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Encyclopedia > Kangxi Emperor
For other uses, see Kangxi (disambiguation)
Kangxi Emperor
Clan name: Aixin-Jueluo (愛新覺羅)
Aisin-Gioro
Given name: Xuanye (玄燁)
Hiowan Yei
Dates of reign: February 7, 1661December 20, 1722
Era name: Kāngxī (康熙; K'ang-hsi)
Elhe Taifin
Enghe Amugulang
Era dates: February 18, 1662February 4, 1723
Temple name: Shengzu (聖祖)
Šengdzu
Posthumous name:
(short) 
Emperor Ren (仁皇帝)
Gosin Hūwangdi
Posthumous name:
(full) 
Emperor Hétiān Hóngyùn Wénwǔ Ruìzhé Gōngjiǎn Kuānyù Xiàojìng Chéngxìn Zhōnghé Gōngdé Dàchéng Rén
合天弘運文武睿哲恭儉寬裕孝敬誠信中和功德大成仁皇帝 [Listen ]
General note: Names given in Chinese, then in Manchu (full posthumous name is in Chinese only).

General note: Dates given here are in the Gregorian calendar.

The Kangxi Emperor (Chinese: 康熙; pinyin: Kāngxī; Wade-Giles: K'ang-hsi; May 4, 1654December 20, 1722) was an Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty,[1] and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722. He is known as one of the greatest Chinese emperors in history. His reign of 61 years makes him the longest-reigning Emperor of China in history, though it should be noted that having ascended the throne aged seven, he did not exercise much, if any, control over the empire until later, that role being fulfilled by his four guardians and his grandmother the Dowager Empress Xiao Zhuang. Kangxi may refer to: The Kangxi Emperor (1654-1722) was an important ruler from the Chinese Qing Dynasty period. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (597x934, 255 KB) http://kangxi. ... Like the Mongols, the Manchus were simply called by given name but they had their own clan names (hala in Manchu). ... Aisin Gioro (Simplified Chinese: 爱新觉罗; Traditional Chinese: 愛新覺羅; Pinyin: àixÄ«n juéluó; Manchu: ) was the clan name of the Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty (as well as the later short-lived regime in Manchukuo). ... Manchu given names were used solely or with titles but not with clan names. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... A Chinese era name (traditional Chinese: 年號, simplified Chinese: 年号, pinyin nían hào) is the era name, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperors reign and naming certain Chinese rulers (see the conventions). ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... Temple names (Traditional Chinese: 廟號 Simplified Chinese: 庙号 Pinyin: miào hào;), are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Vietnamese (such dynasties as Tran,Anterior Lê and Nguyen Dynasty) and most Korean rulers of the Goryeo and Joseon Dynasties. ... A posthumous name (Traditional Chinese: 諡號/謚號 Simplified Chinese: 谥号; Pinyin: shì hào; Romaji: shigō/tsuigō; Revised Romanization of Korean: siho) is a honorary name given to royalty in some cultures posthumously, that is, after the persons death. ... A posthumous name (Traditional Chinese: 諡號/謚號 Simplified Chinese: 谥号; Pinyin: shì hào; Romaji: shigō/tsuigō; Revised Romanization of Korean: siho) is a honorary name given to royalty in some cultures posthumously, that is, after the persons death. ... Image File history File links Chinese-Kangxi_Posthumous_name. ... The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... China proper refers to the historical heartlands of China in the context of that paradigm which contrasts these heartlands with frontier regions of Outer China (including sections of Inner Asia and other regions). ... 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... The Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang, (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Manchu: HiyooÅ¡ungga AmbalinggÅ« GenggiyenÅ¡u HÅ«wanghu; March 28, 1613 - January 27, 1688), known for the majority of her life under the title Grand Empress Dowager, was the mother of the Shunzhi Emperor and the grandmother of the Kangxi Emperor during the Qing...

Contents

The Beginning of the Reign

Born on May 4, 1654 to the late Emperor Shunzhi, Emperor Kangxi (Aixin-Jueluo.Xuanye (愛新覺羅.玄燁) succeeded the imperial throne at the age of 8 on February 17, 1661, twelve days after his father's death. Emperor Kangxi ruled during the years from 1661 to 1722 -- the longest reign on the throne in China's history, 61 years. The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638–February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. ...


His father died in his early twenties, and as Kangxi was not able to rule in his minority, the Shunzhi Emperor appointed Sonin, Suksaha, Ebilun, and Oboi as the Four Regents. Sonin died soon after his granddaughter was made the Empress, Heseli, leaving Suksaha at odds with Oboi politically. In a fierce power struggle, Oboi had Suksaha put to death, and seized absolute power as sole Regent. For a while Kangxi and the Court accepted this arrangement. In 1669 the Emperor arrested Oboi with help from the Xiao Zhuang Grand Dowager Empress and began to take control of the country himself. Sonin, (?-1667) also known as Soni (Manchu: ; Chinese: 索尼), was a senior regent during Chinese Emperor Kang Xis minority in the Qing Dynasty. ... A regent during the early reign of Chinese Emperor Kang Xi who was put to death by Oboi. ... Ebilun was an assistant minister appointed by the Chinese Emperor Shunzhi for his successor, Emperor Kang Xi during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). ... Oboi (Manchu: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (?-1669) was a great Manchu warrior of the Bordered Yellow Banner from the Gūwalgiya clan. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... Empress Xiao Cheng Ren (Chinese: 孝诚仁皇后赫舍里氏) a. ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... The Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang, (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Manchu: Hiyoošungga Ambalinggū Genggiyenšu Hūwanghu; March 28, 1613 - January 27, 1688), known for the majority of her life under the title Grand Empress Dowager, was the mother of the Shunzhi Emperor and the grandmother of the Kangxi Emperor during the Qing...


