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Encyclopedia > Kaolinite
Kaolinite

General
Category Mineral
Chemical formula Al2Si2O5(OH)4
Identification
Color White, sometimes red, blue or brown tints from impurities
Crystal system triclinic
Cleavage perfect on {001}
Mohs Scale hardness 2 - 2.5
Luster dull and earthy
Refractive index α 1.553 - 1.565, β 1.559 - 1.569, γ 1.569 - 1.570
Specific gravity 2.16 - 2.68

Kaolinite is a clay mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. It is a layered silicate mineral, with one tetrahedral sheet linked through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra. Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are known as china clay or kaolin. Kaolin is a french rock band with various musical influences, but they are resolutely attached to their mother tongue. ... The Death Busters ) are a group of antagonists in the Sailor Moon metaseries. ... Kaolinite (Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide) Source: US Government File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition, a highly ordered atomic structure and specific physical properties. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A crystal system is a category of space groups, which characterize symmetry of structures in three dimensions with translational symmetry in three directions, having a discrete class of point groups. ... In crystallography, the triclinic crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups. ... Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite planes, creating smooth surfaces, of which there are several named types: Basal cleavage: cleavage parallel to the base of a crystal, or to the plane of the lateral axes. ... Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer. ... Lustre (American English: luster) is a description of the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock or mineral. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. ... For the town in the United States, see Clay, New York. ... General Name, symbol, number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, period, block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 26. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silicon, Si, 14 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 3, p Appearance as coarse powder, dark grey with bluish tinge Standard atomic weight 28. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ... The silicate minerals make up the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals. ... A tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra) is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, three of which meet at each vertex. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... An octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces. ... Aluminium oxide (or aluminum oxide) (Al2O3) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen. ...


The name is derived from Gaolin 高岭 ("High Hill") in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province, China. Kaolinite was first described as a mineral species in 1867 for an occurrence in the Jari River basin of Brazil.[1] Position of Jingdezhen in Jiangxi Jingdezhen (Simplified Chinese: 景德镇; Traditional Chinese: 景德鎮; Pinyin: ), or the Town of Jingde, is a prefecture-level city, previously a town, in Jiangxi Province, China, with a city population of 3,112,000 (estimate 2006) has been termed the Porcelain Capital (瓷都) because of its production of quality... Jiangxi (Chinese: 江西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsi) is a southern province of the Peoples Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south. ...


Kaolinite is one of the most common minerals; it is mined, as kaolin, in Brazil, France, United Kingdom, Germany, India, Australia, Korea , the People's Republic of China, and the USA. This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ...


Kaolinite has a low shrink-swell capacity and a low cation exchange capacity (1-15 meq/100g.) It is a soft, earthy, usually white mineral (dioctahedral phyllosilicate clay), produced by the chemical weathering of aluminium silicate minerals like feldspar. In many parts of the world, it is colored pink-orange-red by iron oxide, giving it a distinct rust hue. Lighter concentrations yield white, yellow or light orange colours. Alternating layers are sometimes found, as at Providence Canyon State Park in Georgia, USA. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Gay Head cliffs in Marthas Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay. ... General Name, symbol, number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, period, block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 26. ... In chemistry, a silicate is a compound containing an anion in which one or more central silicon atoms are surrounded by electronegative ligands. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Iron oxide pigment There are a number of iron oxides: Iron oxides Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide (FeO) The black-coloured powder in particular can cause explosions as it readily ignites. ... A blacksmith removing rust with sand prior to welding Rust damage in automobiles can create hidden dangers. ... Providence Canyon Providence Canyon State Park is a 1,003 acre (4. ...

