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Encyclopedia > Kangaroo
Kangaroos[1]
Female Eastern Grey Kangaroo with joey
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Subclass: Marsupialia
Order: Diprotodontia
Suborder: Macropodiformes
Family: Macropodidae
Genus: Macropus
in part
Species

Macropus rufus
Macropus giganteus
Macropus fuliginosus
Macropus antilopinus Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1067x1600, 645 KB) Eastern Grey Kangaroo with joey File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kangaroo Marsupial Eastern Grey Kangaroo Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates User:Fir0002/FPCandidates Joey... Binomial name Shaw, 1790 The Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) is a marsupial found in southern and eastern Australia, with a population of several million. ... A joey of Tasmanian Pademelon looking out from the mothers pouch A joey is any infant marsupial. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Orders Superorder Ameridelphia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Superorder Australidelphia Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Marsupials are mammals in which the female typically has a pouch (called the marsupium, from which the name Marsupial derives) in which it rears its young through early infancy. ... Suborders Vombatiformes Phalangeriformes Macropodiformes Diprotodontia is a large taxon of about 120 marsupial mammals including the kangaroos, wallabies, possums, Koala, wombats, and many others. ... Families Hypsiprymnodontidae Macropodidae Potoroidae Macropodiformes is one of the three suborders of the large marsupial order Diprotodontia. ... Genera See text Macropods are marsupials belonging to the family Macropodidae, which includes kangaroos, wallabies, tree kangaroos, pademelons, and several others. ... This article is about kangaroos, the marsupial. ... Binomial name Desmarest, 1822 The Red Kangaroo (Macropus rufus) is the largest of all kangaroos and the largest surviving marsupial. ... Binomial name Shaw, 1790 The Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) is a marsupial found in southern and eastern Australia, with a population of several million. ... Binomial name Macropus fuliginosus Desmarest, 1817 The Western Grey Kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosis or alternately Macropus fuliginosus) is a large and very common macropod, found across almost the entire southern part of Australia, from just south of Shark Bay to coastal South Australia, western Victoria, and the entire Murray-Darling Basin... Binomial name Macropus antilopinus (Gould, 1842) The Antilopine Kangaroo (Macropus antilopinus), sometimes called the Antilopine Wallaroo or the Antilopine Wallaby, is a species of macropod found in northern Australia: in Cape York Peninsula in Queensland, the Top End of the Northern Territory, and the Kimberley region of Western Australia. ...

A kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning 'large foot'). In common use the term is used to describe the largest species from this family, the Red Kangaroo, the Antilopine Kangaroo, and the Eastern and Western Grey Kangaroo of the Macropus genus. The family also includes many smaller species which include the wallabies, tree-kangaroos, wallaroos, pademelons and the Quokka, some 63 living species in all.[1] Kangaroos are endemic to the continent of Australia, while the smaller macropods are found in Australia and New Guinea. This article is about mammals. ... Genera See text Macropods are marsupials belonging to the family Macropodidae, which includes kangaroos, wallabies, tree kangaroos, pademelons, and several others. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Desmarest, 1822 The Red Kangaroo (Macropus rufus) is the largest of all kangaroos and the largest surviving marsupial. ... Binomial name Macropus antilopinus (Gould, 1842) The Antilopine Kangaroo (Macropus antilopinus), sometimes called the Antilopine Wallaroo or the Antilopine Wallaby, is a species of macropod found in northern Australia: in Cape York Peninsula in Queensland, the Top End of the Northern Territory, and the Kimberley region of Western Australia. ... Binomial name Shaw, 1790 The Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) is a marsupial found in southern and eastern Australia, with a population of several million. ... Binomial name Macropus fuliginosus Desmarest, 1817 The Western Grey Kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosis or alternately Macropus fuliginosus) is a large and very common macropod, found across almost the entire southern part of Australia, from just south of Shark Bay to coastal South Australia, western Victoria, and the entire Murray-Darling Basin... This article is about kangaroos, the marsupial. ... For other uses, see Wallaby (disambiguation). ... Species About 9; see text. ... For other uses, see Wallaroo (disambiguation). ... Type Species Halmaturus (Thylogale) eugenii Gray, 1837 (= Halmaturus thetis Lesson, 1828) Species Thylogale billardierii Thylogale browni Thylogale brunii Thylogale calabyi Thylogale lanatus Thylogale stigmatica Thylogale thetis Tasmanian pademelon eating a slice of apple, with her joey Female (notice the full pouch) red-legged pademelon eating a slice of sweet potato... Binomial name (Quoy & Gaimard, 1830) Quokka, Melbourne Zoo The Quokka (Setonix brachyurus) is a small macropod, about the size of a large domestic cat. ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ...


