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Encyclopedia > Kannada language
Kannada
ಕನ್ನಡ kannaḍa
Spoken in: Karnataka, India,significant communities in USA, Australia, [citation needed] UK, United Arab Emirates [citation needed]
Region: Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh ,Kerala, Goa, Delhi.
Total speakers: 35 million native, 44 million total[1][2] 
Ranking: 27[1]
Language family: Dravidian
 Southern
  Tamil-Kannada
   Kannada 
Official status
Official language of: Flag of India India (Karnataka)
Regulated by: Various academies and the Government of Karnataka
Language codes
ISO 639-1: kn
ISO 639-2: kan
ISO 639-3: kan
This page contains Indic text. Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. More...

Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ Kannaḍa) is one of the major Dravidian languages of India, spoken predominantly in the southern state of Karnataka. It is the 27th most spoken language in the world, with native speakers called Kannadigas numbering roughly around 35 million.[1] It is one of the Official languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka.[3] Look up Kannada in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... This is a sub-classification of the Dravidian family of languages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Example. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria. ... For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... Kannadiga is the term for a native speaker of Kannada. ... This article is under construction. ...


Kannada is attested to by one of the earliest epigraphies in India. The first written record in the Kannada language is traced to Emperor Ashoka's Brahmagiri edict dated 230 BC. At present, a committee of scholars is seeking a classical language tag for Kannada based on its antiquity. [4] The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... A classical language, is a language with a literature that is classical—ie, it should be ancient, it should be an independent tradition that arose mostly on its own, not as an offshoot of another tradition, and it must have a large and extremely rich body of ancient literature. ...


The Kannada language is written using the Kannada script. The other native languages of Karnataka, Tulu, Kodava Takk and Konkani are also written using the Kannada script. The Telugu script is also derived from the old Kannada script.[citation needed] Contemporary Kannada literature is the most successful in India, with India's highest literary honor, the Jnanpith awards, having been conferred seven times upon Kannada writers, which is the highest for any language in India.[5] Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Tulu (Kannada script: ತುಳು) is a Dravidian language of India with fewer than two million speakers, known as Tuluvas. ... Kodava Takk, often called Coorgi or Coorg language in English, is the original language of the south Karnataka district of Kodagu. ... Konkani language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Konkani (Devanāgarī: कोंकणी, Roman: Konknni, Kannada: ಕೊಂಕಣಿ, Malayalam: കൊംകണീ, IAST: ) is a language of India, and belongs to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Telugu script, an abugida from the Brahmic family of scripts, is used to write Telugu, a Dravidian Language found in the Southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh as well as several other neighboring states. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Jnanpith Award (pronounced Gyanpeeth Award) is the highest literary honour presented by the Government of India. ...

Contents

History and development

The Halmidi inscription at Halmidi village dated 450 CE. (Kadamba Dynasty)

Kannada is one of the oldest Dravidian languages with an antiquity of at least 2000 years.[6][7][8][9][10] The spoken language is said to have separated from its proto-Dravidian source earlier than Tamil and about the same time as Tulu.[11] However, the archaeological evidence would indicate a written tradition for this language of around 1500-1600 years. The initial development of the Kannada language is similar to that of other Dravidian languages and independent of Sanskrit.[12] During later centuries, Kannada, along with other Dravidian languages like Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, etc., has been greatly influenced by Sanskrit in terms of vocabulary, grammar and literary styles.[13][14][15] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 405 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1228 × 1818 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 405 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1228 × 1818 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Halmidi inscription is so far the oldest known Kannada inscription in the Kannada script. ... The Halmidi inscription is so far the oldest known Kannada inscription in Kannada script. ...  Extent of Kadamba Empire, 500 CE Capital Banavasi Language(s) Sanskrit, Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 345 - 365 Mayurasharma Krishna Varma II History  - Earliest Kadamba records 450  - Established 345  - Disestablished 525 Kadamba Dynasty (Kannada:ಕದಂಬರು) (345 - 525 CE) was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka that ruled from Banavasi in... Tulu is one of the minor languages of India with under 2,000,000 speakers. ... Telugu (తెలుగు) is a Dravidian language (South-Central Dravidian languages) primarily spoken in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, where it is the official language. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Stone inscriptions


The first written record in the Kannada language is traced to Emperor Ashoka's Brahmagiri edict dated 230 BC.[16][4] The first example of a full-length Kannada language stone inscription (shilashaasana) containing Brahmi characters with charateristics resembling those of Tamil in Hale Kannada (Old Kannada) script can be found in the Halmidi inscription, dated c. 450 CE, indicating that Kannada had become an administrative language by this time.[17][18][19] Over 30,000 inscriptions written in the Kannada language have been discovered so far.[20] The Chikkamagaluru inscription of 500 CE is another example.[21][22] Prior to the Halmidi inscription, there is an abundance of inscriptions containing Kannada words, phrases and sentences, proving its antiquity. The 543 CE Badami cliff shilashaasana of Pulakesi I is an example of a Sanskrit inscription in Hale Kannada script.[23][24] Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... The Halmidi inscription is so far the oldest known Kannada inscription in the Kannada script. ... Events The doctrine of apocatastasis is condemned by the Synod of Constantinople. ... Pulakesi I (543 – 566 C.E.) established the Chalukya dynasty in then western Deccan and his descendents ruled over an empire that comprised of the entire state of Karnataka and most of Andhra Pradesh. ...

Copper plates and Manuscripts
Bilingual Kannada-Devanagari inscription of Badami Chalukyas at Badami cave temple (6th. c.CE.)

