consequences of his killing of a Popular Front activist
   
Nagorno-Karabakh War

Emerging from the collapse of the Soviet Union as nascent states and due to the near-immediate fighting, it was not until mid-1993 that Armenia and Azerbaijan became signatories of international law agreements, including the Geneva Conventions. Although allegations from all three governments (including Nagorno-Karabakh's) regularly accused both sides of committing atrocities, they were difficult to confirm by third party media sources or human rights organizations, due to the volatility of the conflict. Khojaly, for example, was confirmed by both Human Rights Watch and Memorial while what became known as the Maraghar Massacre was first independently affirmed by the British-based human rights organization Christian Solidarity International in 1992. Azerbaijan was also criticized for its use of aerial cluster bombs in densly populated civilian areas.[46] Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... Development of the Geneva Conventions from 1864 to 1949. ... Azeri armored vehicles approaching Maraghar on April 10, 1992 The Maraghar Massacre occurred on April 10, 1992, during the Nagorno-Karabakh War[1], a conflict in which both the Armenian and Azeri forces involved are reported to have committed acts of ethnic cleansing upon civilian populations. ... Christian Solidarity Worldwide (CSW) is a human rights organization based in New Malden, Surrey specialising in religious freedom. ... Cluster bomb exploding A cluster bomb is an air-dropped bomb that ejects multiple small submunitions (bomblets). ...


The lack of international laws for either side to abide by virtually sanctioned activity in the war to what would be considered war crimes. Looting and mutilation (body parts such as ears, brought back from the front as treasured war souvenirs) of dead soldiers were commonly reported and even boasted about among soldiers.[2] Another practice that took form, not by soldiers but by regular civilians during the war, was the bartering of prisoners between Armenians and Azerbaijanis. Often, when contact was lost between family members and a soldier or a militiaman serving at the front, they took it upon themselves to organize an exchange by personally capturing a soldier from the battle lines and holding them in the confines of their own homes. This was noted by New York Times journalist Yo'av Karny as a practice that was as "old as the people occupying [the] land."[47] In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


After the war ended, both sides alleged that they were continuing to hold captives; Azerbaijan claimed that Armenia was continuing to hold near 5,000 Azeri prisoners while Armenians claimed Azerbaijan was holding 600 people. The non-profit group, Helsinki Initiative 92, investigated two prisons in Shusha and Stepanakert after the war ended, but concluded that there were no prisoners there. A similar investigation found the same result while searching for Armenians allegedly laboring in Azerbaijan's quarries.[48]