In general, larger kangaroos have adapted much better to changes wrought to the Australian landscape by humans and though many of their smaller cousins are endangered, they are plentiful. They are not farmed to any extent, but wild kangaroos are shot for meat, over which there is controversy.[2] Kangaroo is a meat from any of the three species of Kangaroo. ...


The kangaroo is an Australian icon: it is featured on the Australian coat of arms,[3] on some of its currency,[4] and is used by many Australian organisations, including Qantas.[5] Australian Coat of Arms (since 1912) The Coat of Arms of Australia is the official symbol of Australia. ... Qantas (Qantas Airways Limited) (IPA: ) is the name and callsign of the national airline of Australia. ...

Contents

Terminology

The word kangaroo derives from the Guugu Yimidhirr word gangurru, referring to a grey kangaroo.[6] The name was first recorded as "Kangooroo or Kanguru" on 4 August 1770, by Lieutenant (later Captain) James Cook on the banks of the Endeavour River at the site of modern Cooktown, when HM Bark Endeavour was beached for almost seven weeks to repair damage sustained on the Great Barrier Reef.[7] Guugu Yimidhirr (also Guguyimidjir, Kukuyimidir, Koko Imdudji, Gugu Yimijir, Guuguu Yimithirr) is an Australian Aboriginal language. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the village in Queensland, see 1770, Queensland. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... Captain is a rank or title with various meanings. ... This article is about the British explorer. ... Endeavour River locator map The Endeavour River 15°28′S 145°17′E on Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland, Australia, was named in 1770 by Lt. ... Cooktown is the northernmost town on the East coast of Australia, located at the mouth of the Endeavour River, on Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland, Australia. ... HMB Endeavour was a small 18th century British sailing ship, famous for being the vessel commanded by Lt. ... The Great Barrier Reef is the worlds largest coral reef system,[1][2] composed of roughly 3,000 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for 2,600 kilometres (1,616 mi) over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres (132,974 sq mi). ...


A common legend about the kangaroo's English name is that it came from the Aboriginal words for "I don't understand you." According to this legend, Captain James Cook and naturalist Sir Joseph Banks were exploring Australia when they happened upon the animal. They asked a nearby local what the creatures were called. The local responded "Kangaroo", meaning "I don't understand you", which Cook took to be the name of the creature.[citation needed] An urban legend or urban myth is similar to a modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... This article is about the British explorer. ... For clothing store, see JoS. A. Bank Clothiers. ...


Kangaroo soon became adopted into standard English where it has come to mean any member of the family of kangaroos and wallabies. Male kangaroos are called bucks, boomers, jacks, or old men; females are does, flyers, or jills, and the young ones are joeys.[8] The collective noun for kangaroos is a mob, troop, or court. Kangaroos are sometimes colloquially referred to as roos.[9] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A joey of Tasmanian Pademelon looking out from the mothers pouch A joey is any infant marsupial. ... Collective nouns (also known as terms of venery or nouns of assemblage) in English are subject-specific words used to define a grouping of people, animals, objects or concepts. ...


Overview

A Tasmanian Forester (Eastern Grey) Kangaroo in motion.
A Tasmanian Forester (Eastern Grey) Kangaroo in motion.