In the spring of 1662, Kangxi ordered the Great Clearance in southern China, in order to fight the anti-Qing movement, begun by Ming Dynasty loyalists under the leadership of Zheng Chenggong (also known as Koxinga), to regain Beijing. This involved moving the entire population of the coastal regions of southern China inland. Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... In the spring of 1662, the Qing Emperor Kangxi ordered the Great Clearance in southern China, in order to fight the anti-Qing movement, begun by Ming Dynasty loyalists under the leadership of Zheng Chenggong (also known as Koxinga), to regain Beijing. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Koxinga (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Gúoxìngyé; Tongyong Pinyin: Gúosìngyé; Taiwanese; Kok-sèng-iâ/Kok-sìⁿ-iâ) is the popular name of Zheng Chenggong (Traditional Chinese: 鄭成功; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhèng Chénggōng; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhèng Chénggong; Wade-Giles: Cheng Cheng-kung; Pe... “Peking” redirects here. ...


He listed three major issues of concern, being the flood control of the Yellow River, the repairing of the Grand Canal and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories in South China. The Revolt of the Three Feudatories broke out in 1673 and Burni of the Chahar Mongols also started a rebellion in 1675. For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... Grand Canal of China The Grand Canal of China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ... The Three Feudatories (Chinese: ; pinyin: sān fàn) were territories in southern China bestowed by the early Manchu rulers on three Chinese generals (Wu Sangui, Geng Jingzhong, and Shang Zhixin). ... 1673 (MDCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Chahar are a tribe of the Mongols. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... Year 1675 (MDCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The Revolt of the Three Feudatories presented a major challenge. Wu Sangui's forces had overrun most of southern China and he tried to ally himself with local generals. A prominent general of this kind was Wang Fuchen. Kangxi, however, united his court in support of the war effort and employed capable generals such as Zhou Pei Gong and Tu Hai to crush the rebellion. He also extended commendable clemency to the common people who had been caught up in the fighting. Although Kangxi personally wanted to lead the battles against the 3 Feudatories, he was advised not to by his advisors. Kangxi would later lead the battle against the Mongol Dzungars. Wu Sangui (Chinese: 吳三桂; pinyin: Wú Sānguì; WG: Wu San-kuei) (1612 - October 2, 1678) was a Ming Chinese general who opened the gates of the Great Wall of China at Shanhai Pass to let Manchu soldiers into China proper. ...


Kangxi crushed the rebellious Mongols within two months and incorporated the Chahar into the Eight Banners. After the surrender of the Zheng family, the Qing Dynasty annexed Taiwan in 1684. Soon afterwards, the coastal regions were ordered to be repopulated, and to encourage settlers, the Qing government gave a pecuniary incentive to each settling family. The Eight Banners (In Manchu: gūsa, In Chinese: 旗 qí) were administrative divisions into which all Manchu families were placed. ... Events France under Louis XIV makes Truce of Ratisbon separately with the Empire and Spain. ...


In a diplomatic success, the Kangxi government helped mediate a truce in the long-running Trinh-Nguyen War in the year 1673. The war in Vietnam between these two powerful clans had been going on for 45 years with nothing to show for it. The peace treaty that was signed lasted for 101 years (Vietnam, Trials and Tribulations of a Nation by D. R. SarDesai, pg. 38, 1988). Trịnh-Nguyen War (1627 - 1673) - A long war waged between the two ruling families in Vietnam. ... 1673 (MDCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Russia and the Mongols

Qing's expansion during the era of Kangxi Emperor
Qing's expansion during the era of Kangxi Emperor

At the same time, the Emperor was faced with the Russian advance from the north. The Qing Dynasty and the Russian Empire fought along the Sahaliyan ula (Amur, or Heilongjiang) Valley region in 1650s, which ended with a Qing victory. The Russians invaded the northern frontier again in 1680s. After series of battles and negotiations, the two empires signed the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689 giving China the Amur valley and fixing a border. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... The Amur River or Heilong Jiang (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , or Black Dragon River; Mongolian: , Khar Mörön or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is the worlds eighth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China. ... Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... Significant Events and Trends World Leaders King Frederick III of Denmark (1648 - 1670). ... Events and Trends The Treaty of Ratisbon between France and England in 1684 ended the Age of Buccaneers. ... Nerchinsk Treaty was the first treaty between Russia and China. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


