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Encyclopedia > Kapisa province
Kapisa
کاپیسا
Map of Afghanistan with Kapisa کاپیسا highlighted.
Capital
 • Coordinates
Mahmud-i-Raqi
 • 35.0° N 69.7° E
Population (2002)
 • Density
360,000
 • 195/km²
Area
1,842 km²
Time zone UTC+4:30
Main language(s) Persian (Dari)

Kapiśa (=Kapisha) (Persian: کاپيسا) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan. It is in the north-east of the country. Its capital is Mahmud-i-Raqi, and other districts include Kohistan, Nigrab and Tagab. The population of Kapiśa is estimated to be 360,000, although there has never been an official figure. The area of the province is 1,842 km². [3]. Image File history File links Afghanistan-Kapisa. ... Subnational entity is a generic term for an administrative region within a country — on an arbitrary level below that of the sovereign state — typically with a local government encompassing multiple municipalities, counties, or provinces with a certain degree of autonomy in a varying number of matters. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... , The town of Mahmud Raqi (also:Mahmud-i-Raqi,Mahmood-e Raqi)is the capital of Kapisa Province and center of Mahmud Raqi District in Afghanistan. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Dari (Persian: ) is the official name for the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan[1] and is a synonymous term for Parsi]. // There are different opinions about the origin of the word Dari. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The Provinces of Afghanistan (locally recognized as wilayats) are the primary political subdivisions of Afghanistan. ... , The town of Mahmud Raqi (also:Mahmud-i-Raqi,Mahmood-e Raqi)is the capital of Kapisa Province and center of Mahmud Raqi District in Afghanistan. ... Kohistan is a Persian word meaning mountainous region or highland (Koh = mountain; -istan = suffix -land). ... Tagab is a district in Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan. ...

Contents

Politics and Security

An elemntary school in Kapisa with ANP police helping with preparation for a medical civic action program.
An elemntary school in Kapisa with ANP police helping with preparation for a medical civic action program.

The Governor of the Province, Abdul Sattar Murad, was removed from office in July 2007 by President Hamid Karzai, and a replacement has not yet been named. The ostensible reason for Murad's removal was 'ineffective governance', but it was widely believed by press sources that Murad was removed because of critical comments he made in a Newsweek interview regarding the central government's ineffectiveness in remote areas of the province [4] [5]. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 680 pixels, file size: 361 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 680 pixels, file size: 361 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Abdul Sattar Murad was the Governor of Kapisa Province in Afghanistan from 2004 - 2007. ... Hamid Karzai (Pashto: حامد کرزي) (b. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ...


2006 and 2007 have seen increased insurgent activity in the province. Southern areas of the province, in particular the Tagab district, have been the site of repeated clashes between U.S./Afghan forces and insurgent groups [6]. The Tagab District is situated in the eastern part of Kapisa Province,Afghanistan. ...


Kapiśa in ancient references

Asia in 565 AD, showing Kapisa and its neighbors.

