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Encyclopedia > Kandahar
Kandahar, Afghanistan
View of Arghandab Valley
Coordinates: 31°37′N 65°43′E
Country Afghanistan
Province Kandahar
Population (2002)
 - City 316,000
Time zone GMT+04:30 Kabul (UTC)

Kandahar or Qandahar (Pashto, Persian: قندهار) is the second largest city of Afghanistan, with a population of 316,000 people (2002 official estimates). It is the capital of Kandahar province on the Arghandab River, approximately 3,297 feet (1,005 meters) above sea level. It is linked by highways with Herat to the west, Ghazni and Kabul to the east, Tarin Kowt to the north, and Quetta in Pakistan to the south. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3264x2448, 3331 KB) I, NisarKand, am the author of this work and give permission to everyone to copy and share this image as long as it is for a normal good cause. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Afghanistan consists of 34 provinces, or velayat: Badakhshan Badghis Baghlan Balkh Bamiyan Daikondi - established March 28, 2004 Farah Faryab Ghazni Ghowr Helmand Herat Jowzjan Kabul Kandahar Kapisa Khost Konar Kondoz Laghman Lowgar Nangarhar Nimruz Nurestan Oruzgan Paktia Paktika Panjshir - established April 13, 2004 Parvan Samangan Sar-e Pol Takhar Vardak... Kandahar province is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... ... Kandahar (2001) is a film by Iranian director Mohsen Makhmalbaf , set in Afganistan during the rule of the Taliban. ... Meteorite falls are those meteorites that were witnessed by people or automated devices as they transitted the atmosphere or impacted the Earth, and were subsequently collected. ... Pashto (‎, IPA: ; also known as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu, Pushtoo, Pathan, Pukhto ‎, or Afghan language) is a language spoken by people living in the western Pakistan and southeastern Afghanistan. ... Persian (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ« ) is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, India, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Kandahar province is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Arghandab is a river of Afghanistan, about 250 mi. ... Court of the Friday Mosque in Herāt. ... Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , ÄžaznÄ«) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ... Kabul, Kâbl (locally: کابل), is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population of approximately 3 million people. ... Tarin Kowt is the capital of Oruzgan (also written Uruzgan) province in southern Afghanistan. ... Quetta (Urdu: کوئٹہ) is the capital of the province Balochistan in Pakistan. ...


Kandahar is a major trading center for sheep, wool, cotton, silk, felt, food grains, fresh and dried fruit, and tobacco. The region produces fine fruits, especially pomegranates and grapes, and the city has plants for canning, drying, and packing fruit. Kandahar has an international airport and extensive road links. Together with Peshawar in Pakistan, Kandahar is the main city of ethnic Pashtuns. Peshāwar (Pashto: پښور; Urdu:پشاور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pakhawar in Pashto. ... Pashtuns (also Pushtuns, Pakhtuns, Pukhtuns; Pashto: پښتون , Persian: پختون Paxtun, Urdu: پشتون Pashtūn), or Pathans (Urdu: پٹھان, Hindi: पठान ) and or ethnic Afghans[13] are an ethno-linguistic group primarily in the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Balochistan provinces of Pakistan and in eastern and southern Afghanistan. ...


Alexander the Great founded Kandahar in the 4th century BC and named it Alexandria.[1] Many empires long fought over the city, due to its strategical location along the trade routes of Southern and Central Asia. In 1748, Ahmad Shah Durrani, the founder of the Afghan Empire, made Kandahar the capital of Afghanistan.[2][3] Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 4th century BC started on January 1, 400 BC and ended on December 31, 301 BC. // Overview Events Bust of Alexander the Great in the British Museum. ... Alexandria of the Arachosians was a city that is now present-day Kandahar, Afghanistan. ... This is a region of the continent of Asia that can have the following interpretations: The Indian Subcontinent and nearby islands in the Indian Ocean; see South Asia India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Maldives, Sri Lanka All of Asia that is considered to be Southwest, South and Southeast Asia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... See Ahmad Shah Qajar for the Persian ruler (1909-1925). ... The Durrani Empire was a state in present day Afghanistan. ...