Examples of early Sanskrit-Kannada bilingual copper plate inscriptions (tamarashaasana) are the Tumbula inscriptions of the Western Ganga Dynasty dated 444 CE.[25][26] The earliest full-length Kannada tamarashaasana in Old Kannada script (early eighth century CE) belongs to the Alupa King Aluvarasa II from Belmannu, South Kanara district and displays the double crested fish, his royal emblem.[27] The oldest well-preserved palm leaf manuscript is in Old Kannada and is that of Dhavala, dated to around the ninth century, preserved in the Jain Bhandar, Mudbidri, Dakshina Kannada district.[28] The manuscript contains 1478 leaves written using ink.[28] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) Devanāgarī (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, built 740 Badami Chalukya Territories in the reign of Pulakesi II, 640 The Chalukya dynasty (Sanskrit/Marathi[1]:चालुक्य राजवंश,Kannada:ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) IPA: ) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. ... Badami Cave Temple No 3. ... Example of a Chola inscription in Tamil from the 12th century C.E. Siyakas Harsola Paramara copper plate of 1005 Indian copper plate inscriptions play an extremely important role in the reconstruction of the history of India. ... The Gangas of Talakad, like the Kadambas of Banavasi, rose to political eminence in the middle of the fourth century A.D., and ruled over the southern parts of Karnataka, in southern India. ... The Alupas kings (Kannada: ಆಲೂಪರು)(450 - 1400 C.E.) were a minor dynasty who ruled parts of coastal Karnataka as feudatories of all the major kingdoms of Karnataka starting with the Kadambas until the reign of the Vijayanagar empire. ... Location of Dakshina Kannada district with respect to the other districts of Karnataka. ...

Impact on other cultures and languages
7th century Old Kannada inscription on Chandragiri hill, Shravanabelagola
7th century Old Kannada inscription on Chandragiri hill, Shravanabelagola
Badami Chalukya inscription in Old Kannada, Virupaksha Temple, 745 CE Pattadakal

Kannada has had a significant influence on other Indian languages and overseas cultures. The influence of Old Kannada on the language of the Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions from the second century BCE to the sixth century CE has been brought to light through observations made using grammatical and lexical analysis.[10][9][29] The 9th century writing Kavirajamarga refers to the entire area between the Kaveri River and the Godavari River as Kannada country, implying that the language was popular farther north in present-day Maharashtra.[30][31][32] Owing to its popularity in modern Maharashtra during medieval times, Kannada has had an influence on the neighbouring Gujarati language as well.[33] The Charition mime, a Greek drama discovered at Oxyrhynchus and dated to the second century CE or earlier, contains scenes where Indian characters in the skit speak dialogue which appears to be in Kannada.[34][35] Prior to and during the early Christian era, the Kannada-speaking cultural area seems to have had close trade ties with the Greek and Roman empires of the West. Greek dramatists of the fourth century BCE, particularly Euripides and Aristophanes, seem to have been familiar with the Kannada language. This is evident in their usage of Kannada words and phrases in their dramas and skits.[8] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... The statue of Gomatheswara dates from 978-993 AD. Shravanabelagola is a city located in the Hassan district, in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Image File history File links Badami_Chalukya_Kannada_Inscription. ... Image File history File links Badami_Chalukya_Kannada_Inscription. ... Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, built 740 Badami Chalukya Territories in the reign of Pulakesi II, 640 The Chalukya dynasty (Sanskrit/Marathi[1]:चालुक्य राजवंश,Kannada:ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) IPA: ) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. ... Pattadakal (Kannada- ಪಟ್ಟದಕಲ್) is a town in the Indian state of Karnataka famous for its group of monuments that are the culmination of earliest experiments in vesara style of Hindu temple architecture. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Brāhmī refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ... Sri Vijaya, the court poet of Amoghavarsha Nripathunga, the Rashtrakuta ruler, composed it in the 9 Th centuries A.D. It is considered that Sri Vijaya did the first literary works in 9th Century A.D. This work is generally held to be the earliest literary work in Kannada. ... Sivasamudram Falls on the Kaveri River near Mysore The Kaveri River (Kannada: ಕಾವೇರಿ, Tamil: காவிரி also spelled Cauvery in English) is one of the major rivers of India, which is considered sacred by Hindus. ... Godavari river map The Godavari River, adjacent to the town of Kovvur This article is about Godavari River in India. ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી Gujǎrātī; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Charition mime is a Greek mime found in Oxyrhynchus Papyrus 413. ... Oxyrhynchus (Greek: Οξύρυγχος; sharp-nosed; ancient Egyptian Per-Medjed; modern Egyptian Arabic el-Bahnasa) is an archaeological site in Egypt, considered one of the most important ever discovered. ... A statue of Euripides. ... Sketch of Aristophanes Aristophanes (Greek: , ca. ...


Kannada inscriptions were not only discovered in Karnataka but also quite commonly in Andhra Pradesh,[36] Maharashtra[37][38] and Tamil Nadu.[39][40] Some inscriptions were also found in Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.[41] As an example, the inscription at Jura 964 CE (Jabalpur), belonging to the reign of Rashtrakuta Krishna III, is regarded as an epigraphical landmark of classical Kannada literary composition, with charming poetic diction in polished Kannada metre.[42] This indicates the spread of the language over the ages, especially during the rule of large Kannada empires. Because of coexistance with Kannada, Tulu, Kodava, Sankethi, and Konkani have also borrowed many words from Kannada. “Andhra” redirects here. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Events Nicephorus II begins campaign to recapture Cilicia. ... , Jabalpur (Hindi: जबलपुर, Urdu:جَبَل پُور ) is a city in the state of Madhya Pradesh in India. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit/Maharashtri Prakrit [1]/Marathi[2][3]:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... Krishna III or Kannara(939 - 967) C.E. was an last great warrior and able monarch of the Rashtrakuta dynasty. ... Tulu is one of the minor languages of India with under 2,000,000 speakers. ... Languages Kodava Takk Religions Hinduism, Christianity Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahuis Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas The Kodava (written ಕೊಡವ in Kannada script) are a people of southern India, originating in the western region of Kodagu. ... Sankethi is distinct from Tamil and is now an independent language according to Dravidian linguists such as Hampa Nagarajaiah. ... Konkani is a term used to refer both to a language and to an Indian ethnic group. ...

