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Encyclopedia > Kandahar province
Kandahar
قندھار
Map of Afghanistan with Kandahar قندھار highlighted.
Capital
 • Coordinates
Kandahar
 • 31.608° N 65.705° E
Population (2002)
 • Density
886,000
 • /km²
Area
54,022 km²
Time zone UTC+4:30
Main language(s) Pashto

Kandahar or Qandahar (Pashto: قندھار) is one of the largest of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. Located in the south of the country, its capital is the city of Kandahar, located on the Helmand River. The Kandahar Province has a population of nearly 890,000, with over 300,000 living in its capital city. With Peshawar, Kandahar is the main province and city of the Pashtun people. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Subnational entity is a generic term for an administrative region within a country — on an arbitrary level below that of the sovereign state — typically with a local government encompassing multiple municipalities, counties, or provinces with a certain degree of autonomy in a varying number of matters. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Pashto (‎, IPA: also known as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto ‎, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu, Pushtoo, Pathan, or Afghan language) is an Iranian language of the Indo-Iranian language family spoken by Pashtuns living in southeastern Afghanistan and western Pakistan. ... Pashto (‎, IPA: also known as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto ‎, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu, Pushtoo, Pathan, or Afghan language) is an Iranian language of the Indo-Iranian language family spoken by Pashtuns living in southeastern Afghanistan and western Pakistan. ... Afghanistan consists of 34 provinces, or velayat: Badakhshan Badghis Baghlan Balkh Bamiyan Daikondi - established March 28, 2004 Farah Faryab Ghazni Ghowr Helmand Herat Jowzjan Kabul Kandahar Kapisa Khost Konar Kondoz Laghman Lowgar Nangarhar Nimruz Nurestan Oruzgan Paktia Paktika Panjshir - established April 13, 2004 Parvan Samangan Sar-e Pol Takhar Vardak... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... The Helmand River: Avestan: HaÄ“tumant rich in dams (also Helmend, Helmund, Hirmand or Tarnak) is the longest river in Afghanistan. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ...

Contents

Naming

There is much debate about the origin of the name of Kandahar, both the province and city. Some believe the name is derived from Gandhara, a nenarby kingdom along the Kashmir and Afghan boarder. Another theory is that the name is a transliteration of Alexandria, which was one of Alexander the Great's favorite names given to new cities he founded. Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ...


History

For a more comprehensive history of the Kandahar Province, see the City of Kandahar. This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ...


Kandahar, the city and province, dates back to the time of the Mahabharata, which dates back to 3,120BC Indo-Aryan era. The present city of Kandahar was founded in the 4th century BC by Alexander the Great, near the ancient city of Mundigak. The city has been a frequent target for conquest because of its strategic location in Central Asia, linking the Indian subcontinent with Persia and the Persian Gulf. It was part of the Iranian Achaemenid empire and came under the influence of the Indian emperor Ashoka who erected a pillar there with a bilingual inscription in Greek and Aramaic.[1] Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... The Indo-Aryans make up 74% of the population of India and are the creators of the concept of the Aryan race. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ...


Under the Abbasids and later Turkic invaders, Kandahar converted to Islam. Kandahar would go on to be conquered by the Arabs in the 7th century, Turkic Ghaznavids in the 10th century, and Genghis Khan in the 12th century in a bloody battle. Ahmad Shah Durrani, the founder of Afghanistan, gained control of the city and province in 1747 and made it the capital in 1748 of his new Pashtun Afghan Kingdom. In the 1780's, the capital was transferred to Kabul. Currently, there is still a mausoleum for Ahmad Shah.[2] Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 977 to 1186. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ... See Ahmad Shah Qajar for the Persian ruler (1909-1925). ... Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of...


British forces occupied the city during the First Anglo-Afghan War from 1832 to 1842. They also occupied the city during the Second Anglo-Afghan War from 1878 to 1880. During the Soviet occupation of 1979 to 1989, Kandahar was originally firmly under Soviet command until mujahideen fighters began to shake the Soviet grip on the region. After the Soviet withdrawal, control changed several times.[3] The First Anglo–Afghan War lasted from 1839 to 1842. ... The Rise of Dost Mohammad It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. ... Mujahideen (Arabic: , ; Turkish: , literally strugglers) is a term for Muslims fighting in a war or involved in any other struggle. ...