References

  1. ^ The casualties of the war are conflicting and exact numbers are unknown due to the fact that exact body counts were never properly ascertained by either side or by international organizations. In the initial years of combat, casualties were reported to be much lower than what was later asserted after the war ended. The numbers here are estimated figures by Azerbaijani parliamentary member Arif Yunusov. Other sources place the numbers much higher. Time Magazine, for example lists the number as at least 35,000 people on both sides [1]. The US State Department [2] and NPR [3] put the numbers slightly lower at around 30,000. There have been subsequent casualties which resulted from the tripping of land mines, often by civilians. Numerous cease fire violations on the borders also result in the deaths of several soldiers each year. Other ethnic conflicts with comparative casualties as a result of the Soviet Union's dissipation included the First Chechen War and the civil war in Georgia.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l de Waal, Thomas. Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan Through Peace and War. New York: New York University Press, 2003 ISBN 0-8147-1945-7
  3. ^ Karagiannis, Emmanuel. Energy and Security in the Caucasus. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002 p. 36 ISBN 0-7007-1481-2
  4. ^ (Armenian) Hambartsumyan, Victor et. al. Լեռնային Ղարաբաղի Ինքնավար Մարզ (ԼՂԻՄ) (Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast) The Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia, Vol. 4, Yerevan 1978 p. 576
  5. ^ Regnum News Agency. Кто на стыке интересов? США, Россия и новая реальность на границе с Ираном (Who is at the turn of interests? US, Russia and new reality on the border with Iran) April 4, 2006.
  6. ^ a b Rost, Yuri. The Armenian Tragedy: An Eye-Witness Account of Human Conflict and Natural Disaster in Armenia and Azerbaijan. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990 p. 17 ISBN 0-312-04611-1
  7. ^ The official Soviet statistics on Sumgait were initially placed much lower but incrementally rose to a final count of 32 dead and several hundred injured, most of them Armenian but also including several Azeris who were possibly killed when some Armenians resisted and fought back. Many Armenians feel the figures by the Soviet media are understated and were in fact much higher. Nearly the entire Armenian population in Sumgait left Azerbaijan after the pogrom.
  8. ^ Hofheinz, Paul. On the Edge of Civil War Time Magazine October 23, 1989
  9. ^ Smolowe, Jill. The Killing Zone. Time Magazine. January 29, 1990
  10. ^ Abu-Hamad, Aziz, et al. Playing the "Communal Card": Communal Violence and Human Rights Human Rights Watch.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Croissant, Michael P. The Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict: Causes and Implications. London: Praeger, 1998 ISBN 0-275-96241-5
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Melkonian, Markar. My Brother's Road, An American's Fateful Journey to Armenia. New York: I. B. Tauris, 2005. ISBN 1-85043-635-5
  13. ^ Malkasian, Mark. Gha-Ra-Bagh!: The Emergence of the National Democratic Movement in Armenia. Detriot: Wayne State University Press, 1996 p. 157 ISBN 0-8143-2605-6
  14. ^ Petrosian, David. "What Are the Reasons for Armenians' Success in the Military Phase of the Karabakh Conflict?" Noyan Tapan Highlights, June 1 2000
  15. ^ Smith, Hedrick. The New Russians. New York: Harper Perennial, 1991 pp. 344-345 ISBN 0-380-71651-8
  16. ^ Section 907 of the Freedom Support Act. Humanitarian aid was not explicitly banned but such supplies had to be routed through indirectly to aid organizations. On January 25, 2002, President George W. Bush signed a waiver that effectively repealed Section 907; thereby removing any restrictions that were barring the United States from sending military aid to Azerbaijan; however, military parity is maintained towards both sides. For more information, see here [4]. Azerbaijan continues to maintain their road and air blockade against Armenia.
  17. ^ a b Carney, James. Former Soviet Union Carnage in Karabakh Time Magazine. April 13, 1992.
  18. ^ a b Chorbajian, Levon, Patrick Donabedian, and Claude Mutafian. The Caucasian Knot: The History and Geopolitics of Nagorno-Karabagh. London: Zed books, 1994 pp. 13-18 ISBN 1-8564-9288-5. The statistics cited by the authors is from data compiled by the International Institute for Strategic Studies based in London, Great Britain in a report entitled The Military Balance, 1993-1994 published in 1993. The 20,000 figure of the Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh included 8,000 volunteers from Armenia itself; Armenia's military in the report was exclusively made up of members in the army; and Azerbaijan's statistics referred to 38,000 members in its army and 1,600 in its air force. Reference to these statistics can be found on pp. 68-69 and 71-73 of the report.
  19. ^ Curtis, Glenn E. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia Country Studies. Federal Research Division Library of Congress: Washington D.C., 1995
  20. ^ Kaufman, Stuart. Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War. New York: Cornell Studies in Security Affairs, 2001 p. 66 ISBN 0-8014-8736-6.
  21. ^ Killen, Brian. Massacre leaves dozens dead in Azeri region Chicago Tribune. Mar. 3, 1992.
  22. ^ Hitherto, the Armenian government denies that a deliberate massacre took place in Khojaly.
  23. ^ Rubin, Barry and Kemal Kirisci ed. Turkey in World Politics: An Emerging Multiregional Power. Boulder, Co: Lynne Rienner, 2001 p. 175 ISBN 1-5558-7954-3
  24. ^ Bertsch, Gary. Crossroads and Conflict: Security and Foreign Policy in the Caucasus and Central Asia. London: Routledge, 1999 p. 170 ISBN 0-4159-2273-9
  25. ^ Dahlburg, John-Thor. Azerbaijan Accused of Bombing Civilians. Chicago Sun-Times, Aug. 24, 1992. pg.16
  26. ^ Washington Post Company Cease-Fire Ends Between Armenia And Azerbaijan. Washington Post September 27, 1992. pg. A39
  27. ^ a b Chrysanthopolous, Leonidas T. Caucasus Chronicles: Nation-building and Diplomacy in Armenia, 1993-1994. Princeton: Gomidas Institute Books, 2002 ISBN 1-8846-3005-7
  28. ^ a b United Nations Security Council Resolution 822 passed on 30 April 1993 Text provided by the US State Department. A total of four UNSC resolutions were passed in regards to the conflict.
  29. ^ The Associated Press. Rebel troops push toward Azeri capital Toronto Star. June 21, 1993, p. A12
  30. ^ During the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993, one of the coup's leaders against Russian President Yeltsin, Chechen Ruslan Khasbulatov, was reported by the US and French intelligence agencies to preparing Russian troop withdrawls from Armenia if the coup succeeded. An estimated 23,000 Russian soldiers were stationed in Armenia on the border of Turkey. Çiller was reported by the agencies to be collaborating with Khasbulatov for him to give her tacit support in allowing possible military incursions by Turkey into Armenia under the pretext of pursuing PKK guerillas, an act it had once followed up on earlier the same year in northern Iraq. Russian armed forces, however, crushed the coup.
  31. ^ For example, according to Melkonian in a television interview in March 1993, his forces in Martuni alone had captured or destroyed a total of 55 T-72s, 24 BMP-2s, 15 APCs and 25 pieces of heavy artillery since the June 1992 Azeri offensive, stating that "most of our arms...[were] captured from Azerbaijan." Serzh Sarkisyan, the then military leader of the Karabakh armed forces claimed that they had captured a total of 156 tanks throughout the war.
  32. ^ Gurdilek, Rasit. Azerbaijanis Rebuild Army with Foreign Help The Seattle Times. January 30, 1994. pg. A3
  33. ^ Human Rights Watch World Report 1995
  34. ^ Goldberg, Carey. David and Goliath in Caucasus. The Los Angeles Times. April 21, 1994. pg.1
  35. ^ Tishkov, Valery. Ethnicity, Nationalism and Conflict in and after the Soviet Union: The Mind Aflame. London: Sage, 1997 p. 107 ISBN 0-7619-5185-7
  36. ^ Cohen, Ariel ed. Eurasia in Balance: US and the Regional Power Shift. Aldershot, England: 2005 p. 60 ISBN 0-7546-4449-9
  37. ^ Peuch, Jean-Christophe. Armenia/Azerbaijan: International Mediators Report Progress On Karabakh Dispute Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. April 10, 2001.
  38. ^ The U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. 2001 Country Report of Armenia. USCRI. January 2001.
  39. ^ For more detailed statistics on the status of refugees and the number of internally displaced persons see here.
  40. ^ The Central Intelligence Agency. CIA — The World Factbook. Azerbaijan.
  41. ^ Grigorian, Mariana and Rauf Orujev. Murder Case Judgement Reverberates Around Caucasus War and Peace Reporting, April 20, 2006
  42. ^ Loiko, Sergei. L. Ex-Soviet `Top Guns' Shot Down, Face Possible Death as Mercenaries Los Angeles Times. July 19, 1993
  43. ^ Quinn-Judge, Paul. In Armenian unit, Russian is spoken The Boston Globe. March 16, 1992
  44. ^ Human Rights Watch/Helsinki. Azerbaijan: Seven Years of Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh. New York, 1994.
  45. ^ (Russian) Rokhlin, Lev. "Спецоперация или коммерческая Аферa?" Незabиcимоe Вoeннoe Oбoзрeннe (Independent Military Review) No. 13, 1997
  46. ^ Brook, Stephen. The forgotten war: Nagorno Karabakh The Times. June 5, 1993.
  47. ^ Karny, Yo'av. Highlanders: A Journey to the Caucasus in Quest of Memory. New York: Douglas & McIntyre, 2000. pp. 405-406
  48. ^ Ohanyan, Karine and Zarema Velikhanova. Investigation: Karabakh: Missing in Action - Alive or Dead? Institute for War and Peace Reporting. May 12, 2004

(Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... NPR logo For other meanings of NPR see NPR (disambiguation) National Public Radio (NPR) is a private, not-for-profit corporation that sells programming to member radio stations; together they are a loosely organized public radio network in the United States. ... Combatants Russian Federation Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Commanders Pavel Grachev Aslan Maskhadov Strength Peaking at 45,000 3,000 regulars, thousands of irregulars The First Chechen War (Russian: первая чеченская война) occurred when Russian forces attempted to stop the southern republic of Chechnya from seceding in a two year period lasting from 1994... Viktor Hambardzumyan (Armenian: ; September 18, 1908 [O.S. September 5] – August 12, 1996) was an Armenian astronomer and astrophysicist, who achieved his main results in Soviet times. ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The International Institute for Strategic Studies is a British think tank based in London. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ... Boris Yeltsin was President of the Russian Federation at the time of the crisis. ... Chechen can mean: Chechen people, an ethnic group Chechen language Related to Chechnya This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Ruslan Khasbulatov speaks to Radio Free Europe in 2003 Ruslan Imranovich Khasbulatov (Руслан Имранович Хасбулатов) (born 1942) is a Russian economist and politician who played a central role in the events leading to the 1993 constitutional crisis in the Russian Federation. ... The Congress for Freedom and Democracy in Kurdistan (Kadek), formerly known as the Kurdistan Workers Party (Kurdish: Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan, PKK ) was one of several militant groups fighting for the creation of an independent Kurdish state in southern Turkey, northern Iraq, Northern Syria and western Iran. ... The T-72, a Soviet main battle tank entered production in 1971. ... The BMP-1 is a Soviet infantry fighting vehicle which was first introduced in the early 1960s. ... APC is an abbreviation of: General A Perfect Circle, rock band Advanced process control Air Pollution Control in municipal solid waste incineration plants Angled Physical Contact Fiber Optic Connector Antipop Consortium, an alternative hip-hop group Armoured personnel carrier Armour-piercing capped shot and shell Automatic Passenger Counter Automatic Performance... Serzh Azati Sarkisyan (Armenian Սերժ Ô±Õ¦Õ¡Õ¿Õ« Սարգսյան, other transcriptions of the given name are Serge and Serj, of the name Sarkissian, Sarkisyan, Sarkissyan, the transliteration is Serž Azati Sargsyan; born in 1954, 30 June In Stepanakert, then a part of the Azerbaijan SSR, today of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic). ... Tailor in Labuje IDP camp in Uganda An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who has been forced to leave their home for reasons such as religious or political persecution or war, but has not crossed an international border. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... Institute for War and Peace Reporting is an international media development charity, established in 1991. ...