Coinage

The recent discovery of a copper coin dated to the fifth century CE in Banavasi, Uttara Kannada district with the inscription Srimanaragi in Kannada script proves that Kannada had become an official language by the time of the Kadambas of Banavasi.[43] Coins with Kannada legends have been discovered spanning the rule of the Western Ganga Dynasty, the Badami Chalukyas, the Alupas, the Western Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, the Hoysalas, the Vijayanagar Empire, the Kadambas, the Keladi Nayakas and the Mysore Kingdom, the Badami Chalukya coins being a recent discovery.[44][45][46] Location of Uttara Kannada district with respect to the other districts of Karnataka. ... Kadambas was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka, who ruled from their capital of Banavasi from (345-525AD) later branched into Goa, Hanagal and Chandavar. ... The Gangas of Talakad, like the Kadambas of Banavasi, rose to political eminence in the middle of the fourth century A.D., and ruled over the southern parts of Karnataka, in southern India. ... The Chalukya Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled parts of southern India between 550 and 750, and again between 973 and 1190. ... The Alupas kings (Kannada: ಆಲೂಪರು)(450 - 1400 C.E.) were a minor dynasty who ruled parts of coastal Karnataka as feudatories of all the major kingdoms of Karnataka starting with the Kadambas until the reign of the Vijayanagar empire. ... The Western Chalukyas ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between the seventh and the eight centuries. ... The Rashtrakutas were a dynasty which ruled the Deccan during the 8th-10th centuries. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... Kadambas was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka, who ruled from their capital of Banavasi from (345-525AD) later branched into Goa, Hanagal and Chandavar. ... Granite pillars, Aghoreshwara Temple, Ikkeri, Shivamogga District Granite pillars, Rameshwara Temple, Keladi, Shivamogga District wall motif, Rameshwara Temple, Keladi, Shivamogga District parrot feeding nestling, Rameshwara Temple, Keladi, Shivamogga District Keladi Nayaka (Kannada: ಕೆಳದಿಯ ನಾಯಕರು)(1499 - 1763 CE) were an important ruling clan of post-medieval Karnataka, India. ... The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom of southern India, which was founded about 1400 by the Wodeyar dynasty, who ruled the state until Indian independence in 1947, when the kingdom became Mysore state of India, later renamed Karnataka. ...


Phases of evolution

The written Kannada language has come under various religious and social influences in its 1600 years of known existence. Linguists generally divide the written form into four broad phases.

Poorvada Halegannada or Pre-ancient Kananda

This is the language of Halmidi scripture known to be from the fifth century CE. From available epigraphical evidence it can be concluded that the spoken Kannada language evolved much earlier than that of the Halmidi inscription. The language of the Halmidi inscription is said to be highly Sanskitized.[47] The Halmidi inscription is so far the oldest known Kannada inscription in Kannada script. ...

Halegannada or Ancient Kannada
A tenth century hero stone depicting Halegannada (old Kannada)

From the ninth to fourteenth centuries CE, Kannada works were classified under Old Kannada. In this period Kannada showed a high level of maturity as a language of original literature.[48] Mostly Jain and Saivite poets produced works in this period. This period saw the growth of Jain puranas and Virashaiva Vachana Sahitya or simply vachana, a unique and native form of literature which was the summary of contributions from all sections of society.[49][50] Early Brahminical works also emerged from the eleventh century [51]. By the tenth century Kannada had seen its greatest poets, such as Pampa, Sri Ponna and Ranna, and its great prose writings such as the Vaddaradhane of Shivakotiacharya, indicating that a considerable volume of classical prose and poetry in Kannada had come into existence a few centuries before Kavirajamarga.[52] Among existing landmarks in Kannada grammar, Nagavarma II's Karnataka-bhashabhushana (1145) and Kesiraja's Sabdamanidarpana (1260) are the oldest.[53][54] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Hero stone is a term for a memorial commemorating the death of a hero in India. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Saivite: of Saivism; belonging to Saivism, the Hindu denomination that worships God Siva as the Supreme God. ... Lingayatism is a religious movement in India. ... The vachanas are a body of work, and a form of writing, in Kannada. ... Pampa born in 902 C.E., also known as Adikavi Pampa, is one of the greatest Kannada poets of all time. ... Sri Ponna was the poet royal in the court of Rashtrakuta king Krishna II. Some sources say he was in the court of Krishna III though the former seems more reliable. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Necromancer_bells. ... Vaddaradhane by Shivakotiacharya is the earliest extant prose work in Kannada. ... Shivakotiacharya authored the earliest extant prose work in Kannada called Vaddaradhane in 900 C.E. during the rule of Rashtrakuta king Krishna II. There seems to be a 800 C.E. and a 930 C.E date given to this work by some other sources though. ... Nagavarma II was a 12th century scholar and grammarian during the Western Chalukya period in South India. ...

Nadugannada or Middle Kannada

In the period between the fourteenth and eighteenth centuries CE, Brahmanical Hinduism had a great influence on Kannada language and literature. Non-brahmin Hindu saints like Kanakadasa and Brahminical saints of the Vaishnava sect such as Purandaradasa, Naraharitirtha, Vyasatirtha, Sripadaraya, Vadirajatirtha, Vijaya Dasa, Jagannathadasa, etc., produced devotional poems in this period.[55] Kanakadasa's Ramadhanya Charite is a rare work, concerning itself with the issue of class struggle[56]. This period saw the advent of Haridasa Sahitya which made rich contributions to bhakti literature and sowed the seeds of Carnatic music. Brahman (nominative ) is the concept of the supreme spirit found in Hinduism. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Kanakadasa (c 1509-1609 A.D.) belongs to the tradition of Haridasa literary movement which ushered in an era of devotional literature in Karnataka. ... A Brahmin (anglicised from the Sanskrit word IAST ; Devanagari ), also known as Vipra, Dvija, Dvijottama (best of the Dvijas), (god on Earth) is a member of an upper caste within Hindu society. ... Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars (i. ... Sri Purandara Dasa (1494-1564) (the follower (dasa) of Lord Purandara Vittala [Lord Vishnu in one of his many avatars. ... Sri Naraharitirtha (?-1333) CE. a disciple of Madhvacharya is considered by some as the founder of the Haridasa dasa kuta. ... Vyasatirtha (1460-1539) (also known as Vyasaraja, Vyasaraayaru) was one of the foremost dialecticians in the history of Indian philosophy. ... Sripadaraya , a haridasa is also known as Sripadaraja or Lakshminarayana Tirtha 1404 - 1502. ... Sri Vadirajatirtha 1480 - 1600,a haridasa is considered as the second highest saint in the Madhva hierarchy, next only to Srimad Ananda Tîrtha, even though his guru was Sri Vyasatirtha. ... Vijaya Dasa (1682-1755) or Sri Vijaya Dasa was a prominant saint from the Haridasa tradition of Karnataka, India in the 18th century. ... Haridasa (haridasaru in Kannada) movement is considered as one of the turning points in Indian history. ... Bhakti (Devanāgarī: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ...