Fifth century BCE Indian genius of Sanskrit grammar, Achariya Panini, refers to Kapiśi, a city of the Kapiśa kingdom.[1] Kapisi appears as Kaviśiye in Graeco-Indian coins of Appolodotus/Eucratides.[2] Panini also refers to Kapiśayana,[3] a famous wine from Kapiśa.[4] That Kapiśa was an emporium for the Kapiśayana wine and the product was exported and stored in large quantities in the ancient period is proved by the recent archaeological discoveries (1939) at this site of numerous glass flasks, fish-shaped wine jars and drinking cups which were used in the wine trade many centuries ago.[5] Besides, large ivory plaques were also found during excavations at this ancient site. The grapes called Kapiśayani Draksha and the wine called Kapiśayani Madhu are referred to in several ancient Indian literature.[6] Classical chroniclers write Kapiśi as Kapiscene. According to Pliny,[7] City of Kapiscene (=Kapiśi) was destroyed in sixth c BCE by the Achaemenian emperor Cyrus (Kurush) (558-530 BC). Kapiśi has been identified with modern Begram about 50 miles of north of Kabul on the ground that a Kharoshthi inscription naming the city has been found there.[8] Al-Beruni refers to Kapiśa as Kayabish.[9] Kai-pi-shi(h) (Kapiśa) was also visited by Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang in 644 AD. Hiuen Tsang describes Kai-pi-shi(h)[10] as a flourishing kingdom ruled by a Buddhist Kshatriya king holding sway over ten neighboring states including Lampaka, Nagarahara, Gandhara and Banuu etc. Till 9th century AD, Kapiśi remained the second capital of the Shahi Dynasty of Kabul. Kapiśa (Chinese Kipin) is stated to have been earlier visited by lord Buddha in 6th c BCE. Ancient Kapiśa Janapada is related to the Kafiristan, south-east of the Hindukush.[11] Kapiśa was known for goats and their skin.[12] Hiuen Tsang talks of Kapiśa (Kai-pi-shi(h)) breed of horses which in fact, was a Kamboja breed, since it was the latter which was always noted for its exceptional breed of horses. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 449 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,112 × 1,186 pixels, file size: 766 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is a zoomed-in version of Eastern Hemisphere in 565 AD. Eastern Hemisphere in 565 AD. Author: Thomas A. Lessman. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 449 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,112 × 1,186 pixels, file size: 766 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is a zoomed-in version of Eastern Hemisphere in 565 AD. Eastern Hemisphere in 565 AD. Author: Thomas A. Lessman. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (IPA ) was an ancient Gandharan grammarian (approximately 5th century BC, but estimates range from the 7th to the 3rd centuries) who is most famous for formulating the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology known as the . ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... The name Cyrus (or Kourosh in Persian) may refer to: [[Cyrus I of Anshan]], King of Persia around 650 BC [[Cyrus II of Persia | Cyrus the Great]], King of Persia 559 BC - 529 BC — See also Cyrus in the Judeo-Christian tradition Cyrus the Younger, brother to the Persian king... Aromatic vials in the shape of Greek gods, Begram, 2nd century. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... The Kharoṣṭhī script, also known as the Gāndhārī script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border... Inscriptions are words or letters written, engraved, painted, or otherwise traced on a surface and can appear in contexts both small and monumental. ... Biruni commemorated on a Soviet stamp for his millennial anniversary. ... Monument to pilgrims in Burgos, Spain This article is on religious pilgrims. ... ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ... Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Kafiristan or Kafirstan (Land of the non believers in the Persian) was a historic name of Nurestan (Nuristan), a province in the Hindukush(Killer of Hindu Mountains) region of Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... ...