Contents

Name

There is speculation about the origin of the name "Kandahar". It is believed that Kandahar bears Alexander's name from the Arabic and Persian rendering of "Alexander", which derives from Iskandariya for Alexandria.[1] A temple to the deified Alexander as well as an inscription in Greek and Aramaic by the emperor Ashoka, who lived a few decades later, have been discovered in the old citadel.[4] Some[citation needed] believe that "Kandahar" possibly derives its name from Ghandara[citation needed], an ancient Indian kingdom along the modern Kashmir and Afghanistan border[5] and former satrapy of the Persian Empire[6][7]. Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Arabic ( or just ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ... Alexandria of the Arachosians was a city that is now present-day Kandahar, Afghanistan. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Ancient India may refer to: the ancient History of India, which generally includes the ancient history of the whole Indian subcontinent the legendary Kingdoms of Ancient India in Sanskrit literature the Iron Age Mahajanapadas the Middle kingdoms of India of Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages Category: ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Satrap (Greek σατράπης satrápēs, from Old Persian xšaθrapā(van), i. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau (Irān - Land of the Aryans[1]) and beyond. ...


History

Excavation of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree, the University of Pennsylvania, the Smithsonian Institution, and others suggests that the nearby region around Kandahar is one of the oldest human settlements known so far. Dupree writes: The University of Pennsylvania (or Penn[3][4]) is a private, nonsectarian research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ...

...Early peasant farming villages came into existence in Afghanistan ca. 5000 B.C., or 7000 years ago. Deh Morasi Ghundai, the first prehistoric site to be excavated in Afghanistan, lies 27 km; 17 mi. southwest of Kandahar (Dupree, 1951). Another Bronze Age village mound site with multiroomed mud-brick buildings dating from the same period sits nearby at Said Qala (J. Shaffer, 1970). Second millennium B.C. Bronze Age pottery, copper and bronze horse trappings and stone seals were found in the lowermost levels in the nearby cave called Shamshir Ghar (Dupree, 1950). In the Seistan, southwest of these Kandahar sites, two teams of American archaeologists discovered sites relating to the 2nd millennium B.C. (G. Dales, University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, 1969, 1971; W, Trousdale, Smithsonian Institution, 1971–76). Stylistically the finds from Deh Morasi and Said Qala tie in with those of pre-Indus Valley sites and with those of comparable age on the Iranian Plateau and in Central Asia, indicating cultural contacts during this very early age...[8]
Bilingual Edict of Ashoka (in Greek and Aramaic), found in Kandahar. Circa 250 BCE, Afghan National Museum.
Bilingual Edict of Ashoka (in Greek and Aramaic), found in Kandahar. Circa 250 BCE, Afghan National Museum.

Kandahar was founded in 330 BC by Alexander the Great, near the site of the ancient city of Mundigak (established around 3000 BC). Previously, the city was the provincial capital of Arachosia and was ruled by the Achaemenid Empire. The main inhabitants of Arachosia were the Pactyans, an ancient Iranian tribe, who were probably one of the ancestors of today's Pashtuns.[9] Kandahar was named an Alexandria as were all towns founded by Alexander.[1] // Events 4860 BC - Mount Mazama in Oregon collapses, forming a caldera that later fills with water and becomes Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Atomic mass 63. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... Sistān and Balūchestān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... ImageMetadata File history File links AsokaKandahar. ... ImageMetadata File history File links AsokaKandahar. ... The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Founded in the 1920s, the Afghan National Museum is a place for storage and appreciation of old Afghan items of interest. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC 332 BC 331 BC - 330 BC - 329 BC 328 BC 327... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ... Arachosia is the ancient name of an area that corresponds to the southern part of today s Afghanistan, around the city of Kandahar. ... The Achaemenid Empire (Old Persian: Hakhāmanishiya, هخامنشیان also frequently, the Achaemenid Persian Empire.) (559 BC–338 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... The Pakthas were one of the tribes that fought against Sudas in the Dasarajna battle. ... Pashtuns (also Pushtuns, Pakhtuns, Pukhtuns; Pashto: پښتون , Persian: پختون Paxtun, Urdu: پشتون PashtÅ«n), or Pathans (Urdu: پٹھان, Hindi: पठान ) and or ethnic Afghans[13] are an ethno-linguistic group primarily in the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Balochistan provinces of Pakistan and in eastern and southern Afghanistan. ... Alexandria of the Arachosians was a city that is now present-day Kandahar, Afghanistan. ...