At this time the Khalkha Mongols preserved their independence and only paid tribute to the Manchu Empire. A conflict between the Houses of Jasaghtu Khan and Tösheetü Khan led another dispute between the Khalkha and the Dzungar Mongols over influence over Tibetan Buddhism. In 1688 Galdan, the Dzungar chief, invaded and occupied the Khalkha homeland. The Khalkha royal families and the first Jebtsundamba Khutughtu crossed the Gobi Desert, sought help from the Qing Dynasty and, as a result, submitted to the Qing. In 1690, the Dzungar and the Manchu Empire clashed at the battle of Ulaan Butun in Inner Mongolia, during which the Qing army was severely mauled by Galdan. In 1696, the Kangxi Emperor himself as commander in chief led 3 armies with a total of 80,000 in the campaign against the Dzungars. The notable 2nd in command general behind Kangxi was Fei Yang Gu who was personally recommended by Zhou Pei Gong. The Western section of the Qing army crushed Galdan's army at the Battle of Zuunmod and Galdan died in the next year. The Dzungars continued to threaten China and invaded Tibet in 1717. They took Lhasa with an army 6,000 strong in response to the deposition of the Dalai Lama and his replacement with Lha-bzan Khan in 1706. They removed Lha-bzan from power and held the city for two years, destroying a Chinese army in 1718. Lhasa was not retaken until 1720. The Khalkha, or Halh (Халх [χɑɬχ]) in modern Khalkha Mongolian, is a subgroup of the Mongols. ... The Dzungars (also Jungars or Zungars; Mongolian: Зүүнгар Züüngar) were a tribe of the Oirat Mongols. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Galdan (1644-1697) was a 17th century Mongol chieftain. ... The Khalkha Jebtsundamba Khutughtu (also known as Javzandamba Hutagt in Khalkha Mongolian; also as Rje Btsun Dam Pa or Jetsun Dampa in Tibetan — all meaning lit. ... The Gobi Desert lies in the territory of the Peoples Republic of China and the Country of Mongolia. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... The year 1696 had the earliest equinoxes and solstices for 400 years in the Gregorian calendar, because this year is a leap year and the Gregorian calendar would have behaved like the Julian calendar since March 1500 had it have been in use that long. ... Zuunmod is located in Mongolias Töv Province, 30 km south of Ulaanbaatar. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... Lhasa (Tibetan: ལྷ་ས་; Wylie: lha sa; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), sometimes spelled Llasa, is the traditional capital of Tibet and the capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933). ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and... Year 1718 (MDCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ...


The Banner System

Overall speaking, the 8 Banner Army was already in decline. The 8 Banner Army was at this time inferior to the Qing army at its peak during Huang Taji and early Shunzhi's reign; however, it was still superior to the later Yongzheng period and even more so than the Qianlong period. In addition, the Green Standard Army was still powerful. Notable generals are Tu Hai, Fei Yang Gu, Zhang Yong, Zhou Pei Gong, Shi Lang, Mu Zhan, Shun Shi Ke, Wang Jing Bao. These generals were noticeably stronger than the Qianlong period's generals. The main reason for this decline was because of the change in system between Kangxi and Qianlong's reign. During Kangxi's reign, the empire still used the ancestor's military system that was far more efficient and strict. Based on the old system, if a general was to return by himself, he was to be slayed. If a soldier returned by himself, the soldier was to be slayed. Basically, a group of general and soldiers are to co-exist. This obviously meant that the generals and soldiers would fight for their lives because if the rest of the group were defeated, he would also die either way. By Qianlong's reign, the system became more lenient and the war lords were starting to become satisfied with their life. Because the Lord status was passed on for generations, by Qianlong's reign, the war lords started to become more lenient and frugal in their life style. The warlords' ancestor's had already given them fame and they're living a good life, which means the war lords saw the training of the army not as important as it once was. In a sense, during Kangxi's reign was a reign where he tried to reunify China, which meant the war lords had to get back in combat, but by Qianlong's reign it was mostly expansion.


Treasury status

Near the beginning at 1668, the country had 14,930,000 taels. During 1692, the treasury had 27,385,631 taels. During 1702-1709, the treasury had consistently about 50,000,000 taels. During 1710, the treasury had dropped to 45,880,000 taels. During 1718, the treasury was at 44,319,033 taels. During 1720, the treasury significantly dropped to 39,317,103 taels. By the end of Kangxi's reign in 1721, the treasury had 32,622,421 taels left. Reasons for this great decline- 1. the wars has been taking great amounts of money from the treasury. 2. The border defense against the Dzungars + the later civil war in Tibet dealt a particular toll on the treasury- reducing its contents to less than 10 million taels. 3. Due to Kangxi's old age and worn body, the emperor had no more energy left to handle the corrupt officials directly like he was able to when he was younger. Though Kangxi tried to use kindness to cure the corrupt officials, the corrupt officials were quite noticeable in Kangxi's final years. Such unabated corruption increased the toll on the treasury.