Kapiśa: Equivalent to Sanskrit Kamboja

Kapiśa is related to and included Kafiristan. Scholar community holds that Kapiśa is equivalent to Sanskrit Kamboja.[13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] In other words, Kamboja and Kapiśa are believed to be two attempts to render the same foreign word (which could not appropriately be transliterated into Sanskrit).[26][27][28][29] Dr Levi further holds that old Persian Ka(m)bujiya or Kau(n)bojiya, Sanskrit Kamboja as well as Kapiśa, all etymologically refer to the same foreign word.[30][31][32] Even the evidence from third century Buddhist tantra text Mahamayuri (which uses Kabusha for Kapisha) and the Ramayanamanjri by Sanskrit Acharya Kshmendra of Kashmir (11th c AD), which specifically equates Kapiśa with Kamboja, thus substituting the former with the latter, therefore, sufficiently attest that Kapiśa and Kamboja are equivalent.[33][34] Even according to illustrious Indian history series: History and Culture of Indian People,[35] Kapiśa is equivalent to Sanskrit Kamboja. And Kapiśi is believed to have been the capital of ancient Kamboja.[36] Kapiśa of Paninian times, in fact, refers to the Kamboja kingdom located on the south-eastern side of the Hindukush in the Paropamisadae region. It was anciently inhabited by the Aśvakayana (Greek: Assakenoi), and the Aśvayana (Greek Aspasio) (q.v.) sub-tribes of the Kambojas. Epic Mahabharata refers to two Kamboja settlements: one called Kamboja, adjacent to the Daradas (of Gilgit), extending from Kafiristan to south-east Kashmir including Rajauri/Poonch districts,[37][38] while the original Kamboja, known as Parama Kamboja was located north of Hindukush in Transoxiana territory mainly in Badakshan and Pamirs/Allai valley, as neighbors to the Rishikas of the Scythian land.[39] Even Ptolemy refers to two Kamboja territories/and or ethnics - viz.: (1) Tambyzoi, located north of Hindukush on Oxus, in Bactria/Badakshan, and (2) Ambautai located on southern side of Hindukush in Paropamisadae. Front ranking scholars like Dr S. Levi, Dr Michael Witzel and numerous others accept the identity of Tambyzoi and Ambautai with Sanskrit Kamboja. Obviously, the Ptolemian Ambautai formed parts of the Kapiśa kingdom under sway of Aśvakayana/Aśvayana (Aśvaka) Kambojas. It appears probable that the original home of the Kambojas was trans-Oxian Kamboja, from where, some tribal sections moved south-wards and planted colonies in Paropamisan on southern side of Hindukush. With passage of time, the Paropamisan settlements came to be addressed as Kamboja proper, whereas the original Kamboja settlement lying north of Hindukush became known as 'Parama-Kamboja' i.e. furthest Kamboja.[40] Some scholars call Parama Kamboja as 'Uttara-Kamboja' i.e. northern Kamboja.[41] The Kapisa-Kamboja equivalence as suggested by scholars like Dr Levi applies to the Paropamisan Kamboja settlement. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a Hindu country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Cambyses II (Persian Kambujiya (کمبوجیه), d. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... The Paropamisadae is an ancient area of the Hindu-Kush, in the Eastern part of Afghanistan. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Ashvakas or Ashvakans are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan (Nuristan), modern Pakistan, including the Chitral-Valley and north-west India . ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Ashvakas or Ashvakans are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan (Nuristan), modern Pakistan, including the Chitral-Valley and north-west India . ... The Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Daradas were a people who lived north and north-east to the Kashmir valley. ... Kafiristan or Kafirstan (Land of the non believers in the Persian) was a historic name of Nurestan (Nuristan), a province in the Hindukush(Killer of Hindu Mountains) region of Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... Located in Central Asia, the Pamir Mountains are formed by the junction of the worlds greatest mountain ranges, a geologic structural knot from which the great Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush mountain systems radiate. ... :For the Italian commune, see Allai (OR). ... Rshikas were an ancient tribe living in the northern division of ancient India. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... The Paropamisadae is an ancient area of the Hindu-Kush, in the Eastern part of Afghanistan. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... The Paropamisadae is an ancient area of the Hindu-Kush, in the Eastern part of Afghanistan. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... The Paropamisadae is an ancient area of the Hindu-Kush, in the Eastern part of Afghanistan. ...


Kafir and Kafiristan etymologically derived from Kapiśa

According to the conventional etymology, the name "Kafir" derives from Arabic Kafir, commonly translated into English as "infidels" or "idolaters". Kafiristan then would be "The Land of the Infidels". This explanation would justify the renaming of the country after its Islamization. Etymologies redirects here. ... This article is about an Islamic term. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Many historians,[42] however, opine that the local name "Kafir" comes from Kapiś (= Kapish), the ancient Sanskrit name of the region that included historic Kafiristan; which is also given as Ki-pin (or Chi-pin) in old Chinese chronicles. That name, unrelated to the Arabic word, is believed to have, at some point, mutated into the word Kapir. This linguistic phenomenon is not unusual for this region. The name of King Kanishaka, who once ruled over this region, is also found written as "Kanerika", an example of "ś" or "sh" mutating to "r".[43] In a similar way, Kapiś -- the name of the people of Kapiś/Kapiśa, is believed to have changed to Kapir and then Kafir.[44][45] One of the dominant clan of the Kafirs till recently was known as Katir. The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... Kanishka (Kushan language: , Ancient Chinese: 迦腻色伽) was a king of the Kushan Empire in South Asia, ruling an empire extending from Northern India to Central Asia in the 2nd century of the common era, famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements. ...