A kaolin mine in Ruse Province, Bulgaria
A kaolin mine in Ruse Province, Bulgaria

Kaolin-type clays undergo a series of phase transformations upon thermal treatment in air at atmospheric pressure. Endothermic dehydroxylation (or alternatively, dehydration) begins at 550-600 °C to produce disordered metakaolin, Al2Si2O7, but continuous hydroxyl loss (-OH) is observed up to 900 °C and has been attributed to gradual oxolation of the metakaolin. Due to historic disagreement concerning the nature of the metakaolin phase, extensive research has led to general consensus that metakaolin is not a simple mixture of amorphous silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3), but rather a complex amorphous structure that retains some longer-range order (but not strictly crystalline) due to stacking of its hexagonal layers. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 225 pixelsFull resolution (1939 × 545 pixel, file size: 432 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Kaolinite mineral mine in Bulgaria, photo by Nikola Gruev Тази фотография е с авторско право © Никола Груев и е публикувана с разрешение при условията на Лиценза за свободна документация на ГНУ. Посетете галериите със снимки от цяла България на сайта на автора. This picture is copyrighted © Nikola Gruev and is published with his permission under the terms of... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 225 pixelsFull resolution (1939 × 545 pixel, file size: 432 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Kaolinite mineral mine in Bulgaria, photo by Nikola Gruev Тази фотография е с авторско право © Никола Груев и е публикувана с разрешение при условията на Лиценза за свободна документация на ГНУ. Посетете галериите със снимки от цяла България на сайта на автора. This picture is copyrighted © Nikola Gruev and is published with his permission under the terms of... Ruse region shown within Bulgaria Ruse Province (Bulgarian: , Turkish: Rusçuk) is a province in northern Bulgaria (Ludogorie), neighbouring Romania. ...


2 Al2Si2O5(OH)4 --> 2 Al2Si2O7 + 4 H2O


Further heating to 925-950 °C converts metakaolin to a defect aluminum-silicon spinel, Si3Al4O12, which is sometimes also referred to as a gamma-alumina type structure:


2 Al2Si2O7 --> Si3Al4O12 + SiO2


Upon calcination to ~1050 °C, the spinel phase (Si3Al4O12) nucleates and transforms to mullite, 3 Al2O3 • 2 SiO2, and highly crystalline cristobalite, SiO2:


3 Si3Al4O12 --> 2 Si2Al6O13 + 5 SiO2

Contents

Uses

Kaolin is used in ceramics, medicine, coated paper, as a food additive, in toothpaste, as a light diffusing material in white incandescent light bulbs, and in cosmetics. The largest use is in the production of paper, including ensuring the gloss on some grades of paper. Commercial grades of kaolin are supplied and transported as dry powder, semi-dry noodle or as liquid slurry. Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... Medicine is the science and art of maintaining andor restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. ... Piece of A4 paper Paper is a thin, flat material produced by the amalgamation of plant fibres, which are subsequently held together without extra binder, largely by hydrogen bonds and to a small degree by fiber entanglement. ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ... Modern toothpaste gel Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used to clean and improve the aesthetic appearance and health of teeth. ... The incandescent light bulb uses a glowing wire filament heated to white-hot by electrical resistance, to generate light (a process known as thermal radiation). ... For other uses, see Cosmetic. ... A slurry is in general a thick suspension of solids in a liquid and may be: Look up slurry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A more recent, and more limited, use is as a specially formulated spray applied to fruits, vegetables, and other vegetation to repel or deter insect damage. A traditional use is to soothe an upset stomach, similar to the way parrots (and later, humans) in South America originally used it. Until the early 1990s it was the active substance of anti-diarrhoea medicine Kaopectate. Kaolin Sprays are an insect barrier applied to orchard and field plants to exclude pests. ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... Systematics (but see below) Family Cacatuidae (cockatoos) Family Psittacidae (true parrots) Subfamily Loriinae (lories and lorikeets) Subfamily Psittacinae (typical parrots and allies) Tribe Arini (American psittacines) Tribe Cyclopsitticini (fig-parrots) Tribe Micropsittini (pygmy-parrots) Tribe Nestorini (kakas and Kea) Tribe Platycercini (broad-tailed parrots) Tribe Psittrichadini (Pesquets Parrot) Tribe... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Kaopectate , Kaolin and Pectinis an orally taken medication from Pfizer for the treatment of mild diarrhoea. ...


Kaolin is also used experimentally in animal models of hydrocephalus research (Bering, 1962).


Miscellany

The crystallography of kaolinite played a role in Linus Pauling's work on the nature of the chemical bond. Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... Pauling lectured at Osaka University in 1955. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ...