Hosagannada or Modern Kannada

The Kannada works produced by the end of the nineteenth century and later are classified as Hosagannada or Modern Kannada. However, till the beginning of the twentieth century there were Kannada literary works that could still be classified under the heading of Middle Kannada. Most notable among them are the poet Muddana's works. His works may be described as the "Dawn of Modern Kannada". Generally, linguists treat Indira Bai or Saddharma Vijayavu by Gulvadi Venkata Raya as the first literary works in Modern Kannada.


Literature and poetry

Main articles: Kannada literature, Medieval Kannada literature, and Kannada poetry
Old Kannada inscription at the base of Gomateshwara monolith in Shravanabelagola (981 CE. Western Ganga Dynasty)
Old Kannada Hoysala inscription of 1220 CE at Ishwara temple temple Hassan district

The oldest existing record of Kannada poetry in tripadi metre is the Kappe Arabhatta record of 700 CE.[57] Kavirajamarga by King Nripatunga Amoghavarsha I (850 CE) is the earliest existing literary work in Kannada. It is a writing on literary criticism and poetics meant to standardize various written Kannada dialects used in literature in previous centuries. The book makes reference to Kannada works by early writers such as King Durvinita of the sixth century and Ravikirti, the author of the Aihole record of 636 CE.[58][59] Since the earliest available Kannada work is one on grammar and a guide of sorts to unify existing variants of Kannada grammar(ವ್ಯಾಕರಣ) and literary styles, it can be safely assumed that literature in Kannada must have started several centuries earlier.[60][61] An early extant prose work, the Vaddaradhane by Shivakotiacharya of 900 CE provides an elaborate description of the life of Bhadrabahu of Shravanabelagola.[62] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Medieval Kannada literature covered a wide range of subjects and genres which can broadly be classified under the Jain, Virashaiva, Vaishnava and secular traditions. ... Kannada poetry is poetry written in the Kannada language spoken in Karnataka state of India. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 2. ... The statue of Gomatheswara dates from 978-993 AD. Shravanabelagola is a city located in the Hassan district, in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... The Gangas of Talakad, like the Kadambas of Banavasi, rose to political eminence in the middle of the fourth century A.D., and ruled over the southern parts of Karnataka, in southern India. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 2 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Photograph of an Old Kannada inscription of the Hoysala Empire was taken by self (Dinesh Kannambadi) at the Ishwara temple in Arasikere, Hassan district... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 2 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Photograph of an Old Kannada inscription of the Hoysala Empire was taken by self (Dinesh Kannambadi) at the Ishwara temple in Arasikere, Hassan district... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... Hassan (Kannada : ಹಾಸನ) is a district in Karnataka state, India. ... Kappe Arabhatta (Kannada:ಕಪ್ಪೆ ಆರಭಟ್ಟ) was a Kannada poet of 7th century, and is famous for his inscription written in 700 CE during Chalukyas rule in Badami. ... Sri Vijaya, the court poet of Amoghavarsha Nripathunga, the Rashtrakuta ruler, composed it in the 9 Th centuries A.D. It is considered that Sri Vijaya did the first literary works in 9th Century A.D. This work is generally held to be the earliest literary work in Kannada. ... Amoghavarsha Nripathunga was the greatest of the Rashtrakuta kings. ... Events April 20 - Guntherus becomes Bishop of Cologne. ... DURVINITA (C.495-535 A. D.): (Ref: http:http://www. ... Extant literature refers to texts that have survived from the past to the present time. ... Gyeonhwon formally establishes the kingdom of Hubaekje in southwestern Korea. ... The statue of Gomatheswara dates from 978-993 AD. Shravanabelagola is a city located in the Hassan district, in the Indian state of Karnataka. ...


Kannada works from earlier centuries mentioned in the Kavirajamarga are not yet traced. Some ancient texts now considered extinct but referenced in later centuries are Prabhrita (650 CE) by Syamakundacharya, Chudamani (Crest Jewel-650 CE) by Srivaradhadeva, also known as Tumbuluracharya, which is a work of 96,000 verse-measures and a commentary on logic (Tatwartha-mahashastra).[63][47][64] Other sources date Chudamani to the sixth century or earlier.[32][65] The Karnateshwara Katha, a eulogy for King Pulakesi II, is said to have belonged to the seventh century; the Gajastaka, a work on elephant management by King Shivamara II, belonged to the eighth century,[66] and the Chandraprabha-purana by Sri Vijaya, a court poet of King Amoghavarsha I, is ascribed to the early ninth century.[67] Tamil Buddhist commentators of the tenth century CE (in the commentary on Nemrinatham, a Tamil grammatical work) make references that show that Kannada literature must have flourished as early as the fourth century CE.[8] Sri Vijaya, the court poet of Amoghavarsha Nripathunga, the Rashtrakuta ruler, composed it in the 9 Th centuries A.D. It is considered that Sri Vijaya did the first literary works in 9th Century A.D. This work is generally held to be the earliest literary work in Kannada. ... PULAKESI II (C.610-642 A.D.): Pulakesi II ascended the throne in C.610 A. D., and he has been rightly regarded as the ablest monarch in the Chalukyan line. ... Shivamara II was the son of Sripurusha and ruled the Western Ganga Dynasty from 788 - 816 C.E. He succeded the Ganga throne during a time when the Rashtrakuta were the empire on the rise in South India and the Deccan. ... Amoghavarsha Nripathunga, or Amoghavarsha I was the king of Rashtrakuta from 814 to 878, and is widely considered the greatest. ...