There are four species that are commonly referred to as kangaroos: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1519x1006, 243 KB) Опис файлу A Forrester (Grey) Kangaroo in flight. Picture taken in Narawntapu National Park, Tasmania in December 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1519x1006, 243 KB) Опис файлу A Forrester (Grey) Kangaroo in flight. Picture taken in Narawntapu National Park, Tasmania in December 2005. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... Binomial name Shaw, 1790 The Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) is a marsupial found in southern and eastern Australia, with a population of several million. ...

  • The Red Kangaroo (Macropus rufus) is the largest surviving marsupial anywhere in the world. Fewer in numbers, the Red Kangaroo occupies the arid and semi-arid centre of the continent. A large male can be 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) tall and weigh 90 kg (200 lb).[10]
  • The Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) is less well-known than the red (outside of Australia), but the most often seen, as its range covers the fertile eastern part of the continent.
  • The Western Grey Kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) is slightly smaller again at about 54 kg (119 lb) for a large male. It is found in the southern part of Western Australia, South Australia near the coast, and the Darling River basin.
  • The Antilopine Kangaroo (Macropus antilopinus) is, essentially, the far-northern equivalent of the Eastern and Western Grey Kangaroos. Like them, it is a creature of the grassy plains and woodlands, and gregarious.

In addition, there are about 50 smaller macropods closely related to the kangaroo in the family Macropodidae. This article is about mammals. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... The Darling River is the longest river in Australia, flowing 2,739km from northern New South Wales to its confluence with the Murray River at Wentworth, New South Wales. ... Genera See text Macropods are marsupials belonging to the family Macropodidae, which includes kangaroos, wallabies, tree kangaroos, pademelons, and several others. ...


Description

Red Kangaroo (Macropus rufus)
Red Kangaroo (Macropus rufus)

Europeans have long regarded Kangaroos as strange animals. Early explorers described them as creatures that had heads like deer (without antlers), stood upright like men, and hopped like frogs. Combined with the two-headed appearance of a mother kangaroo, this led many back home to dismiss them as travellers' tales for quite some time.[citation needed] Image File history File links Kangur. ... Image File history File links Kangur. ... Binomial name Desmarest, 1822 The Red Kangaroo (Macropus rufus) is the largest of all kangaroos and the largest surviving marsupial. ...


Kangaroos have large, powerful hind legs, large feet adapted for leaping, a long muscular tail for balance, and a small head. Like all marsupials, female kangaroos have a pouch called a marsupium in which joeys complete postnatal development. A scorpion tail The tail is the section at the rear end of an animals body; in general, the term refers to a distinct, flexible appendage to the torso. ... This article is about mammals. ... Kangaroo Joey inside the pouch The pouch is a distinguishing feature of marsupials; the name marsupial is derived from the Latin marsupium, meaning pouch. ... Postnatal (Latin for after birth) is the period beginning immediately after the birth of a child and extending for about six weeks. ...


Behaviour

Kangaroos are the only large animals to use hopping as a means of locomotion. The comfortable hopping speed for Red Kangaroo is about 20–25 km/h (13–16 mph), but speeds of up to 70 km/h (44 mph) can be attained, over short distances, while it can sustain a speed of 40 km/h (25 mph) for nearly two kilometres.[11] This fast and energy-efficient method of travel has evolved because of the need to regularly cover large distances in search of food and water, rather than the need to escape predators. In a general sense, locomotion simply means active movement or travel, applying not just to biological individuals. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ...


Because of its long feet, it cannot walk correctly. To move at slow speeds, it uses its tail to form a tripod with its two forelimbs. It then raises its hind feet forward, in a form of locomotion called "crawl-walking."[11] A forelimb is an anterior limb on an animals body. ...


The average life expectancy of a kangaroo is about 4–6 years, with some living until they are about 23.[12] This article is about the measure of remaining life. ...


Diet

Different species of kangaroos eat different diets. Eastern grey kangaroos are predominantly grazers eating a wide variety of grasses whereas some other species (e.g. red kangaroos and swamp wallabies) include significant amounts of shrubs in the diet. The smaller species of kangaroos also consume hypogeal fungi. Many species are nocturnal[13] and crepuscular,[14] usually spending the days resting in shade and the cool evenings, nights and mornings moving about and feeding. A nocturnal animal is one that sleeps during the day and is active at night - the opposite of the human (diurnal) schedule. ... Adult Firefly or Lightning Bug – a Crepuscular Beetle Photuris lucicrescens Crepuscular is a term used to describe animals that are primarily active during the twilight. ...