To try and cure this treasury problem, Kangxi advised Yong Prince (the future Yongzheng emperor) some plans and tactics to use make the economy more efficient; however, Kangxi in his life time would not have enough energy or time to make the reforms himself; therefore, leaving job to Yongzheng. The other problem that worried Kangxi when he died was the civil war in Tibet; however, that problem life like the treasury problem would be solved during Yongzheng's reign.


Cultural achievements

The Emperor, Kangxi ordered the compiling of the most complete dictionary of Chinese characters ever put together, The Kangxi Dictionary. In many ways this was an attempt to win over the Chinese gentry. Many scholars still refused to serve a foreign conquestion dynasty and remained loyal to the Ming Dynasty. Kangxi persuaded many scholars to work on the dictionary without asking them to formally serve the Qing. In effect they found themselves gradually taking on more and more responsibilities until they were normal officials. Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... The Kangxi Dictionary The Kangxi Dictionary (Chinese: 康熙字典; Pinyin: Kāngxī Zìdiǎn; Wade-Giles: Kang-hsi tzu-tien) was the standard Chinese character dictionary during the 18th and 19th centuries. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Ming. ...

Coin from the reign of the Kangxi Emperor.

Kangxi also was fond of Western technology and tried to bring Western technology to China. This was helped through Jesuit missionaries whom he summoned almost everyday to the Forbidden City. From 1711 to 1723 Matteo Ripa, an Italian priest born near Salerno, sent to China by Propaganda Fide, worked as a painter and copper-engraver at the Manchu court. In 1723 Matteo Ripa returned to Naples from China with four young Chinese Christians, in order to let them became priests and go back to China as missionaries; this was the fundation of the "Collegio dei Cinesi", sanctioned by Pope Clement XII to help the propagation of Christianity in China. The "Chinese Institute" turns out to be the first Sinology School of the European Continent and the first nucleus of what would then become the Istituto Orientale and today's "Università degli studi di Napoli L'Orientale" (Naples Eastern University). Image File history File links Chinesecoin. ... Image File history File links Chinesecoin. ...


Kangxi was also the first Chinese Emperor to have played a western instrument, the piano. He also invented a very useful and effective Chinese calendar.


Twice Removing the Crown Prince

The Kangxi Emperor at Young Age
The Kangxi Emperor at Young Age

One of the greatest mysteries of the Qing Dynasty was the event of Kangxi's will, which along with three other events, are known as the "Four greatest mysteries of the Qing Dynasty". To this day, whom Kangxi chose as his successor is still a topic of debate amongst historians, even though, supposedly, he chose Yinzhen, the 4th Prince, who was to become emperor Yongzheng. Many claimed that Yongzheng forged the will, and some suggest the will had chosen Yinti, the 14th Prince, who was apparently the favourite, as successor. However, there is strong evidence that Kangxi had in fact chosen Yinzhen as his successor. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x1089, 167 KB) العربية | ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | RomânÇŽ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x1089, 167 KB) العربية | ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | RomânÇŽ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... The Yongzheng Emperor (December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735. ... The Yongzheng Emperor (December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735. ... YinTi (胤禵) (1688-1767) was Kang Xis fourteenth son who was said to be the favourite to succeed him. ...


Kangxi's first Empress gave birth to his second surviving son Yinreng, who was at age 2 named Crown Prince of the Great Qing Empire, which at the time, being a Han Chinese custom, ensured stability during a time of chaos in the south. Although Kangxi let several of his sons to be educated by others, he personally brought up Yinreng, intending to make him the perfect heir. Empress Xiao Cheng Ren (Chinese: 孝诚仁皇后赫舍里氏), also known as the Ren Xiao empress Manchu: HiyooÅ¡ungga Unenggi Gosin HÅ«wanghu); Private Name: Fangyi (Chinese: 芳儀) ( November 26, 1653 - June 16, 1674) was the first Empress Consort of the Kangxi Emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty of China. ... Yinreng (胤礽, born June 16, 1674; died January 27, 1725) was a Heir Apparent to the imperial throne of China. ... A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ... Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ...


Yinreng was tutored by the esteemed mandarin Wang Shan, who was deeply devoted to the prince, and who was to spend the latter years of his life trying to revive Yinreng's position at court. Through the long years of Kangxi's reign, however, factions and rivalries formed. Those who favored Yinreng, the 4th Imperial Prince Yinzhen, and the 13th Imperial Prince Yinxiang had managed to keep them in contention for the throne. Even though Kangxi favoured Yinreng and had always wanted the best out of him, Yinreng did not prove co-operative. The Yongzheng Emperor (December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735. ... YinXiang (胤祥; pinyin yin4 xiang2) was born in 1686 to the Qing Emperor Kangxi and his concubine, Min-Fei of the Janggiya clan. ...


He was said to have very cruel habits, beaten and killed his subordinates, alleged to have had sexual relations with one of Kangxi's concubines, which was defined as incest and a capital offense, and purchased young children from the Jiangsu region for his pleasure. Furthermore, Yinreng's supporters, led by Songgotu, had gradually developed a "Crown Prince Party" (太子黨). The faction, among other objectives, wished to elevate Yinreng to the Throne as soon as possible, even if it meant using unlawful methods. Jiangsu (Simplified Chinese: 江苏; Traditional Chinese: 江蘇; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... Songgotu (zh: 索额图) was a politician during the reign of Emperor Kangxi. ...