Recent History

At the end of 1994, the Taliban emerged from the city and set out to conquer the south, east, and center of the country. Since the removal of the Taliban in 2001, Kandahar came under the control of Gul Agha Sherzai, a Pashtun warlord who had controlled the province and city before the Taliban came to power, he is credited with permitting the same corruption that first fueled the growth the Taliban. Central Afghan control remains little more than symbolic. For the position of women during the Talibans rule, see Taliban treatment of women. ... Gul Agha Sherzai was the governor of Kandahar province, Afghanistan from December 2001 to August 16, 2003. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ...


Infrastructure

Transportation

Kandahar International Airport serves the population of Kandahar and Kandahar city as a method of traveling to far destinations. Kandahar Airport was built in the 1960s with US financial and technical assistance under the United States Agency for International Development program. Kandahar International Airport has been used by the NATO forces to deliver troops and humanitarian supplies since late 2001. The airport was severely damaged during the Soviet attacks on the city during 1979-89 and again during the US raids in late 2001. Repairs and upgrades also occurred during that period; the airport re-opened for civilian use in late 2006.[4] Kandahar Airfield (or Kandahar International Airport) (IATA: KDH, ICAO: OAKN) is located 16 kilometers (10 miles) south-east of Kandahar, Afghanistan. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... Kandahar Airfield (or Kandahar International Airport) (IATA: KDH, ICAO: OAKN) is located 16 kilometers (10 miles) south-east of Kandahar, Afghanistan. ... USAID logo The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the U.S. government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid. ... Kandahar Airfield (or Kandahar International Airport) (IATA: KDH, ICAO: OAKN) is located 16 kilometers (10 miles) south-east of Kandahar, Afghanistan. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...


Kandahar has a loose public bus system carrying passengers. The city has a small public bus system that take commuters on daily routes to many destinations throughout the city. Besides the buses, there are yellow taxicabs that litter the city. Other traditional methods of ground transportation are also used. Private vehicles are on the rise in Kandahar, with Toyota and Hyundai dealerships opening in the city. More and more people are buying new cars as the roads and highways are being improved.


Education

Efforts to improve education in Afghanistan are severely hampered without books, which are in short supply. Lack of funding and political will has lead to only small gains since the fall of the Taliban. Education has moved somewhat upward in the rest of the country, but southern states, like Kandahar, have seen slow to no progress because of the continued fighting and instability of the region. In 2006 alone, almost 150 educational institutes have closed in Kandahar province alone, according to the education ministry. Regionally more than 50 schools have been attacked this year. Over 60,000 students cannot attend school because of the risk of attack.[5]


Kandahar University is the largest college or university in the province. In partnership with the Asia Foundation, the Kandahar University conducted a pilot project that provided female high school graduates with a four-month refresher course to prepare for the college entrance examination. Kandahar University, for example, currently has an enrollment of six women and 1,094 men.[6] All of the 24 women who sat for the exam passed and have been admitted to universities to study medicine, engineering, economics, law, and agriculture. The university is only one of two universities in Kandahar that serve all of southern Afghanistan. The conditions in the university or extremely poor, with no water, limited power, and a closed library. The structures of the University are very weak and unsafe. The university is far behind the universities of the North because of the violence, the two universities in southern Afghanistan also receive very limited funding. The Asia Foundation is a non-profit, non-governmental organization committed to the development of a peaceful, prosperous, and open Asia-Pacific region. ...


Economics & Trade

Kandahar had well-irrigated gardens and orchards and was famous for its grapes, melons, and pomegranates, but these were made inaccessible by land mines or destroyed outright in the conflict between the Soviets and the mujahideen, Islamic guerrilla fighters during the Soviet occupation. The city is of significant strategic importance in the region due to the major airport built in the early 1970s with development funding from the United States. The main source of trade is to Pakistan, Iran, and the United States. Kandahar is an agricultural state.