Because of its grazing, kangaroos have developed specialized teeth. Its incisors are able to crop grass close to the ground, and its molars chop and grind the grass. Since the two sides of the lower jaw are not joined together, the lower incisors are farther apart, giving the kangaroo a wider bite. The silica in grass is abrasive, so kangaroo molars move forward as they are ground down, and eventually fall out, replaced by new teeth that grow in the back.[11] The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ...


Absence of digestive methane release

Despite having a herbivorous diet similar to ruminants such as cattle which release large quantities of methane through exhaling and eructation, kangaroos release virtually none. The hydrogen byproduct of fermentation is instead converted into acetate, which is then used to provide further energy. Scientists are interested in the possibility of transferring the bacteria responsible from kangaroos to cattle, since the greenhouse gas effect of methane is 23 times greater than that of carbon dioxide.[15] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ruminantia. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... For the play Breath by Samuel Beckett, see Breath (play). ... The process of burping, also known as a belching or eructation, is an often audible release through the mouth of gas that has accumulated in the stomach or esophagus. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Predators

Kangaroos have few natural predators. The Thylacine, considered by palaeontologists to have once been a major natural predator of the kangaroo, is now extinct. Other extinct predators included the Marsupial Lion, Megalania and the Wonambi. However, with the arrival of humans in Australia at least 50,000 years ago and the introduction of the dingo about 5,000 years ago, kangaroos have had to adapt. The mere barking of a dog can set a full-grown male boomer into a wild frenzy.[citation needed] Wedge-tailed Eagles and other raptors usually eat kangaroo carrion. Goannas and other carnivorous reptiles also pose a danger to smaller kangaroo species when other food sources are lacking. This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Binomial name (Harris, 1808) The Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern times. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Thylacoleo carnifex (Owen, 1858) The Marsupial Lion (Thylacoleo carnifex) is an extinct species of carnivorous marsupial, (the largest Austrailan mammalian predator at that time) that lived in Australia from about 24 million years ago, during the late Oligocene, and became extinct about 50,000 years ago, during the... Binomial name (Richard Owen, 1859) Megalania is an extinct giant monitor lizard. ... Wonambi naracoortensis, part of the extinct megafauna of Australia, was a five to six metre long python, related distantly to the more commonly known carpet snake of Australia. ... For other uses, see Dingo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Goanna (disambiguation). ... Reptilia redirects here. ...


Along with dingoes and other canids, introduced species like foxes and feral cats also pose a threat to kangaroo populations. Kangaroos and wallabies are adept swimmers, and often flee into waterways if presented with the option. If pursued into the water, a large kangaroo may use its forepaws to hold the predator underwater so as to drown it.[16] Another defensive tactic described by witnesses is catching the attacking dog with the forepaws and disembowelling it with the hind legs. Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dē, IPA: ) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... Invasive species are a threat to the native biodiversity of Australia and are an ongoing cost to Australian agriculture. ... This article is about the animal. ... Rescued feral kittens Most feral kittens have little chance of surviving more than a few months and are vulnerable to starvation, predators, disease and even flea-induced anemia[1][2]. Here, kittens from two feral litters are fostered by a domestic mother. ... Swimmer redirects here. ... A tactic is a method employed to help achieve a certain goal. ... Disembowelment is evisceration, or the removing of vital organs, usually from the abdomen. ...