Over the years the aging Emperor had kept constant watch over Yinreng, and he was made aware of many of his flaws. The relationship between father and son gradually worsened. Many thought that Yinreng would permanently damage the Qing Empire if he were to succeed the throne. But Kangxi himself also knew that a huge battle at court would ensue if he was to abolish the Crown Prince position entirely. Forty-six years into Kangxi's reign (1707), Kangxi decided that "after twenty years, he could take no more of Yinreng's actions, which he partly described in the Imperial Edict as "too embarrassing to be spoken of", and decided to demote Yinreng from his position as Crown Prince. Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ...


With Yinreng rid of and the position empty, discussion began regarding the choice of a new Crown Prince. Yinzhi (胤禔), Kangxi's eldest surviving son, the Da-a-go (大阿哥), was placed to watch Yinreng in his newly found house arrest, and assumed that because his father placed this trust in himself, he would soon be made heir. Aisin-Gioro Yinzhi (胤祉) was the third son of the Kangxi Emperor of China. ...


The 1st Prince had at many times attempted to sabotage Yinreng, even employing witchcraft. He went as far as asking Kangxi for permission to execute Yinreng, thus enraging Kangxi, which effectively erased all his chances in succession, as well as his current titles. In Court, the Eighth Imperial Prince, Yinsi, seemed to have the most support among officials, as well as the Imperial Family. Yinsi Aisin-gioro (爱新觉罗·胤禩) was born to Emperor Kangxi and his concubine, Liang Fei of the Wei family, in 1681, and was the Eighth Imperial Prince. ...


In diplomatic language, Kangxi advised that the officials and nobles at court to stop the debates regarding the position of Crown Prince. But despite these attempts to quiet rumours and speculation as to who the new Crown Prince might be, the court's daily businesses were strongly disrupted. Furthermore, the 1st Prince's actions led Kangxi to think that it may have been external forces that caused Yinreng's disgrace. In the Third Month of the 48th Year of Kangxi's reign (1709), with the support of the 4th and 13th Imperial Princes, Kangxi re-established Yinreng as Crown Prince to avoid further debate, rumours and disruption at the imperial court. Kangxi had explained Yinreng's former wrongs as a result of mental illness, and he had had the time to recover, and think reasonably again. // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ...


In 1712, during Kangxi's last visit south to the Yangtze region, Yinreng and his faction yet again vied for supreme power. Yinreng ruled as regent during daily court business in Beijing. He had decided, with bad influence from many of his supporters, to allow an attempt at forcing Kangxi to abdicate when the Emperor returned to Beijing. Through several credible sources, Kangxi had received the news, and with power in hand, using strategic military manoeuvring, he saved the Empire from a coup d'etat. When Kangxi returned to Beijing in December 1712, he was enraged, and removed the Crown Prince once more. Yinreng was sent to court to be tried and placed under house arrest. // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... “Peking” redirects here. ... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ...


Kangxi had made it clear that he would not grant the position of Crown Prince to any of his sons for the remainder of his reign, and that he would place his Imperial Valedictory Will inside a box inside Qianqing Palace, only to be opened after his death, and thus no one knew Kangxi's real intentions. What was on his will is subject to intense historical debate.


Disputed Succession

The Seated Kangxi Emperor
The Seated Kangxi Emperor

Following the abolition, Kangxi made several sweeping changes in the political landscape. The 13th Imperial Prince, Yinxiang, was placed under house arrest for "cooperating" with the former Crown Prince. Yinsi, too, was stripped of all imperial titles, only to have them restored years later. The 14th Imperial Prince Yinti, whom many considered to have the best chance in succession, was named "Border Pacification General-in-chief" quelling rebels and was away from Beijing when the political debates raged on. Yinsi, along with the 9th and 10th Princes, had all pledged their support for Yinti. Yinzhen was not widely believed to be a formidable competitor. Image File history File links 康熙坐像.jpg‎ http://kangxi. ... Image File history File links 康熙坐像.jpg‎ http://kangxi. ... YinXiang (胤祥; pinyin yin4 xiang2) was born in 1686 to the Qing Emperor Kangxi and his concubine, Min-Fei of the Janggiya clan. ... In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ... YinTi (胤禵) (1688-1767) was Kang Xis fourteenth son who was said to be the favourite to succeed him. ...