The city has been a frequent target for conquest because of its strategic location in Southern Asia, controlling the main trade route linking the Indian subcontinent with the Middle East, Central Asia and the Persian Gulf.[10] It later became part of the Mauryan Empire after the departure of Alexander. The Indian emperor Ashoka erected a pillar there with a bilingual inscription in Greek and Aramaic.[11] This is a region of the continent of Asia that can have the following interpretations: The Indian Subcontinent and nearby islands in the Indian Ocean; see South Asia India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Maldives, Sri Lanka All of Asia that is considered to be Southwest, South and Southeast Asia. ... Satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... It has been suggested that Persian Gulf States be merged into this article or section. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ...


In the 7th century AD, Arab armies brought the new religion of Islam to the region but were unable to succeed in fully converting the population. In 870 AD, Yaqub ibn Layth Saffari, a local ruler from the Saffarid dynasty in Seistan, conquered Kandahar and the rest of the nearby regions in the name of Islam. Dupree writes: The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Events February 28 - End of the Fourth Council of Constantinople. ... Yaqub bin Laith as-Saffar (?-879?) was the founder of the Saffarid dynasty. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between AD 861-1003. ... Sistān and Balūchestān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ...

...Arab armies carrying the banner of Islam came out of the west to defeat the Sasanians in 642 AD and then they marched with confidence to the east. On the western periphery of the Afghan area the princes of Herat and Seistan gave way to rule by Arab governors but in the east, in the mountains, cities submitted only to rise in revolt and the hastily converted returned to their old beliefs once the armies passed. The harshness and avariciousness of Arab rule produced such unrest, however, that once the waning power of the Caliphate became apparent, native rulers once again established themselves independent. Among these the Saffarids of Seistan shone briefly in the Afghan area. The fanatic founder of this dynasty, the coppersmith’s apprentice Yaqub ibn Layth Saffari, came forth from his capital at Zaranj in 870 AD and marched through Bost, Kandahar, Ghazni, Kabul, Bamiyan, Balkh and Herat, conquering in the name of Islam...[8]

Kandahar was invaded by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in the 11th century. In the 13th century it was invaded by Genghis Khan and his Mongol armies. It became part of the Timurid Empire during the 14th and 15th century, founded by Tamer Lane. Pir Mohammad, grandson of Tamer Lane, held the seat of government in Kandahar from about 1383 to 1405. Following Pir Mohammad's death, the city was ruled by other Timurids. Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... Events August 5 - In the Battle of Maserfield, Penda king of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald, king of Bernicia. ... Sistān and Balūchestān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... A governor is an official who heads the government of a colony, state or other sub-national state unit. ... The Caliphate (Arabic خلافة) is the theoretical federal government that would govern the Islamic world under Islamic law, ruled by a Caliph as head of state. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between AD 861-1003. ... Lashkar Gah is a city in southern Afghanistan, the capital of Helmand province. ... Bamiyan province is one of the thirty_four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , ÄžaznÄ«) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ... Mongols (Mongolian: Монгол Mongol, Turkish: MoÄŸollar) are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China or more specifically on the Central Asian plateau north of the Gobi desert and south of Siberia. ... Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan TÄ«mÅ«r bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - TÄ“mōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405) was a 14th-century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent[1][2][3][4], conqueror of much of Western and central Asia, and founder of the Timurid Empire (1370–1405... Events End of the reign of Emperor Chokei of Japan Emperor Go-Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan Births Pope Eugenius IV Deaths March 1 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (b. ... Events May 29 - Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, meets Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor, tricks them to send their rebellious army home and then imprisons them June 8 - Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed in...


Tamer Lane's descendant, Emperor Babur, the founder of Moghal Empire, annexed Kandahar in the 16th century. Babur's son, Humayun, lost it to the Shah of Persia. Humayun's son, Akbar, regained control of Kandahar but by the early 1700s subsequent Mughal emperors lost the territory once again to the Persians. Zāhir ud-Dīn Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ‎ , Hindi: ज़हिर उद-दिन मुहम्मद) also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Nasiruddin Humayun (March 6, 1508 – February 22, 1556), second Mughal Emperor, ruled in India from 1530–1540 and 1555–1556. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar (Persian: جلال الدین محمد اکبر), (alternate spellings: Jellaladin, Celalettin) also known as Akbar the Great (Akbar-e-Azam) (October 15, 1542 – October 27, 1605) was the son of Nasiruddin Humayun whom he succeeded as ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1556 to 1605. ...