The second change from Kapir to Kafir, may have occurred spontaneously, since the exchange of "p" by "f" is fairly common in Indo-European languages.[46] It may also have been the result of confusion or intentional wordplay with the Arabic word, since the Kafirs were indeed pagans until 1895. For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ...


The derivation of Kafiristan is now fairly easy since -stan in Iranian language means country, abode or place. Thus, Kafiristan would literally mean the land or abode of the Kafir peoples i.e. people belonging to Kapiśa.


Today it is disputed if the term Kafir really defines a traditional ethnic group.


Physical characteristics of the people of ancient Kapiśa

Hiuen Tsang says that from Kapiśa (Kai-pi-chi(h)) to Rajauri ((Ho-b-she-pu-lo), the inhabitants are plain in personal appearance and are of rude, violent dispositions......They do not belong to India proper.... but are peoples of the inferior frontier (i.e barbarian) stock. Hiuen Tsang further attests that the written language of the people of Kapiśa is similar to that of the Tokharas, but differs from it in other respects. Their spoken language is vulgar and coarse. ... Rajauri is a town and a notified area committee in Rajauri district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ... The Tocharians were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ...


According to scholar community, much of the description of the people from Kapiśa to Rajapura as given by Hiuen Tsang agrees wonderfully well with the characteristics of the Kambojas described in the Buddhist text, Bhuridatta Jataka[47] as well in the great Indian epic Mahabharata.[48][49] Moreover, the Drona Parava of Mahabharata specifically attests that Rajapuram was a metropolitan city of the epic Kambojas.[50] The Rajapuram (=Rajapura) of Mahabharata (Ho-b-she-pu-lo of Hiuen Tsang) has been identified with modern Rajauri in south-western Kashmir.[51] Culturally speaking, Kapiśa (or Kamboja) i.e. the region from Kapiśa to Rajauri, was more Iranian than Indian.[52] The Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...


Modern ethnics of Kapiśa

Scholars have identified the former Kafir clans of the Kams, Kamoje/Kamoz, Kamtoz etc (or modern Nuristanis) as the relics of the ancient Kapiśas i.e. Kambojas of the Paropamisan region. Similarly, the former Kafirs like Aspins of Chitral and Ashkuns or Yashkuns of Gilgit are identified as the modern representatives of the Paninian Aśvakayanas (Greek: Assakenoi) and the Asip/Isap or Yusufzai (from Aspazai) in the Kabul valley (between river Kabul and Indus) are believed to be modern representatives of the Paninian Aśvayanas (Greek: Aspasio) respectively.[53][54][55][56][57][58][59] The Aśvakayanas and Aśvayanas are also believed to be sub-tribes of those Kambojas, who were exclusively engaged in horse breeding/trading and also formed a specialised cavalry force.[60] This article is about the town of Chitral. ... For other uses, see Gilgit (disambiguation). ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (IPA ) was an ancient Gandharan grammarian (approximately 5th century BC, but estimates range from the 7th to the 3rd centuries) who is most famous for formulating the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology known as the . ... The Ashvakas or Ashvakans are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan (Nuristan), modern Pakistan, including the Chitral-Valley and north-west India . ... The Yusufzai (also Yousafzai, Esapzey, or Yusufi) (Urdu: یوسف زئی) are one of the largest Pashtun tribe. ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... The Ashvakas or Ashvakans are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan (Nuristan), modern Pakistan, including the Chitral-Valley and north-west India . ...