Official documents recorded that during the evening hours of December 20, 1722, Kangxi assembled seven of the non-disgraced Imperial Princes in Beijing at the time, being the 3rd, 4th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 16th, 17th Princes to his bedside. After his death, Longkodo announced Kangxi's will of passing the throne to the 4th Prince Yinzhen. Yinti happened to be in Xinjiang fighting a war, and was summoned to Beijing. He did not arrive until days after Kangxi's death. In the meantime Yinzhen had declared that Kangxi had named him as heir. The dispute over his succession revolves around whether or not Kangxi intended his 4th or 14th son to acceed to the throne. (See: Yongzheng) He was entombed at the Eastern Tombs (東陵) in Zunhua County (遵化縣), Hebei. is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... Longkodo (Chinese:隆科多) (died 1728) was an eminent Chinese official at court from the Tonggiya Clan, belonging to the Bordered Yellow Banner, during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... The Yongzheng Emperor (December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


See also

The Kangxi Dictionary The Kangxi Dictionary (Chinese: 康熙字典; Pinyin: Kāngxī Zìdiǎn; Wade-Giles: Kang-hsi tzu-tien) was the standard Chinese character dictionary during the 18th and 19th centuries. ... Oboi (Manchu: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (?-1669) was a great Manchu warrior of the Bordered Yellow Banner from the Gūwalgiya clan. ... Ming Zhu (明珠), full name Na Lan Ming Zhu, a Manchu, was an eminent and powerful Qing Dynasty official during the reign of Kangxi Emperor of China. ...

Family

The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638 - February 5, 1661) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. ... Empress Xiao Kang Zhang (Chinese: 孝康章皇后佟佳氏) 1640 - 1663 was the third Qing Dynasty Empress Consort of the Shun Zhi Emperor of China. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... Empress Xiao Kang Zhang (Chinese: 孝康章皇后佟佳氏) 1640 - 1663 was the third Qing Dynasty Empress Consort of the Shun Zhi Emperor of China. ... 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Empress Xiao Kang Zhang (Chinese: 孝康章皇后佟佳氏) 1640 - 1663 was the third Qing Dynasty Empress Consort of the Shun Zhi Emperor of China. ... The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ...

Consorts

the total number is approximately 64.

  1. Empress Xiao Cheng Ren (died 1674) from the Heseri clan – married in 1665,Empress Xiaozhuang used this marriage to rule Oboi by Soni.
  2. Empress Xiao Zhao Ren (Manchu: Hiyoošungga Genggiyen Gosin Hūwanghu) from the Niuhuru clan.
  3. Empress Xiao Yi Ren (Manchu: Hiyoošungga Fujurangga Gosin Hūwanghu) from the Tunggiya clan, Yongzheng Emperor's foster-mother.
  4. Empress Xiao Gong Ren; Manchu: Hiyoošungga Gungnecuke Gosin Hūwanghu) from the Uya clan, Yongzheng Emperor's mother.
  5. Imperial Noble Consort Yi Hui (1668–1743) from the Tunggiya clan, Empress Xiao Yi Ren's younger sister.
  6. Imperial Noble Consort Dun Chi (1683–1768) from the Guargiya clan.
  7. Honored Imperial Noble Consort Jing Min (?–1699) from the Janggiya clan.
  8. Noble Consort Wen Xi (?–1695) from the Niuhuru clan, Empress Xiao Zhao Ren's younger siser.
  9. Consort Rong (?–1727) from the Magiya clan.
  10. Consort I (?–1733) from the Gorolo clan.
  11. Consort Hui (?–1732) from the Nala clan.
  12. Consort Shun Yi Mi (1668–1744) from the Wang clan was Han chinese from origin.
  13. Consort Chun Yu Qin (?–1754) from the Chen clan.
  14. Consort Liang (?–1711) from the Wei clan.
  15. Consort Cheng (?-1740) from the Daigiya clan.
  16. Consort Xuan (?-1736) from the Borjigit clan was Mongol from origin.
  17. Consort Ding (1661-1757) from the Wanliuha clan.
  18. Consort Ping (?-1696) from the heseri clan, Empress Xiao Cheng Ren's younger sister.
  19. Consort Hui (different Chinese character from Consort 'Hui')(?-1670) form the borjigit clan.

Empress Xiao Cheng Ren (Chinese: 孝诚仁皇后赫舍里氏) a. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... Kang Xis empress came from this clan. ... Year 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Niuhuru, Empress Xiao Zhao Ren Empress Xiao Zhao Ren (Chinese: 孝昭仁皇后钮祜禄氏) 1653 - 18 March 1678 was the second Empress Consort of the Kang Xi Emperor. ... Empress Xiao Yi Ren (Chinese: 孝懿仁皇后佟佳氏) (? - 24 August 1689), was the third Empress Consort of the Kangxi Emperor. ... The Yongzheng Emperor (born Yinzhen 胤禛 December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735. ... Empress Xiao Gong Ren, (Chinese: 孝恭仁皇后乌雅氏; Manchu: Hiyoošungga Gungnecuke Gosin Hūwanghu) 1660 - 1723, was fourth Empress Consort of the Kang Xi Emperor and daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel Wei-wu (Chinese: 威武),of the Wuya clan, of the Manchu yellow banner corps. ... The Yongzheng Emperor (born Yinzhen 胤禛 December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735. ... Empress Xiao Yi Ren (Chinese: 孝懿仁皇后佟佳氏), (private name:仙蕊) also known as the cousin empress, (? - 24 August 1689). ... Kang Xis empress came from this clan. ... Empress Xiao Cheng Ren (Chinese: 孝诚仁皇后赫舍里氏), also known as the Ren Xiao empress Manchu: Hiyoošungga Unenggi Gosin Hūwanghu); Private Name: Fangyi (Chinese: 芳儀) ( November 26, 1653 - June 16, 1674) was the first Empress Consort of the Kangxi Emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty of China. ...