Coronation of Ahmad Shah Durrani at Kandahar in 1747, the founder and first King of modern Afghanistan.
Coronation of Ahmad Shah Durrani at Kandahar in 1747, the founder and first King of modern Afghanistan.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18]

Mirwais Khan Hotak, a local Afghan (Pashtun) from the Ghilzai clan, revolted and killed Gurgin Khan, the Georgian governor who ruled in the name of the Persian Shah. Mirwais Khan succefully defeated the Persians, who were attempting to convert the local people from the Sunni to the Shia sect of Islam. Mirwais Khan remained in power until his death in 1715 and was succeeded by his son Mir Mahmud Hotaki.[19] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1080x812, 121 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1080x812, 121 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The coronation of Empress Farah, of Iran in 1967. ... See Ahmad Shah Qajar for the Persian ruler (1909-1925). ... It has been suggested that Mir Wais Khan be merged into this article or section. ... The Ghilzais (also known as Khiljis or Ghaljis) are one of two largest groups of Pashtuns, along with the Durrani tribe, found in Afghanistan with a large group also found in neighboring Pakistan. ... Giorgi XI or Gurgin Khan, as he was known in Persia, was the ruler of eastern Georgian Kingdom of Kartli from Bagrationi dynasty and reigned in 1676-1688 and 1703-1709. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1736) was founded by Afghans (Pashuns) from the Ghilzai clan. ...


In 1722, Mir Mahmud led an army of Afghans to Isfahan (now in Iran), sacked the city and proclaimed himself King of Persia. The Afghan rulers were eventually removed from power by a new ruler, Nader Shah Afshar, who conquered Kandahar in 1738 but was assassinated nine years later.[20] Isfahan or Esfahān can refer to either a city or a province in Iran (Persia): Isfahan (city) Isfahan (province) Isfahan (rugs) Isfahan is the name of a song by the Jazzist Duke Ellington Ispahan a kind of rose and an older pronunciation of the citys name. ... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of Persia to the creation of what is now modern day Iran. ... Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nāder Shāh (Persian: نادر شاه ; also known as Nadir Qoli Beg, نادر قلی بیگ, Tahmasp-Qoli Khan, تهماسپ قلی خان , or Nadir Shah Afshar, نادر شاه افشار) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. ... Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ...


Ahmad Shah Durrani, an ethnic Pashtun from the Abdali clan, gained control of Kandahar in 1747 and made it the capital of his new Afghan Empire. Previously, Ahmad Shah served as a military commander and personal bodyguard of Nader Shah.[21] His empire included present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, Khorasan and Kohistan provinces of Iran, along with Delhi in India. In October 1772, Ahmad Shah retired to his home in Maruf, Kandahar, where he died peacfully.[13] The (now) "Old City" was laid out by Ahmad Shah and is dominated by his mausoleum. In 1776, his son Timur Shah Durrani transferred the capital of Afghanistan from Kandahar to Kabul, the Durrani legacy continued there.[14] See Ahmad Shah Qajar for the Persian ruler (1909-1925). ... This page has been deleted, and should not be re-created without a good reason. ... // Events January 31 - The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Dock Hospital April 9 - The Scottish Jacobite Lord Lovat was beheaded by axe on Tower Hill, London, for high treason; he was the last man to be executed in this way in Britain May 14 - First battle of Cape... The Durrani Empire was a state in present day Afghanistan. ... Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan; Horasan in Turkish) is a region located in eastern Iran. ... For the capital of India, see New Delhi. ... Maruf is a city in Maruf District, Kandahar Province, Afghanistan. ... Timur Shah (1748 - 18 May 1793), the second son of Ahmed Shah Abdali and the second of the Durrani Dynasty, was the Shah of Afghanistan from 16 October 1772 until his death. ... Durrani (Persian: درانی) or Abdali (Persian: ابدالی) tribe is one of the two largest Pashtun tribes of Afghanistan and is also found in large numbers in western Pakistan. ...