The Middle Kannada period gave birth to several genres of Kannada literature, with new forms of composition coming into use, including Ragale (a form of blank verse) and meters like Sangatya and Desi. The works of this period are based on Jain and Hindu principles. Two of the early writers of this period are Harihara and Raghavanka, trailblazers in their own right. Harihara established the Ragale form of composition while Raghavanka popularized the Shatpadi(six-lined stanza) meter.[68] A famous Jaina writer of the same period is Janna, who expressed Jain religious teachings through his works.[69] Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


The Vachana Sahitya tradition of the twelfth century is purely native and unique in world literature,[4] and the sum of contributions by all sections of society. Vachanas were pithy poems on that period's social, religious and economic conditions. More importantly, they held a mirror to the seed of social revolution, which caused a radical re-examination of the ideas of caste, creed and religion. Some of the important writers of Vachana literature include Basavanna, Allama Prabhu and Akka Mahadevi.[70] Kumara Vyasa, who wrote the Karnata Bharata Kathamanjari, has arguably been the most famous and most influential Kannada writer of the fifteenth century. His work, entirely composed in the Bhamini Shatpadi meter, is a sublime adaptation of the first ten chapters of the Mahabharata.[71] The Bhakti movement gave rise to Dasa Sahitya around the fifteenth century which significantly contributed to the evolution of Carnatic music in its present form. This period witnessed great Haridasas like Purandara Dasa who has been aptly called the Pioneer of Carnatic music, Kanaka Dasa, Vyasathirtha and Vijaya Dasa.[72][73][74] The vachanas are a body of work, and a form of writing, in Kannada. ... Basaveshvara Shree Basava (also known as Basaveshwara or Basavanna) is known as the reviver of the Veerashaiva (Lingayats) religion in India. ... Allama Prabhu(ca 1150) was a mystic Veerashaiva saint and poet of the 12th century. ... Akka Mahadevi (ಅಕ್ಕ ಮಹಾದೇವಿ) was a prominent figure of the Veerashaiva Bhakti movement in the 12th Century Karnataka. ... Kumara Vyasa is the pen name of Gadhugina Naranappa who is one of the most famous poets in the Kannada language, spoken in the state of Karnataka, India. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Bhakti movements are Hindu religious movements in which the main spiritual practice is the fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... Dasa Sahitya is the bhakti literature composed by devotees in honor of Lord Vishnu or one of his avatars. ... Carnatic music, also known as is one of the two styles of Indian classical music, the other being Hindustani music. ... Haridasa (haridasaru in Kannada) movement is considered as one of the turning points in Indian history. ... Purandara Dasa Purandara Dasa (1484-1564)(ಪುರಂದರ ದಾಸ) is one of the most prominient composer in carnatic music. ... Kanaka Dasa was one of the devotees of Krishna and an influential person in the Vaishnava bhakti movement in Karnataka. ... Vyasatirtha (1460-1539) (also known as Vyasaraja, Vyasaraayaru) was one of the foremost dialecticians in the history of Indian philosophy. ... Vijaya Dasa (1682-1755) or Sri Vijaya Dasa was a prominant saint from the Haridasa tradition of Karnataka, India in the 18th century. ...


Modern Kannada in the twentieth century has been influenced by many movements, notably Navodaya, Navya, Navyottara, Dalita and Bandaya. Contemporary Kannada literature has been highly successful in reaching people of all classes in society. Works of Kannada literature have received seven Jnanpith awards, which is the highest number awarded for the literature in any Indian language. It has also received forty-seven Sahitya Academy awards. Jnanpith Award (pronounced Gyanpeeth Award) is the highest literary honour presented by the Government of India. ... The Sahitya Akademi is an Indian organisation dedicated to the promotion of literature in the languages of India. ...


Dialects

There is also some distinction between the spoken and written forms of the language. Spoken Kannada tends to vary from region to region. The written form is more or less constant throughout Karnataka, however. The Ethnologue identifies about 20 dialects of Kannada. Among them are Kundagannada (spoken exclusively in Kundapura), Nadavar-Kannada (spoken by Nadavaru), Havyaka (spoken mainly by Havyaka Brahmins), Are Bhashe (spoken mainly in the Sullia region of Dakshina Kannada), Soliga, Badaga, Gulbarga Kannada, Dharawad Kannada, Chitradurga Kannada, and others. All of these dialects are influenced by their regional and cultural background. Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Kundapura, the headquarter town of the Kundapura taluk is about 36 kilometres from Udupi, Karnataka, India. ... Nadavaru means the people of Nadu or Country. ... Havyaka Brahmins are a Brahmin subsect primarily from the Indian state of Karnataka and Northern Kerala. ... Arebhashe or Gowda Kannada is a dialect of the Kannada language, particularly, spoken by the people belonging to ‘Gowda’ community (among Hindus) who are the natives of Sullia and Bhagamandala of Dakshina Kannada and Coorg districts, respectively and also eastern parts of Kasaragod district of Kerala state. ... , Sullia (ಸುಳ್ಯ) (also know as Sulya) is a taluk in Dakshina Kannada district of the state of Karnataka ( ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ), India. ... Location of Dakshina Kannada district with respect to the other districts of Karnataka. ... The Soliga is an individual member of a tribe that inhabit the Biligirirangan and associated hill ranges in Southern Karnataka, mostly in Chamarajanagar District, bordering the Erode district of Tamil Nadu (a neighbouring state). ... Badaga is a tribal language spoken by the Badagas in southern India. ...


Geographic distribution

Kannada is mainly spoken in Karnataka in India, and to a good extent in the neighbouring states of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Goa, as well as in sizeable communities in the USA, the UK, and Singapore. , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ...


Official status

Kannada is one of the twenty-two official languages of India and is the sole administrative language of the State of Karnataka. This article is under construction. ...