Sons

Having the longest reign in Chinese history, Kangxi also has the most children out of all Qing Dynasty Emperors. He has, officially on record, a total of 24 sons and 12 daughters. The actual number is much higher, as most of his children died from various illnesses.

Kangxi's Sons
#1 Record Name2 谱名 Mother Title 爵位 Notes
Chenghu 承祜 Hui-fei died young
Chengrui 承瑞 Empress XiaoCheng died young
Chengqing 承慶 died young
Sayinchamhg 賽音察渾 Rong-fei died young
Changhua 長華 Rong-fei died young
Changsheng 長生 Rong-fei died young
1 Yinzhi 胤禔 Hui-fei 1672 - 1734 Beizi Born Baoqing
2 Yinreng 胤礽 Empress Xiaocheng 1674 - 1725 Crown Prince 太子 Crown Prince title abolished in 1708 and 1712
Wanpu 萬黼 1674 - died young
Yinzhan 胤禶 1675 - died young
3 Yinzhi 胤祉 Rong-fei 1677 - 1732 Prince Cheng 诚亲王 peerage revoked by Yongzheng
4 Yinzhen 胤禛 Empress Xiaogong 1678 - 1735 Prince Yong 雍亲王 Emperor 1722 - 1735
5 Yinqi 胤祺 Yi-fei 1679 - 1732 Prince Heng 恒亲王
6 Yinzuo 胤祚 Empress Xiaogong 1680 - 1685 Died young
7 Yinyou 胤祐 Cheng-fei 1680 - 1730 Prince Chun 淳君王
8 Yinsi 胤禩 Liang-fei 1681 - 1726 Prince Lian 廉亲王 Title abolished, expelled from clan, Renamed Akina
9 Yintang 胤禟 Yi-fei 1683 - 1726 Beizi 贝子 Titles removed, expelled from clan, Renamed Saisihe
10 Yin'e 胤俄 Wenxi-Guifei 1683 - 1731 State Duke 辅国公 Titles removed
11 Yinzi 胤禌 Yi-fei 1684 Died young
12 Yintao 胤祹 Ding-fei 1685 - 1764 Prince Fu 履亲王 Given peerage by nephew Qianlong Emperor
13 Yinxiang 胤祥 JingMin-Huangguifei 1686 - 1730 Prince Yi 怡亲王 Peerage title inherited
14 Yinzheng 胤祯 Empress Xiaogong 1688 - 1756 Prince Xun 恂郡王 Peerage title abolished, rumored to be Kangxi's actual successor
Born Yinzheng, to avoid the nominal taboo of the Emperor, change into Yunti(允禵)
15 Yinyu 胤禑 Shunyimi-Fei 1693 - 1731 Prince Yu 愉郡王
16 Yinlu 胤祿 Shunyimi-Fei 1695 - 1768 Prince Zhuang 莊亲王 Adopted by another branch of clan
17 Yinli 胤礼 Jin-Fei 1697 - 1738 Prince Guo 果亲王
18 Yinxie 胤祄 Shunyimi-Fei 1701 - 1708 Died young
19 Yinji 胤禝 Xiang-pin 1706 - 1708 Died young
20 Yinwei 胤禕 Xiang-pin 1693 - 1731 Prince Yu 愉郡王
21 Yinxi 胤禧 Xi-pin 1711 - 1758 Prince Shen 慎郡王
22 Yinhu 胤祜 Jin-pin 1711 - 1731 Beile 贝勒
23 Yinqi 胤祁 Jing-pin 1713 - 1731 Beile 贝勒
24 Yinmi 胤祕 Mu-pin 1716 - 1773 Prince Jian 缄亲王
  • Notes: (1) The order by which the Princes were referred to, and recorded on official documents were all dictated by the number they were assigned by the order of birth. This order was unofficial until 1677, when Kangxi decreed that all of his male descendants will now adhere to a generation code as their middle character (see Chinese name). As a result of the new system, the former order was abolished, with Yinzhi becoming the first Prince, thus the current numerical order. (2) All of Kangxi's sons changed their names upon Yongzheng's accession in 1722 by modifying the first character from "胤" (yin) to "允" (yun) to avoid the nominal taboo of the Emperor. Yinxiang was posthumously allowed to change him name back to "Yinxiang".