Districts

Districts of Kapisa.
Districts of Kapisa.
  • Alasay District
  • Hesa Duwum Kohistan District
  • Koh Band District
  • Kohistan Hesa Awal District
  • Mahmud Raqi District
  • Nijrab District
  • Tagab District

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,056 × 816 pixels, file size: 25 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map of the districts of Kapisa province of Afghanistan. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,056 × 816 pixels, file size: 25 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map of the districts of Kapisa province of Afghanistan. ... The Alasay District (Alah Say) is situated in the eastern part of Kapisa Province,Afghanistan. ... Hesa Duwum Kohistan District is a new district,created from the splitted bigger Kohistan District in Kapisa Province,Afghanistan in its southern part. ... The Koh Band District is situated imn the northwestern part of Kapisa Province,Afghanistan. ... Kohistan Hesa Awal District is a new district,created from the splitted bigger Kohistan District in Kapisa Province,Afghanistan in its northern part. ... Mahmud Raqi District is situated in the western part of Kapisa Province,Afghanistan. ... The Nijrab District is situated in the central part of Kapisa Province,Afghanistan. ... The Tagab District is situated in the eastern part of Kapisa Province,Afghanistan. ...

Economy

Agriculture is the most general and usual means of sustenance. Trades are made between the people in an ancient way of exchanging commodities on trade days (once a week) called Mila, which means "party" but is interpreted as a large gathering of people, having fun together with trade.


Amenities

There is one hospital in the province. There was once a large textile company, which was destroyed during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan; and one cinema, which was also destroyed. Recently a university named Al Biruni University was established, with programs in engineering, medicine, law and literature. The number of girls schools has been very limited, but it is increasing through the cooperation of Charity NGOs. CCCP redirects here. ... Biruni commemorated on a Soviet stamp for his millennial anniversary. ...


See also

Alexandria of the Caucasus (Askandria-e-Qafqaz or Askandria Paro paizad) was a city founded by Alexander the Great (one of many given the name Alexandria), at an important junction of communications in the southern foothills of the Hindu Kush, about 45 miles North of Kabul, in the country of... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... Arachosia is the ancient name of an area that corresponds to the southern part of today s Afghanistan, around the city of Kandahar. ... Aromatic vials in the shape of Greek gods, Begram, 2nd century. ...