The Eden Project
The Eden Project

Kaolinite can contain very small traces of uranium and thorium, and is therefore useful in radiological dating. While a single magazine made using kaolin does not contain enough radioactive material to be detected by a security-oriented monitor, this does result in truckloads of high end glossy paper occasionally tripping an overly-sensitive radiation monitor. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (3456x2304, 834 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Eden Project ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (3456x2304, 834 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Eden Project ... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... Radiometric dating is a technique used to date materials based on a knowledge of the decay rates of naturally occurring isotopes, and the current abundances. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... Dosimetry is the measurement of absorbed dose in matter and tissue resulting from the exposure to ionizing radiations. ...


The Eden Project, a large environmental complex near St Austell, Cornwall, England, is constructed in a disused china clay pit. The Eden Project Inside the tropical Biome The Eden Project is a large-scale environmental complex in England. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is God Save the Queen. See also Proposed English National Anthems. ...


Sandersville, a small town in Georgia, USA, holds an annual kaolin festival every year. Sandersville has huge kaolin deposits throughout the town and the surrounding areas. The town is based on the kaolin industry. Sandersville is a city located in Washington County, Georgia. ...


In some regions of the SE USA, kaolin is marketed under the name "White Dirt" for human consumption. It is a form of geophagy and while some claim it is healthy, it is also potentially dangerous. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Geophagia. ...

Kaolin. (unknown scale)
Kaolin. (unknown scale)

Kaolin (Kaolinite). ... Kaolin (Kaolinite). ...

See also

Gem animals. ... “Fine China” redirects here. ... A blank sheet of paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. ... A clay pit is an open mine for the extraction of clay, which is generally used for manufacturing bricks. ... The geological unit called Charentes basin is composed of Eocene and Oligocene deposits, laid above karstic limestone formations of the Campagnien, in the North of the Aquitaine Basin. ...

References

  • Deer, W. A., Howie, R. A., and Zussman, J. (1992). An introduction to the rock-forming minerals (2nd ed.). Harlow: Longman ISBN 0-582-30094-0
  • Hurlbut, Cornelius S.; Klein, Cornelis, 1985, Manual of Mineralogy - after J. D. Dana, 20th ed., Wiley, pp. 428 - 429, ISBN 0-471-80580-7
  • Bering, E.A., Jr. (1962). Circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid. Demonstration of the choroid plexuses as the generator of the force for flow of fluid and ventricular enlargement. Journal of Neurosurgery 19, 405-413.
  • Breck, D.W. Zeolite Molecular Sieves, Robert E. Brieger Publishing Company: Malabar, FL (1984), pp. 314-315, ISBN 0-89874-648-5
  • Bellotto, M.; Gualtieri, A.; Artioli, G.; and Clark, S.M.; Kinetic study of the kaolinite-mullite reaction sequence. Part I: kaolinite dehydroxylation', Phys. Chem. Minerals, Vol 22, 1995, 207-214.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kaolinite - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (425 words)
Kaolinite is a clay mineral with the chemical composition Al
Kaolinite is one of the most common minerals; it is mined in Brazil, France, Britain, Germany, India, Australia, Japan, China, and the southeastern U.S. states of Georgia, Florida, and, to a lesser extent, South Carolina.
While a single magazine made using kaolinite does not contain enough radioactive material to be detected by a security-oriented monitor, this does result in truckloads of high end glossy paper occasionally tripping an overly-sensitive radiation monitor.
Kaolinite (Kaori Kuromine) - Member of the Death Busters (1502 words)
Kaolinite then waited patiently for her selected target's appearance to awaken the Daimon Mikuuji to life and only remained long enough to make certain that the young girl was unable to escape from the monster's clutches as it extracted her Heart Crystal before departing to locate her next victim.
Even so, Kaolinite probably did derive some small degree of satisfaction from the fact that she was blameless in her unsuccessful subsequent attempt on volleyball player Tsutomu Asai and the failure of the Daimon Highkyuun to eliminate him, Sailor Venus, or the other Sailor Soldiers, as the target had been suggested by the professor himself.
When Kaolinite next appeared before Professor Tomoe, she told him that she had found a potential victim of such pureness of heart that she was positive that the individual in question was one of the three Talisman holders the Death Busters had been searching for.
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