Empress Xiao Cheng Ren (Chinese: 孝诚仁皇后赫舍里氏), also known as the Ren Xiao empress Manchu: HiyooÅ¡ungga Unenggi Gosin HÅ«wanghu); Private Name: Fangyi (Chinese: 芳儀) ( November 26, 1653 - June 16, 1674) was the first Empress Consort of the Kangxi Emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty of China. ... Aisin-Gioro Yinzhi (胤祉) was the third son of the Kangxi Emperor of China. ... The Qing Dynasty in China (1644-1911) developed a very complicated peerage system for ranking nobility. ... Yinreng (胤礽, born June 16, 1674; died January 27, 1725) was a Heir Apparent to the imperial throne of China. ... Empress Xiao Cheng Ren (Chinese: 孝诚仁皇后赫舍里氏), also known as the Ren Xiao empress Manchu: HiyooÅ¡ungga Unenggi Gosin HÅ«wanghu); Private Name: Fangyi (Chinese: 芳儀) ( November 26, 1653 - June 16, 1674) was the first Empress Consort of the Kangxi Emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty of China. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... Aisin-Gioro Yinzhi (胤祉) was the third son of the Kangxi Emperor of China. ... The Yongzheng Emperor (born Yinzhen 胤禛 December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735. ... Empress Gong Ren, (Chinese: 孝恭仁皇后烏雅氏; Manchu: HiyooÅ¡ungga Gungnecuke Gosin HÅ«wanghu), (private name: å¾·å®›) (1660 - 1723). ... Empress Gong Ren, (Chinese: 孝恭仁皇后烏雅氏; Manchu: HiyooÅ¡ungga Gungnecuke Gosin HÅ«wanghu), (private name: å¾·å®›) (1660 - 1723). ... Yinsi Aisin-gioro (爱新觉罗·胤禩) was born to Emperor Kangxi and his concubine, Liang Fei of the Wei family, in 1681, and was the Eighth Imperial Prince. ... Prince Yintang (胤禟) (1683 - 1726) was the ninth son of the Emperor Kangxi. ... The Qianlong Emperor (born Hongli, September 25, 1711 – February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... YinXiang (胤祥; pinyin yin4 xiang2) was born in 1686 to the Qing Emperor Kangxi and his concubine, Min-Fei of the Janggiya clan. ... The Prince Yi of the Blood (怡亲王) was the title of peerage first given to Yinxiang, then subsequently inherited by his descendants, the 13th son of the Kangxi Emperor of China. ... Empress Gong Ren, (Chinese: 孝恭仁皇后烏雅氏; Manchu: HiyooÅ¡ungga Gungnecuke Gosin HÅ«wanghu), (private name: å¾·å®›) (1660 - 1723). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... YinXiang (胤祥; pinyin yin4 xiang2) was born in 1686 to the Qing Emperor Kangxi and his concubine, Min-Fei of the Janggiya clan. ...

Daughters

  1. Seventh daughter: Princess (1682 - 1682), daughter of Empress Xiao Yi Ren
  2. Eighth daughter: Princess Wen Xian (固倫溫憲公主) (1683 - 1702).
  3. Twelfth daughter: (1686 - 1697).

Empress Xiao Yi Ren (Chinese: 孝懿仁皇后佟佳氏) (? - 24 August 1689), was the third Empress Consort of the Kangxi Emperor. ...

Notes

  1. ^ He can be viewed as either the third or the fourth emperor of the dynasty, depending on whether the dynasty's founder, Nurhaci, who used the title of Khan but was posthumously given imperial title, is to be treated as an emperor or not.

Also known as Taizu Emperor, Nurhaci or Nuerhachi (Chinese: 努爾哈赤; Manchu: ) (1558-September 30, 1626; r. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Kangxi Emperor

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Sources

Kangxi Emperor
Born: May 4 1654 Died: December 20 1722
Preceded by
The Shunzhi Emperor
Emperor of China
1661–1722
Succeeded by
The Yongzheng Emperor

Jonathan D. Spence (August 11, 1936– ) is a British-born historian, specialising in Chinese history. ... Jonathan Cape has been since 1987 an imprint of Random House. ... Aisin Gioro (Simplified Chinese: 爱新觉罗; Traditional Chinese: 愛新覺羅; Pinyin: àixīn juéluó; Manchu: ) was the clan name of the Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty (as well as the later short-lived regime in Manchukuo). ... The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638–February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... The Yongzheng Emperor (born Yinzhen 胤禛 December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
CHINA: THE THREE EMPERORS, 1662-1795: The Kangxi Emperor (1662-1722) (95 words)
Seal of the Kangxi Emperor, Kangxi period 1662—1722.
In addition to his military prowess the Kangxi Emperor was famous for his scholarly abilities and his patronage of the arts.
Kangxi is shown at his desk in an informal scholar’s hat, poised to write.
Kangxi Emperor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2141 words)
The Kangxi Emperor (Chinese: 康熙; Pinyin: Kāngxī; Wade-Giles: K'ang-hsi; May 4, 1654 – December 20, 1722) was the third Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over all of China, from 1661 to 1722.
His father died in his early twenties, and as Kangxi was not able to rule in his minority, the Shunzhi Emperor appointed Sonin, Suksaha, Ebilun, and Oboi as the Four Regents.
Kangxi's first Empress gave birth to his second surviving son Yinreng, who was at age 2 named Crown Prince of the Great Qing Empire, which at the time, being a Han Chinese custom, ensured stability during a time of chaos in the south.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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