Adaptations

Newborn joey sucking on a teat in the pouch
Newborn joey sucking on a teat in the pouch

Kangaroos have developed a number of adaptations to a dry, infertile continent and highly variable climate. As with all marsupials, the young are born at a very early stage of development – after a gestation of 31–36 days. At this stage, only the forelimbs are somewhat developed, to allow the newborn to climb to the pouch and attach to a teat. In comparison, a human embryo at a similar stage of development would be about seven weeks old, and premature babies born at less than 23 weeks are usually not mature enough to survive. The joey will usually stay in the pouch for about nine months (180–320 days for the Western Grey) before starting to leave the pouch for small periods of time. It is usually fed by its mother until reaching 18 months. Download high resolution version (765x645, 44 KB) Joey (baby kangaroo) in its mothers pouch. ... Download high resolution version (765x645, 44 KB) Joey (baby kangaroo) in its mothers pouch. ... This article is about mammals. ... Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ... Kangaroo Joey inside the pouch The pouch is a distinguishing feature of marsupials; the name marsupial is derived from the Latin marsupium, meaning pouch. ... A goat kid feeding on its mothers milk Teat is an alternative word for the nipple of a mammary gland, in humans referred to as a breast, from which milk is discharged. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... In most systems of human pregnancy, the condition, premature birth (also known as a preterm birth), occurs when the baby is born within sooner than 36 weeks of completed gestation. ...


The female kangaroo is usually pregnant in permanence, except on the day she gives birth; however, she has the ability to freeze the development of an embryo until the previous joey is able to leave the pouch. This is known as diapause, and will occur in times of drought and in areas with poor food sources. The composition of the milk produced by the mother varies according to the needs of the joey. In addition, the mother is able to produce two different kinds of milk simultaneously for the newborn and the older joey still in the pouch. A pregnant woman Pregnancy is the process by which a mammalian female carries a live offspring from conception until it develops to the point where the offspring is capable of living outside the womb. ... A joey of Tasmanian Pademelon looking out from the mothers pouch A joey is any infant marsupial. ... Embryonic diapause, in mammals is a condition where pre-implantation blastocysts are maintained in a state of dormancy, often due to environmental cues, until such time as the environment improves. ... A glass of cows milk. ...


Unusually, during a dry period, males will not produce sperm, and females will only conceive if there has been enough rain to produce a large quantity of green vegetation.[17]

Hindleg of a kangaroo
Hindleg of a kangaroo

Kangaroos and wallabies have large, stretchy tendons in their hind legs. They store elastic strain energy in the tendons of their large hind legs, providing most of the energy required for each hop by the spring action of the tendons rather than by any muscular effort. This is true in all animal species which have muscles connected to their skeleton through elastic elements such as tendons, but the effect is more pronounced in kangaroos. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 394 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 630 pixel, file size: 96 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Original caption: Hinterfuß eines Riesenkänguruhs mit dem Putzhändchen. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 394 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 630 pixel, file size: 96 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Original caption: Hinterfuß eines Riesenkänguruhs mit dem Putzhändchen. ... A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone and is built to withstand tension. ...


There is also a link between the hopping action and breathing: as the feet leave the ground, air is expelled from the lungs; bringing the feet forward ready for landing refills the lungs, providing further energy efficiency. Studies of kangaroos and wallabies have demonstrated that, beyond the minimum energy expenditure required to hop at all, increased speed requires very little extra effort (much less than the same speed increase in, say, a horse, dog or human), and that the extra energy is required to carry extra weight. For kangaroos, the key benefit of hopping is not speed to escape predators—the top speed of a kangaroo is no higher than that of a similarly-sized quadruped, and the Australian native predators are in any case less fearsome than those of other continents—but economy: in an infertile continent with highly variable weather patterns, the ability of a kangaroo to travel long distances at moderately high speed in search of food sources is crucial to survival.


A sequencing project of the Kangaroo genome was started in 2004 as a collaboration between Australia (mainly funded by the state of Victoria) and the National Institutes of Health in the US.[18] The genome of a marsupial such as the kangaroo is of great interest to scientists studying comparative genomics because marsupials are at an ideal degree of evolutionary divergence from humans: mice are too close and haven't developed many different functions, while birds are genetically too remote. The dairy industry has also expressed some interest in this project.[specify][citation needed] In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (or primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... VIC redirects here. ... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical research. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Comparative genomics is the study of relationships between the genomes of different species or strains. ... This article is about the animal. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ...