Writing system

A Kannada language sign board
A Kannada language sign board
The Kannada language edition of Wikipedia.
The Kannada language edition of Wikipedia.
Main article: Kannada script

The language uses forty-nine phonemic letters, divided into three groups: Swaragalu (thirteen letters); Yogavaahakagalu (two letters, ಅಂ and ಅಃ); and Vyanjanagalu (thirty-four letters), similar to the vowels and consonants of English, respectively. The character set is almost identical to that of other Indian languages. The script itself, derived from brahmi script, is fairly complicated like most other languages of India owing to the occurrence of various combinations of "half-letters" (glyphs), or symbols that attach to various letters in a manner similar to diacritical marks in the Romance languages. The Kannada script is almost perfectly phonetic, but for the sound of a "half n" (which becomes a half m). The number of written symbols, however, is far more than the forty-nine characters in the alphabet, because different characters can be combined to form compound characters (vattaksharas). Each written symbol in the Kannada script corresponds with one syllable, as opposed to one phoneme in languages like English. The script of Kannada is also used in other languages such as Tulu, Kodava Takk and Konkani. Simply put, the Kannada script is syllabic. Sample of the kannada alphabet. ... Sample of the kannada alphabet. ... Download high resolution version (824x472, 155 KB)Kannada Language on wikipedia This is a screenshot of a copyrighted Wikipedia web page. ... Download high resolution version (824x472, 155 KB)Kannada Language on wikipedia This is a screenshot of a copyrighted Wikipedia web page. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In spoken language, a phoneme is a basic, theoretical unit of sound that can distinguish words (i. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The article describes the languages spoken in the Republic of India. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas used in South Asia and Southeast Asia. ... variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... Tulu (Kannada script: ತುಳು) is a Dravidian language of India with fewer than two million speakers, known as Tuluvas. ... Kodava Takk, often called Coorgi or Coorg language in English, is the original language of the south Karnataka district of Kodagu. ... Konkani language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Konkani (DevanāgarÄ«: कोंकणी, Roman: Konknni, Kannada: ಕೊಂಕಣಿ, Malayalam: കൊംകണീ, IAST: ) is a language of India, and belongs to the Indo-European family of languages. ...


Extinct Kannada letters

Kannada literary works employed letters ಱ (transliterated 'ṟ' or 'rh') and ೞ (transliterated 'ḻ', 'lh' or 'zh'), whose manner of articulation most plausibly could be akin to those in present-day Malayalam and Tamil. The letters dropped out of use in the twelfth and eighteenth centuries, respectively. Later Kannada works replaced 'rh' and 'lh' with ರ (ra) and ಳ (la) respectively.[75]. Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ...


Another letter (or unclassified vyanjana (consonant)) that has become extinct is 'nh' or 'inn'. (Likewise, this has its equivalent in Malayalam and Tamil.) The usage of this consonant was observed until the 1980s in Kannada works from the mostly coastal areas of Karnataka (especially the Dakshina Kannada district). Now hardly any mainstream works use this consonant. This letter has been replaced by ನ್ (consonant n).[citation needed] Location of Dakshina Kannada district with respect to the other districts of Karnataka. ...


Kannada script in computing

Transliteration

Several transliteration schemes/tools are used to type Kannada characters using a standard keyboard. These include Baraha[76] (based on ITRANS) and Quillpad[77] (predictive transliterator). Nudi, the government of Karnataka's standard for Kannada Input, is a phonetic layout loosely based on transliteration. The Indian languages TRANSliteration (ITRANS) is an ASCII transliteration scheme for Indic scripts, particularly, but not exclusively, for Devanāgarī (used for the Hindi, Marathi, Sanskrit, Nepali, Sindhi and other languages). ... Nudi is a computer program and font-encoding standard used for managing and displaying the Kannada alphabet on computers. ...


Unicode

Kannada Unicode Chart[80]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+0C8x
U+0C9x
U+0CAx
U+0CBx ಿ
U+0CCx
U+0CDx
U+0CEx
U+0CFx ೿

Grammar

Kannada is a highly inflected language with three genders (masculine, feminine, and neutral or common) and two numbers (singular and plural). It is inflected for gender, number and tense, among other things. Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ...

Dictionary

A German priest, the Reverend Ferdinand Kittel, composed the first Kannada dictionary, consisting of more than 70,000 words.[78] Reverend Ferdinand Kittel was a priest belonging to Basel Mission who spent most of his life in South Indian Kannada speaking region and compiled the Kannada-Kannada-English dictionary. ...


Ferdinand Kittel has also written a book on Kannada grammar called "A Grammar of the Kannada Language: Comprising the Three Dialects of the Language".[79] Reverend Ferdinand Kittel was a priest belonging to Basel Mission who spent most of his life in South Indian Kannada speaking region and compiled the Kannada-Kannada-English dictionary. ...