References

  1. ^ Ashtadhyayia Sutra IV.2.99.
  2. ^ See: Notes on Indian coins and Seals, Part IV, E. J. Rapson in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 1905, p 784, (Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland).
  3. ^ Sutra IV.2.29.
  4. ^ Dr S. Chattopadhyaya 1974: 58; India as Known to Panini, 1953, p 71, Dr V. S. Aggarwala; Foreign Elements in Ancient Indian Society, 2nd Century BC to 7th Century AD, 1979, p 86, Dr Uma Prasad Thapliyal.
  5. ^ A Grammatical Dictionary of Sanskrit (Vedic): 700 Complete Reviews of the Best Books for ..., 1953, p 118, Dr Peggy Melcher, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala, Surya Kanta, Jacob Wackernagel, Arthur Anthony Macdonell.
  6. ^ Cultural History of Ancient India: A Socio-economic and Religio-cultural Survey of Kapiśa and ... , 1979, p 29, Jaya Goswami; India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1953, 118, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala
  7. ^ Pliny, Natural History, VI, pp 23, 25.
  8. ^ Epigraphia Indica, Vol XXII, 1933, p 11.
  9. ^ Al Beruni's India, Sachau, p 259 ff.
  10. ^ Su-kao-seng-chaun, Chapter 2, (no. 1493); Kai-yuan-lu, chapter 7; Publications, 1904, p 122-123, published by Oriental Translation Fund (Editors Dr T. W. Rhys Davis, S. W. Bushel, London, Royal Asiatic Society).
  11. ^ Ethnology of Ancient Bhārata, 1970, p 112, Dr R. C. Jain; Ethnic Settlements in Ancient India: (a Study on the Puranic Lists of the Peoples of Bharatavarsa, 1955, p 133, Dr S. B. Chaudhuri; The Cultural Heritage of India, 1936, p 151, Sri Ramakrishna Centenary Committee
  12. ^ Geography of the Mahabharata, 1986, p 183, B. S.Suryavanshi.
  13. ^ Pre-Aryan and Pre-Dravidian in India, Edition 1993, p 121, Dr Sylvain Lévi, Dr Jules Bloch, Dr Jean Przyluski, Asian Educational Services.
  14. ^ Ref: The Greeks in Bacteria and India 1966 p 170, 461, Dr William Woodthorpe Tarn.
  15. ^ Indian Antiquaries, 1923, p 54.
  16. ^ The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 291; Indian historical quarterly, Vol XXV-3, 1949, pp 190-92.
  17. ^ Kathakasankalanam: amskrtagranthebhyah sangrahītani Kathhakabrahmana,- 1981, P xii, Surya Kanta.
  18. ^ Epigraphia Indica, Vol XIX-1, p 11.
  19. ^ Afghanistan: A Study of Political Developments in Central and Southern Asia, 1953, p 58, Sir William Kerr Fraser-Tytler, M. C. Gillet.
  20. ^ Kāṭhakasaṅkalanam: Saṃskr̥tagranthebhyaḥ saṅgr̥hītāni Kāṭhakabrāhmaṇa, Kāṭhakaśrautasūtra, 1981, pe xii, Dr Surya Kanta.
  21. ^ cf: JBORS, XVI, 1930, p 229, Dr K. P. Jayswal; cf: Visnu Purana, II, p 182, Wilson quoted in Kāṭhakasaṅkalanam: 1981, p xiv, Surya Kanta.
  22. ^ Prācīna Kamboja, Jana aura Janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, p 44, 147, 155, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī.
  23. ^ Cf: Society and Culture in the Time of Daṇḍin, 1972, p 89, Dr Gupta, Dharmendra Kumar.
  24. ^ cf: Journal of Indian History, 1921, p 21, University of Kerala, University of Allahabad Dept. of Modern Indian History.
  25. ^ Cf: Main Currents in the Ancient History of Gujarat, 1960, p 26, Bhasker Anand Saletore, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda Deptt. of History; Alexander the Great, 2003, Edition, p 277, Dr W. W. Tarn.
  26. ^ Pre Aryan and Pre Dravidian in India, 1993 edition, p 120, Dr Sylvain Lévi, Dr Jules Bloch, Dr Jean Przyluski, Asian Educational Services. See Link: [1]; .
  27. ^ Problems of Ancient India, 2000, p 1, K. D. Sethna; Purana, Vol VI No1, January 1964, K. D. Sethna.
  28. ^ See also: Indian Antiquaries, 52, part 2, 1923; Indian Antiquaries, 203, 1923, p 54.
  29. ^ Prācīna Kamboja, Jana aura Janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, pp 44, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī; cf also: Dr J. W. McCrindle, Ptolemy, p 268.
  30. ^ Pre Aryan and Pre Dravidian in India, 1993 edition, p 120, Dr Sylvain Lévi, Dr Jules Bloch, Dr Jean Przyluski, Asian Educational Services.
  31. ^ See also: Indian Antiquaries, 52, part 2, 1923; Indian Antiquaries, 203, 1923, p 54.