Politics and government

Gul Agha Sherzai was Governor of the province before and after the Taliban regime, until early 2004, when mounting criticism of his efforts led President Hamid Karzai to remove him from the post. For the last 250 years, mostly Pashtuns have been ruling Afghanistan. History shows that many Afghan rulers were from Kandahar, such as Ahmad Shah Durrani, Abdur Rahman Khan, Nadir Khan, Zahir Shah, Hamid Karzai, etc. Kandahar province is made up of 17 districts, and each district has its own Chief. The current Governor of the Kandahar Province is Asadullah Khalid. Gul Agha Sherzai was the governor of Kandahar province, Afghanistan from December 2001 to August 16, 2003. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... For the position of women during the Talibans rule, see Taliban treatment of women. ... Hamid Karzai (Pashto: حامد کرزي, Persian: حامد کرزی) (b. ... See Ahmad Shah Qajar for the Persian ruler (1909-1925). ... Amir Abdur Rahman Khan Abdur Rahman Khan Abdur Rahman Khan (1844 - October 1, 1901), Emir of Afghanistan, was the third son of Afzul Khan, who was the eldest son of Dost Mahommed Khan, who had established the Barakzais family dynasty in Afghanistan. ... Mohammed Nadir Shah (born Mohammed Nadir Khan; 1883 - November 8, 1933) was king of Afghanistan from 1929 until his assassination in 1933 (see Reigns of Nadir Shah and Zahir Shah). ... Mohammed Zahir Shah (born October 16, 1914) was the last King of Afghanistan from 1933 to 1973. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Image:Governors of Kandahar, Helmand, Zabul and Uruzgan. ...


The following is a list of the Districts of Kanadahar Province:

A village and mountain range near Kandahar Airport
A village and mountain range near Kandahar Airport

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Kandahar Airfield (or Kandahar International Airport) (IATA: KDH, ICAO: OAKN) is located 16 kilometers (10 miles) south-east of Kandahar, Afghanistan. ... The Shrine of Baba Wali in the Arghandab district. ... The Arghistan District is situated in the northeastern part of the Kandahar Province,Afghanistan. ... Daman is a district in Kandahar Province, Afghanistan. ... Ghorak is a district in Kandahar Province, Afghanistan. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... The Khakrez District is situated in the northern part of the Kandahar Province,Afghanistan. ... Maruf (from the Persian: معروف) is a district in Kandahar Province, Afghanistan. ... The Maywand District is situated in the western part of the Kandahar Province,Afghanistan. ... Panjwai (also spelled Panjwaye, Panjwaii, Panjway or Panjwayi) is a district in Kandahar Province, Afghanistan. ... The Reg District is situated in the northern part of Kandahar Province,Afghanistan. ... The Shah Wali Kot District is situated in the northern part of the Kandahar Province,Afghanistan. ... The Shorabak District is a remote district,situated in the southeastern part of the Kandahar Province,Afghanistan,110 km South and East of Kandahar. ... Spin Boldak is a district in Kandahar Province, Afghanistan. ... The Miyannasheen District is a new district of the Kandahar District,Afghanistan,created in 2005 year. ... Zhari is a district in Kandahar Province, Afghanistan. ... Naish is a district in Kandahar Province, Afghanistan. ...

References

  1. ^ The Book Rags of Kandahar... Link
  2. ^ The Book Rags of Kandahar... Link
  3. ^ The Afghan-Network: Culture... [ http://www.afghan-network.net/Culture/qandahar.html Link]
  4. ^ Pajhwok Afghan News - AAA begins flights for Kandahar... Link
  5. ^ The Global Exchange: Afghan Schools in Danger...Link
  6. ^ The Asian Foundation...Link

Further Reading

  • Vogelsang, W. (1985). Early historical Arachosia in South-east Afghanistan; Meeting-place between East and West.
  • Dupree, Louis. (1973) Afghanistan. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Rashid, Ahmed. (2000) Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil, and Fundamentalism in Central Asia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kandahar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (682 words)
Kandahār (or Qandahār) is a city in southern Afghanistan, the capital of Kandahar province.
The present city of Kandahar was founded in the 4th century BC by Alexander the Great, near the site of the ancient city of Mundigak (established around 3000 BC).
Under the Abbasids and later Turkic invaders, Kandahar was conquered by Muslims who converted the local Pashtuns and the city came under the influence of the Khurasan region, while retaining its local Pashtun language and culture.
Encyclopedia: Kandahar province (593 words)
Badghis province is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan.
Bamiyan province is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan.
Kabul province is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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