See also

Kannadiga is the term for a native speaker of Kannada. ... Kannada American or Kannada Americans is Community who speak Kannada language and born or settled in USA. Link to Kannada Community [1] Categories: | | | ... Map of South Asia in native languages. ... Indian constitution recognizes 22 languages as National languages 1. ... Indian languages spoken by more than ten million people are given below. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Karnataka Literature denotes to the wealth of literature created in the region of Karnataka in South India roughly corresponding to the modern state of Karnataka. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People. Encarta.
  2. ^ Top 30 languages of the world. Vistawide.
  3. ^ The Karnataka Official Language Act. Official website of Department of Parliamentary Affairs and Legislation. Government of Karnataka. Retrieved on 2007-06-29.
  4. ^ a b c Declare Kannada a classical language. Online webpage of The Hindu. The Hindu. Retrieved on 2007-06-29.
  5. ^ Awardees detail for the Jnanpith Award. Official website of Bharatiya Jnanpith. Bharatiya Jnanpith. Retrieved on 2007-06-29.
  6. ^ Kamath (2001), pp5-6
  7. ^ Purava HaleGannada or Pre-old Kannada was the language of Banavasi in the early Christian era, the Satavahana and Kadamba eras (Wilks in Rice , B.L. (1897), p490)
  8. ^ a b c Sri K. Appadurai. The place of Kannada and Tamil in Indias national culture. Copyright INTAMM. 1997. Retrieved on 2006-11-25.
  9. ^ a b Indira Parathasarathy. Records and revelations. Early Tamil Epigraphy: From the Earliest Times to the Sixth Century A.D., Iravatham Mahadevan. The Hindu, Sunday, Aug 3, 2003. Retrieved on 2006-11-25.
  10. ^ a b Iravatham Mahadevan. Early Tamil Epigraphy from the Earliest Times to the Sixth Century A.D. Harvard University Press. Retrieved on 2007-04-12.
  11. ^ A family tree of Dravidian languages. Sourced from Encyclopaedia Britannica.
  12. ^ Kittel (1993), p1-2
  13. ^ "Literature in all Dravidian languages owes a great deal to Sanskrit, the magic wand whose touch raised each of the languages from a level of patois to that of a literary idiom". (Sastri 1955, p309)
  14. ^ Takahashi, Takanobu. 1995. Tamil love poetry and poetics. Brill’s Indological library, v. 9. Leiden: E.J. Brill, p16,18
  15. ^ "The author endeavours to demonstrate that the entire Sangam poetic corpus follows the "Kavya" form of Sanskrit poetry"-Tieken, Herman Joseph Hugo. 2001. Kāvya in South India: old Tamil Caṅkam poetry. Groningen: Egbert Forsten
  16. ^ The word Isila found in the Ashokan inscription (called the Brahmagiri edict from Karnataka) meaning to shoot an arrow is a Kannada word, indicating that Kannada was a spoken language in the third century BCE (Dr. D.L. Narasimhachar in Kamath 2001, p5)
  17. ^ Ramesh (1984), p10
  18. ^ A report on Halmidi inscription, Muralidhara Khajane. Halmidi village finally on the road to recognition. The Hindu, Monday, Nov 03, 2003. The Hindu. Retrieved on 2006-11-25.
  19. ^ Kamath (2001), p10
  20. ^ Staff Reporter. Press demand for according classical status to Kannada. The Hindu, Monday, Apr 17, 2006. The Hindu. Retrieved on 2007-06-29.
  21. ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p6
  22. ^ Rice (1921), p13
  23. ^ Kamath (2001), p58
  24. ^ Azmathulla Shariff. Badami: Chalukyans' magical transformation. Spectrum, Deccan Herald, Tuesday, July 26, 2005. Deccan Herald. Retrieved on 2006-11-25.
  25. ^ In bilingual inscriptions the formulaic passages stating origin myths, geneologies, titles of kings and benedictions tended to be in Sanskrit, while the actual terms of the grant such as information on the land or village granted, its boundaries, the participation of local authorities, the rights and obligations of the grantee, taxes and dues and other local concerns were in the local language. The two languages of many such inscriptions were Sanskrit and the regional language such as Tamil or Kannada (Thapar 2003, pp393-394)
  26. ^ N. Havalaiah. Ancient inscriptions unearthed. The Hindu, Saturday, Jan 24, 2004. The Hindu. Retrieved on 2006-11-25.
  27. ^ Gururaj Bhat in Kamath (2001), p97
  28. ^ a b Mukerjee, Shruba. Preserving voices from the past. Deccan Herald, Sunday, August 21, 2005. Sunday Herald. Retrieved on 2007-04-11.
  29. ^ K.N. Venkatasubba Rao. Kannada likely to get classical tag. The Hindu, Wednesday, Oct 04, 2006. The Hindu. Retrieved on 2006-11-25.
  30. ^ Sastri (1955), p355
  31. ^ Rice, E.P. (1921), p12
  32. ^ a b Rice, B.L. (1897), p497
  33. ^ Masica (1991), pp45-46
  34. ^ Dr. Hultzsch, E. (1904), "Remarks on a papyrus from Oxyrhynchus", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1904: 399-405
  35. ^ Shama Sastry, M. Govinda Pai and B.A. Saletore argued that the language was indeed Kannada, whereas Dr. Barnett rejected this idea. (Kamath 2001, p5)
  36. ^ Dr. Shama Shastry, N. Lakshminarayana Rao. Indian Inscriptions, South Indian Inscriptions - vol 9. Archaeological Survey of India. What Is India Publishers (P) Ltd. Retrieved on 2006-11-25.
  37. ^ Inscriptions, place names and manuscripts prove that regions such as Kolhapur and Sholapur were at one time Kannada-speaking areas, where Marathi is now spoken.Rice E.P.. [1] History of Kannada literature, 2nd edition (revised)]. Google. Google Book Search. Retrieved on 2007-06-29., p12
  38. ^ Kannada was an administrative language in Devagiri (present day Daulatabad), the Seuna capital, from the tenth to the thirteenth centuries CE. (Srinivas Ritti & O.P. Varma in Kamath 2001, p137)
  39. ^ The famous Kanchi Kailasanatha temple inscriptions of Chalukya Vikramaditya II, inscribed after the capture of Kanchipuram (K.V. Ramesh 1984, pp159-161)
  40. ^ The inscriptions of Rashtrakuta Krishna III on a victory pillar at Rameshvaram describing his victories against the Cholas, Pandyas and Keralas and the tributes he received from the King of Ceylon. (Kamath 2001, p83)
  41. ^ The princes of the Gujarat line hailing from the Rashtrakuta family signed their Sanskrit records in Kannada, examples of which are the Navasari and Baroda plates of Karka I and the Baroda records of Dhruva II (D.R. Bhandarkar in Kamath 2001, p73)
  42. ^ Kamath (2001), p83
  43. ^ Dr Gopal, director, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. 5th century copper coin discovered at Banavasi. Deccan Herald, Tuesday, February 7, 2006. Deccan Herald. Retrieved on 2006-11-25.
  44. ^ Kamath (2001), p12, p57
  45. ^ Govindaraya Prabhu, S. Indian coins-Dynasties of South. Prabhu's Web Page On Indian Coinage, November 1, 2001. Retrieved on 2006-11-27.
  46. ^ Harihariah Oruganti-Vice-President, Madras Coin Society. Vijayanagar Coins-Catalogue. Retrieved on 2006-11-27.
  47. ^ a b Jyotsna Kamat. History of the Kannada Literature - I. Kamat's Potpourri, November 04,2006. Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved on 2006-11-25.
  48. ^ The earliest cultivators of Kannada literature were Jain scholars (Narasimhacharya 1988, p17)
  49. ^ More than two hundred contemporary Vachana poets have been recorded (Narasimhacharya 1988, p20)
  50. ^ Sastri (1955), p361
  51. ^ Durgasimha, who wrote the Panchatantra, and Chandraraja, who wrote the Madanakatilaka, were early Brahmin writers in the eleventh century under Western Chalukya King Jayasimha II (Narasimhacharya 1988, p19)
  52. ^ Sastri (1955), p355
  53. ^ Sastri (1955), p359
  54. ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p19
  55. ^ Sastri (1955), pp364-365
  56. ^ The writing exalts the grain Ragi above all other grains that form the staple foods of much of modern Karnataka (Sastri 1955, p365
  57. ^ Kamath (2001), p67
  58. ^ Sastri (1955), p355
  59. ^ Kamath (2001), p90
  60. ^ Jyotsna Kamat. History of the Kannada Literature-I. Kamat's Potpourri, November 4, 2006. Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved on 2006-11-25.
  61. ^ Sastri (1955), p355
  62. ^ Sastri (1955), p356
  63. ^ The seventeenth-century Kannada grammarian Bhattakalanka wrote about the Chudamani as a milestone in the literature of the Kannada language (Sastri (1955), p355)
  64. ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), pp 4-5
  65. ^ 6th century Sanskrit poet Dandin praised Srivaradhadeva's writing as "having produced Saraswati from the tip of his toungue, just as Shiva produced the Ganges from the tip of his top knot (Rice E.P., 1921, p27)
  66. ^ Kamath (2001), p50, p67
  67. ^ The author and his work were praised by the latter-day poet Durgasimha of 1025 CE (Narasimhacharya 1988, p18.)
  68. ^ Sastri (1955), pp361-2
  69. ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p20
  70. ^ Sastri (1955), p361
  71. ^ Sastri (1955), p364
  72. ^ Moorthy, Vijaya (2001). Romance of the Raga. Abinav publications, p67. ISBN 8170173825. 
  73. ^ Iyer (2006), p93
  74. ^ Sastri (1955), p365
  75. ^ Rice, Edward. P (1921), "A History of Kanarese Literature", Oxford University Press, 1921: 14-15
  76. ^ See http://baraha.com/
  77. ^ http://quillpad.in/kannada
  78. ^ Manjulakshi & Bhat. Kannada Dialect Dictionaries and Dictionaries in Subregional Languages of Karnataka. Language in India, Volume 5 : 9 September 2005. Central Institute of Indian Languages, University of Mysore. Retrieved on 2007-04-11.
  79. ^ Ferdinand Kittel. A Grammar of the Kannada Language: Comprising the Three Dialects of the Language. 1993. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 8120600568
  80. ^ http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U0C80.pdf

Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Banavasi ಬನವಾಸಿ is an ancient temple town on the border of Uttara Kannada District and Shimoga district in the south Indian state of Karnataka. ... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted...  Extent of Kadamba Empire, 500 CE Capital Banavasi Language(s) Sanskrit, Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 345 - 365 Mayurasharma Krishna Varma II History  - Earliest Kadamba records 450  - Established 345  - Disestablished 525 Kadamba Dynasty (Kannada:ಕದಂಬರು) (345 - 525 CE) was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka that ruled from Banavasi in... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Iravatham Mahadevan is an Indian epigraphist, National Fellow of the Indian Council of Historical Research, an expert on the Indus script and Early Tamil epigraphy and the Dravidian substrate in Vedic Sanskrit. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Daulatabad (from Persian دولت‌آباد meaning Built by the Government), also called Deogiri or Devagiri, is a hill-fortress in Maharashtra state, India, in about 40 miles northwest of the city of Aurangabad in Aurangabad district. ... The Seuna dynasty (850 - 1334), also called the Sevuna or Yadava dynasty during their peak ruled present day Maharashtra, north Karnataka and parts of Madhya Pradesh from their regal capital at Devgiri (Daulatabad) in Maharashtra. ... The Chalukya dynasty (Kannada: ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) was a powerful Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th century C.E. They began to assert their independence at the decline of the Satavahana empire and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of... Vikaramaditya II was a son of Vijayaditya. ... , Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is a city and a municipality in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Krishna III or Kannara(939 - 967) C.E. was an last great warrior and able monarch of the Rashtrakuta dynasty. ... Rameswaram is a town in the southern part of India in the state of Tamil Nadu. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit/Maharashtri Prakrit [1]/Marathi[2][3]:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Western Chalukyas (973 - 1200) also known as Kalyani Chalukya or Later Chalukya ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between... Jayasimha II (1015 – 1042 C.E.) succeeded his brother Vikramaditya V on the western Chalukya throne. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In Hinduism, Saraswati (Sanskrit ) is one of the goddesses, the other two being Lakshmi and Durga, that form the female counterpart of the Trimurti. ... Shiva (IAST: , also spelled Siva; Hindi, Shiv) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. ... “Ganga” redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

The Library of Congress Control Number or LCCN is a serially based system of numbering books in the Library of Congress in the United States. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Kannada language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Kannada language (361 words)
Kannada is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people.
It is the state language of Karnataka, one of the four southern states in India.
The script itself, which resembles the Telugu script, is fairly complicated like most other languages of India owing to the occurrence of various combinations of "half-letters", or symbols that attach to various letters in a manner similar to the aigue, grave, and cédille marks in Romance languages.
Kannada: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (2351 words)
Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ kannaḍa) is one of the major Dravidian languages of southern India and one of the oldest languages in India.
Kannada is mainly spoken in Karnataka in India, and to a good extent in the neighbouring states of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and in Goa.
Kannada is one of the 22 official languages of India and is the sole administrative language of the state of Karnataka.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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