  32. ^ Prācīna Kamboja, Jana aura Janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, pp 44, 147, 155, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī.
  33. ^ See: Indian Antiquaries, 52, part 2, 1923 .
  34. ^ Pre Aryan and Pre Dravidian in India, 1993 edition, p 121, Dr Sylvain Lévi, Dr Jules Bloch, Dr Jean Przyluski, Asian Educational Services.
  35. ^ History and Culture of Indian People, Vol III, pp 122, 617, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar, Dr. K. M. Munshi.
  36. ^ A Comparative Study of Thirty City-state Cultures: An Investigation, 2000, p 388, Dr Hansen, Mogens Herman (ed(d).
  37. ^ The History and Culture of the Indian People, 1977, p 15, Dr Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Dr Achut Dattatraya Pusalker, Dr Asoke Kumar Majumdar; An Advanced History of India, 1973, p 54, Dr Rameṣa-Chandra Majumdar; The Soul of India, 1961,p 56, Amaury De Riencourt.
  38. ^ Mahabharata 7.4.5; Mahabharata II.27.23.
  39. ^ Mahabharata II.27.25; Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India: Their Religion and ..., 1874, p 365, Dr John Muir - 1874; Die Voelker des oestlichen Asien: Studien und Reisen, 1865, p 186, Adolf Bastian; The Problems of Ancient India, 2000, p 1-8, K. D. Sethna; Some Aspects of Ancient Indian History and Culture, 1974, p 62, Dr Upendra Thakur; The Greco-Sunga Period of Indian History, Or, the North-West India of the Second Century B.C. 1973, p 39, Dr Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan; Geography of the Mahabharata, 1986, p 14, B. S. Suryavanshi. The Riśikas & the Parama Riśikas, whom the Mahabharata closely allies with the Parama-Kambojas, are located right into Śaka-dvipa or Scythia, north of Oxus. See: India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1953, p 64, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala.
  40. ^ See: Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India: Their Religion and ..., 1874, p 365, Prof John Muir; Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p 167-68, Dr M. R. Singh.
  41. ^ See: Development of Hindu Polity and Political Theories, 1927, p 227, Narayanchandra Banerjee.
  42. ^ For instance,Dr Thomas Watters, Dr Moti Chandra, Dr Suniti Kumar Chaterjee, Prof Surya Kanta, Dr J. L. Kamboj etc.
  43. ^ Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 1856, p 239, by Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland; Indian Caste, 1877, p 286, John Wilson; India of To-day, 1906, p 280, Walter Del Mar.
  44. ^ Ref: Publications, 1904, p 124, Published by Oriental Translation Fund (Editors T. W. Rhys Davis, Dr S. W. Bushel, London Royal Asiatic Society); Census of India, 1961, p 26, published by India Office of the Registrar General; Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahabharata, Upana parava, Journal of Uttara Pradesh Historical Society, Vol XVI, Part II, pp 48-50; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, Dr J. L. Kamboj, Dr Satyarti Shastri; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 94, Kirpal Singh; See also: Kāṭhakasaṅkalanam: Saṃskr̥tagranthebhyaḥ saṅgr̥hītāni Kāṭhakabrāhmaṇa, Kāṭhakaśrautasūtra, 1981, p xii, Surya Kanta; cf: The Contemporary Review, Vol LXXII, July-Dec, 1897, p 869, A. Strahan (etc), London; See also: On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India, 629-645 A.D., 1904, 124, Dr Thomas Watters. See Link: [2].
  45. ^ In ancient Sanskrit literature, there are numerous instances where the name of the people was obtained from the geographical territoty they occupied. Thus Kamboja was both the name of the people as well as their country. Similarly, Gandhara, Abhisara, Kosala, Panchala etc. were names of people as well as their countries. In a similar way, the inhabitants of Kapisa were known as Kapisa, thence Kapis ==> Kapir ==> Kafir.
  46. ^ cf: An Abridged Malay-English Dictionary (romanized), 1908, p 95 by Richard James Wilkinson.
  47. ^ Jataka 548; Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1912, p 255-57.