Kangaroo blindness

Eye disease is rare but not new among kangaroos. The first official report of kangaroo blindness took place in 1994, in central New South Wales. The following year, reports of blind kangaroos appeared in Victoria and South Australia. By 1996, the disease had spread "across the desert to Western Australia".[citation needed] Australian authorities were concerned that the disease could spread to other livestock and possibly humans. Researchers at the Australian Animal Health Laboratories in Geelong detected a virus called the Wallal virus in two species of midge, believed to have been the carriers.[19][20] Veterinarians also discovered that less than three percent of kangaroos exposed to the virus developed blindness.[21] Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... NSW redirects here. ... VIC redirects here. ... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... - - Nickname: City by the Bay Geography Area: 1,240 km² Coordinates: Time Zone UTC +10:00 Population (2003) 200,067 Among Australian cities: Density: persons/km² Political Mayor: Shane Dowling Governing body: City of Greater Geelong Geelong is a port city of 200,067 people (2003 census) located on Corio... In American and Canadian English, a veterinarian (from Latin veterinae, draught animals) is an animal doctor, a practitioner of veterinary medicine. ...


Interaction with humans

Before European settlement, the kangaroo was a very important animal for Australian Aborigines, for its meat, hide, bones and sinews. In addition, there were important Dreaming stories and ceremonies involving the kangaroo. Aherrenge is a current kangaroo dreaming site in the Northern Territory. The game of Marn grook was played using a ball made from kangaroo by the Kurnai people. The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... Aboriginal Flag Australian Aborigines is a name used to collectively describe most of the indigenous peoples of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... This article is about Australian Aboriginal cosmogony, cosmology and spirituality. ... For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004... Marn Grook (also spelt marngrook) is an Australian Aboriginal ball game, which is claimed to have had an influence on the modern game of Australian rules football, most notably in the spectacular jumping and high marking exhibited by the players of both games. ... The Gunai or Kurnai nation is one of the Aboriginal nations of Australia. ...


Unlike many of the smaller macropods, kangaroos have fared well since European settlement. European settlers cut down forests to create vast grasslands for sheep and cattle grazing, added stock watering points in arid areas, and have substantially reduced the number of dingoes. The history of Australia began when people first migrated to the Australian continent from the north, at least 40,000-45,000 years ago. ... “Sheep” redirects here. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... For other uses, see Dingo (disambiguation). ...


Kangaroos are shy and retiring by nature, and in normal circumstances present no threat to humans. Male kangaroos often "box" amongst each other, playfully, for dominance, or in competition for mates. The dexterity of their forepaws is utilised in both punching and grappling with the foe, but the real danger lies in a serious kick with the hindleg. The sharpened toenails can disembowel an opponent. A toenail is the nail found on a toe. ...


There are very few records of kangaroos attacking humans without provocation, however several such unprovoked attacks in 2004 spurred fears of a rabies-like disease possibly affecting the marsupials. The only reliably documented case of a fatality from a kangaroo attack occurred in New South Wales, in 1936. A hunter was killed when he tried to rescue his two dogs from a heated fray. Other suggested causes for erratic and dangerous kangaroo behaviour include extreme thirst and hunger. Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In 2003, Lulu, an Eastern Grey, saved a farmer's life. She received the RSPCA National Animal Valor Award on May 19 of the next year.[22][23][24] The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) is a charity in England and Wales that promotes animal welfare. ...


Conflict with vehicles

A "kangaroo crossing" sign on an Australian highway.
A "kangaroo crossing" sign on an Australian highway.
A kangaroo crossing a highway.
A kangaroo crossing a highway.