Further reading

Historiography and Overviews
  • Chorbajian, Levon, Patrick Donabedian, and Claude Mutafian. The Caucasian Knot: The History and Geopolitics of Nagorno-Karabagh. Zed Books, London 1994.
  • Cox, Caroline and John Eibner. Ethnic cleansing in progress: War in Nagorno Karabakh. Zürich; Washington: Institute for Religious Minorities in the Islamic World, 1993
  • Croissant, Michael P. Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict: Causes and Implications. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998
  • Curtis, Glenn E. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia Country Studies. Federal Research Division Library of Congress, 1995
  • de Waal, Thomas. Black garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through Peace and War. New York: New York University Press, 2003
  • Freire, Maria Raquel. Conflict and Security in the Former Soviet Union: The Role of the OSCE. Ashgate Publishing, 2003
  • Karny, Yo'av. Highlanders: A Journey to the Caucasus in Quest of Memory. New York: Douglas & McIntyre 2000.
  • Libaridian, Gerard. The Karabagh file: Documents and facts on the region of Mountainous Karabagh, 1918-1988. Zoryan Institute for Contemporary Armenian Research & Documentation; 1st ed edition, 1988
  • Human Rights Watch/Helsinki. Azerbaijan: Seven Years of Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh. Human Rights Watch, 1995
  • Malkasian, Mark. Gha-Ra-Bagh!: The Emergence of the National Democratic Movement in Armenia. Wayne State University Press, 1996
Specific events and time periods
  • Chrysanthopolous, Leonidas T. Caucasus Chronicles: Nation-building and Diplomacy in Armenia, 1993-1994. Princeton, NJ: Gomidas Institute Books, 2002.
  • Goltz, Thomas. Azerbaijan Diary: A Rogue Reporter's Adventures in an Oil-Rich, War-Torn, Post-Soviet Republic. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1998
  • Rost, Yuri. The Armenian Tragedy. New York, St. Martin's Press. 1990
  • Shamuratian, Samvel ed. The Sumgait Tragedy: Pogroms Against Armenians in Soviet Azerbaijan. New York: Zoryan Institute, 1990
Biographies
  • Melkonian, Markar. My Brother's Road, An American's Fateful Journey to Armenia. New York: I.B. Tauris, 2005

External links

GlobalSecurity. ...  State Parties to the Ottawa Treaty The International Campaign to Ban Landmines is a coalition of non-governmental organizations whose goal is to abolish the production and use of anti-personnel mines. ...

See also


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m