  48. ^ Mahabharata 12.207.43-44; Mahabharata 6.11.63-64.
  49. ^ Journal, 1920, p 78, University of Calcutta, Deptt. of Letters; Journal of the Department of Letters, 1923, p 78, University of Calcutta; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 134, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee; Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 103; Goegraphical Data in the early Purana, 1972, p 164, Dr M. R. Singh.
  50. ^ Karna-Rajapuram-gatva-Kambojah-nirjitastava (MBH 7.4.5).
  51. ^ Yuan Chwang, Vol I, p 284; Some Kṣatriya Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, p 236, Dr B. C. Law; Journal of the Department of Letters, 1923, p 77, Dept. of Letters, University of Calcutta; Political History of India from the Accession of Parikshit to the Coronation of Bimbisara, 1996, p 133, Dr Hemchandra Raychaudhuri; The Shahis of Afghanistan and the Punjab, 1973, p 29, Dr Deena Bandhu Pandey; Census of India, 1961, p 26, India Office of the Registrar General.
  52. ^ Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 103.
  53. ^ The Quarterly Review, 1873, p 537, William Gifford, George Walter Prothero, John Gibson Lockhart, John Murray, Whitwell Elwin, John Taylor Coleridge, Rowland Edmund Prothero Ernle, William Macpherson, William Smith.
  54. ^ An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan, 1893, p 75, Henry Walter Bellew.
  55. ^ Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1864, p 681, by Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
  56. ^ The Invasion of India by Alexander the Great as Described by Arrian, Q. Curtius, Diodoros, 1893, p 334, John Watson M'Crindle, Quintus Curtius Rufus, Marcus Junianus Justinus, Plutarch, Arrian, Diodorus.
  57. ^ Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab, 1971, p 72; History of Punjab, Publication Bureau Punjabi University Patiala, 1997, p 225, Dr Buddha Prakash.
  58. ^ A Comprehensive History of India, Vol II, p 118, Dr Nilkantha Shastri.
  59. ^ See also: Ancient Kamboja, People & the Country, 1981, p 278, These Kamboj People, 1979, pp 119-20, K. S. Dardi etc.
  60. ^ For Aśvaka/Kamboja connection See: Historie du bouddhisme Indien, p 110, Dr E. Lammotte; East and West, 1950, pp 28, 157-58, Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, Editor, Prof Giuseppe Tucci, Co-editors Prof Mario Bussagli, Prof Lionello Lanciotti; Hindu Polity, A contitutional History of India in Hindu Times, 1978, p 140, Dr K. P. Jayswal; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 133 fn 6, pp 216-20, (Also Commentary, op. cit., p 576, fn 22), Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee; Panjab Past and Present, pp 9-10, Dr Buddha Parkash; History of Punjabi, Vol I, 1997, p 225, (Editors) Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh, Publication Bureau, Punjabi University Patiala; Raja Poros, 1990, Publication Buareau, Punjabi University, Patiala; Ancient Kamboja, People and Country, 1981, pp 271-72, 278, Dr J. L. Kamboj; These Kamboj People, 1979, pp 119, 192; Kambojas, Through the Ages, 2005, pp 129, 218-19, S Kirpal Singh. Dr J. W. McCrindle says that the modern Afghanistan -- the Kaofu (Kambu) of Hiun Tsang was ancient Kamboja, and also says that name Afghan evidently derives from Aśavakan, the Assakenoi of Arrian (See: Alexandra's Invasion of India, p 38; Megasthenes and Arrian, p 180, J. W. McCrindle). Sir Thomas H. Holdich, in his classic book, (The Gates of India, p 102-03), writes that the Aspasians (Aspasioi) represent the modern Kafirs. But the modern Kafirs, especially the Siah-Posh Kafirs (Kamoz/Camoje, Kamtoz) etc are considered to be modern representatives of the ancient Kambojas.

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Welcome To Kapisa (212 words)
Kapisa Province is located in central Afghanistan, North of Kabul, with a population of 369,200.The ancient town of Kapisa (Bagram), founded by Alexander the Great, was used as a military base by the Soviets and is now a base for American Forces.
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