A collision with a vehicle is capable of killing a kangaroo. Kangaroos blinded by headlights or startled by engine noise have been known to leap in front of cars. Since kangaroos in mid-bound can reach speeds of around 50 km/h (31 mph) and are relatively heavy, the force of impact can be severe. Small vehicles may be destroyed, while larger vehicles may suffer engine damage. The risk of harm to vehicle occupants is greatly increased if the windscreen is the point of impact. As a result, "kangaroo crossing" signs are commonplace in Australia. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (768x1024, 88 KB) A picture of a kangaroo sign at stuart higway. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (768x1024, 88 KB) A picture of a kangaroo sign at stuart higway. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The windshield or windscreen of an aircraft, automobile, or motorcycle, is the front window. ...


Vehicles that frequent isolated roads, where roadside assistance may be scarce, are often fitted with "roo bars" to minimise damage caused by collision. Bonnet-mounted devices, designed to scare wildlife off the road with ultrasound and other methods, have been devised and marketed. A bull bar (also roo bar in Australia) is a device fitted to the front of a vehicle to protect the vehicle (and its passengers) from damage in a collision with an animal. ... A flipfront provides easy access to the engine bay. ... For other uses, see Ultrasound (disambiguation). ...


If a female is the victim of a collision, animal welfare groups ask that her pouch be checked for any surviving joey, in which case it may be removed to a wildlife sanctuary or veterinary surgeon for rehabilitation. Likewise, when an adult kangaroo is injured in a collision, a vet, the RSPCA or the National Parks and Wildlife Service can be consulted for instructions on proper care. In New South Wales, rehabilitation of kangaroos is carried out by volunteers from WIRES. Wildlife rehabilitation is the process of removing from the wild and caring for: injured, orphaned, or sick wild animals. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Veterinarian. ... The first meeting of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Australia (RSPCA Australia) was held in February 1981. ... The New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) is part of the Department of Environment and Conservation - the main government conservation agency in New South Wales, Australia. ... WIRES, the NSW Wildlife Information and Rescue Service, is the largest wildlife rehabilitation charity in Australia. ...


Hand-raising

Occasionally, individuals take on the task of rearing a recovered joey themselves. The rule-of-thumb says that if the joey is already covered with fur at the time of the accident (as opposed to still being in its embryonic stage), it stands a good chance of growing up properly. Lactose-free milk is required, otherwise the animal may develop blindness. They hop readily into a cloth bag when it is lowered in front of them approximately to the height where the mother's pouch would be. The joey's instinct is to "cuddle up", thereby endearing themselves to their keepers, but after hand-rearing a joey, it cannot usually be released into the wild and be expected to provide for itself immediately. Usually wildlife sanctuaries are willing to adopt kangaroos which are no longer practical, or have grown too large to contain, needing at least 1 acre and 7ft boundary fences for a fully grown kangaroo. A rule of thumb is an easily learned and easily applied procedure for approximately calculating or recalling some value, or for making some determination. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... This article is about the visual condition. ...


Kangaroo emblems and popular culture

Kangaroo have been featured on coins, as well as being used as emblems and logos. They have also been used as mascots and in the naming of sports teams and are extremely well-represented in films, television, toys and souvenirs around the world. Kangaroo emblems and popular culture deals with the uses which have been made of the image of the kangaroo such as coins, emblems, logos, mascots and in the naming of sports teams. ...


References

  • Dawson, Terence J. 1995. Kangaroos: Biology of the Largest Marsupials. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. Second printing: 1998. ISBN 0-8014-8262-3.
  • Flannery, Timothy Fridtjof, et al. 1996. Tree Kangaroos: A Curious Natural History. Reed Books, Melbourne. ISBN 0-7301-0492-3
  • Underhill D. 1993. Australia's Dangerous Creatures, Reader's Digest, Sydney, New South Wales, ISBN 0-86438-018-6
  • Weldon, Kevin. 1985. The Kangaroo. Weldons Pty. Ltd., Sydney. ISBN 0-949708-22-4

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Groves, Colin (16 November 2005). in Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds): Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, 64 & 66. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ Steve Dow: "An industry that's under the gun". Sydney Morning Herald online, September 26, 2007.
  3. ^ Australia's coat of arms URL accessed January 6, 2007.
  4. ^ The Australian currency URL accessed January 6, 2007.
  5. ^ The Kangaroo symbol URL accessed January 6, 2007.
  6. ^ Etymology of mammal names URL accessed January 7, 2007.
  7. ^ Kangaroo - Captain Cook's Journal. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
  8. ^ Animal Bytes: Kangaroo and Wallaby URL accessed January 7, 2007.
  9. ^ Roo. Compact Oxford English Dictionary. Ask Oxford.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
  10. ^ Red Kangaroos. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.
  11. ^ a b c Penny, Malcolm (2002). The Secret Life of Kangaroos. Austin, Texas: Raintree Steck-Vaughn Puiblishers. ISBN 0-7398-4986-7. 
  12. ^ Gestation, Incubation, and Longevity of Selected Animals. infoplease.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
  13. ^ Archives URL accessed January 7, 2007.
  14. ^ Columbus Zoo article URL accessed January 7, 2007.
  15. ^ Radio Australia - Innovations: "Methane In Agriculture." 15 August 2004. Retrieved 28 August 2007.
  16. ^ Canadian Museum of Nature - Kangaroo URL accessed January 6, 2007.
  17. ^ Burnie, David; Don E. Wilson (2001). Animal. New York, New York: DK Publishing, Inc., 99-101. ISBN 0-7894-7764-5. 
  18. ^ Kangaroo hops in line for genome sequencing URL accessed January 6, 2007.
  19. ^ Hooper, P (August 1999). "Kangaroo blindness and some other new viral diseases in Australia". Australian Veterinary Journal 77 (8). Retrieved on 2006-12-31. 
  20. ^ (Autumn 1996) "Viruses on the hop". Ecos (87). CSIRO Publishing. Retrieved on 2006-12-31. 
  21. ^ Unknown. National Wildlife Federation.
  22. ^ "Blind kangaroo jumps in to rescue farmer", The Scotsman, 2003-09-22. Retrieved on 2006-12-31. 
  23. ^ Morse, Sherry (2003-04-10). Half-Blind Kangaroo Saves Life Of Unconscious Man. Buzzle.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
  24. ^ Lulu the Kangaroo" receives the RSPCA "National Animal Valor Award. luluthekangaroo.com.au. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.

Dr Colin Groves is a Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a comprehensive multi-volume dictionary published by the Oxford University Press. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... CSIRO PUBLISHING is an Australian-based science and technology publisher. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Scotsmans offices in Edinburgh The Scotsman is a Scottish national newspaper, published in Edinburgh. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Macropus

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Embryonic diapause, in mammals is a condition where pre-implantation blastocysts are maintained in a state of dormancy, often due to environmental cues, until such time as the environment improves. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The boxing kangaroo was the symbol for the successful 1983 Australian challenge for the Americas Cup. ... Kangaroo emblems and popular culture deals with the uses which have been made of the image of the kangaroo such as coins, emblems, logos, mascots and in the naming of sports teams. ...

External links

  • The Kangaroo Genome Project at Australian National University
  • Courtship and Mating
  • Prehistoric mammals
  • Roophilia - photographs of kangaroos and wallabies

The Australian National University, or ANU, is a public university located in Canberra, Australia. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kangaroo - MSN Encarta (1292 words)
Kangaroos are marsupials, a type of mammal that gives birth to undeveloped young.
The young kangaroo, sometimes called a joey, may remain with the mother, climbing into her pouch for nourishment or safety, until it is more than a year old.
Kangaroos are similar to hoofed mammals, or ungulates, such as the deer and antelope, in their ability to digest plant matter that is high in fiber and low in protein.
Kangaroo court - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (537 words)
A kangaroo court is a 'judicial' proceeding that denies proper procedure in the name of expediency; a fraudulent or unjust trial where the decision has essentially been made in advance, usually for the purpose of providing a conviction, either going through the motions of manipulated procedure or allowing no defence at all.
A kangaroo court may be a court that has had its integrity compromised; for example, if the judge is not impartial and refuses to be recused.
Kangaroo court is also used as a derogatory term to describe the dispute resolution mechanism used by prison inmates within the prison, based upon the pecking order of the prisoners.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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