Kandahar was sometimes a center of jihad and mujahideen activities, but local Pashtun tribes tended to live by their pre-Islamic code of honor known as Pashtunwali. On 28th Muharram 1242 Hijri (September 2, 1826) Syed Ahmad Shaheed's forces reached Kandahar en route to Peshawar. Their purpose was to wage a jihad against the Sikh kingdom of Ranjit Singh and aid their fellow Pashtuns of Peshawar, and within a few days more than 400 Kandarians presented themselves for jihad, out of whom 270 were selected. Syed Deen Muhammad Kandarai was appointed their leader. Jihad, sometimes spelled Jawwad, Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Jiaad, Djehad, or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) is an Islamic term, meaning to strive or struggle in the way of God, and is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, although it has no official status. ... Mujahideen (Arabic: ‎, , strugglers) is an Islamic-Arabic term for Muslims fighting in a war, or involved in any other struggle. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in sixteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... Peshāwar (Pashto: پښور; Urdu:پشاور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pakhawar in Pashto. ...

British-India occupied the city during the First Anglo-Afghan War (1839-42) and during the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-80) in which the British were forced to withdraw, despite winning a victory near the city (see Battle of Kandahar). Kandahar again became part of the modern state of Afghanistan nonetheless and remained peaceful for the next 100 years. Image File history File links Kandahar_Airport_1969. ... Image File history File links Kandahar_Airport_1969. ... Kandahar Airfield (or Kandahar International Airport) (IATA: KDH, ICAO: OAKN) is located 16 kilometers (10 miles) south-east of Kandahar, Afghanistan. ... Year 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... British India (otherwise known as The British Raj) was a historical period during which most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar, were under the colonial authority of the British Empire (Undivided India). ... The First Anglo–Afghan War lasted from 1839 to 1842. ... The Rise of Dost Mohammad It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. ... Combatants Britain / India Afghans Commanders Frederick Roberts Ayub Khan Strength 10,000 32 guns 12,800 32 guns Casualties 36 Killed, 218 wounded 1,000 Killed 1,500 wounded (approx) The Battle of Kandahar, 1 September 1880, was the last major conflict of the Second Anglo-Afghan War. ...


In the 1960s, Kandahar International Airport was built 10 miles (16 kilometers) south-east of the city. It was used by the Red Army during their ten years occupation of the country. As of 2001, the airport is used by the US and NATO forces as a military base. Kandahar Airfield (or Kandahar International Airport) (IATA: KDH, ICAO: OAKN) is located 16 kilometers (10 miles) south-east of Kandahar, Afghanistan. ... Soviet redirects here. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[1] (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ...


During the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan (1979-1989), Kandahar was under Soviet command and witnessed heavy fighting. Soviet troops surrounded the city, and subjected it to a artillery and air bombardment in which great number of innocent civilians lost their lives.[22] After the Soviet withdrawal, Kandahar slowly fell into the hands of a local Pashtun millitia leader (Gul Agha Sherzai). For the Smashing Pumpkins song, see 1979 (song). ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pashtuns (also Pushtuns, Pakhtuns, Pukhtuns; Pashto: پښتون , Persian: پختون Paxtun, Urdu: پشتون Pashtūn), or Pathans (Urdu: پٹھان, Hindi: पठान ) and or ethnic Afghans[13] are an ethno-linguistic group primarily in the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Balochistan provinces of Pakistan and in eastern and southern Afghanistan. ... Gul Agha Sherzai was the governor of Kandahar province, Afghanistan from December 2001 to August 16, 2003. ...

NATO Jeeps patrolling the streets of Kandahar City.
NATO Jeeps patrolling the streets of Kandahar City.

In August 1994, the Taliban captured the city and set out to conquer the rest of the country. Since their removal in late 2001, smaller bands have spread throughout the nearby provinces. Kandahar once again came under the control of Gul Agha Sherzai, who had controlled the province and city before the rise of the Taliban, and was credited with permitting the same corruption that first fueled the growth of the Taliban. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 365 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 365 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[1] (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Flag flown by the Taliban. ...


The new Afghan government, which is supported by US and NATO forces, is gradually expanding its authority and presence throughout the entire country. Kandahar is presently in full control of the new Afghan government, which is led by US-backed President Hamid Karzai. The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) maintains its military command headquarters in Kandahar, as well as being the main NATO-led security force in the province. NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[1] (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... Hamid Karzai (Pashto: حامد کرزي, Persian: حامد کرزی) (b. ... The Canadian Forces (CF) (Fr: Forces canadiennes (FC)) are the combined branches of the military of Canada. ...


Infrastructure

Transportation

Kandahar International Airport serves the population of the city as a method of traveling to far destinations. Since late 2001, the airport has been used by the NATO forces to deliver troops and humanitarian supplies. It was also being repaired and upgraded, and re-opened for civilian use in late 2006.[23] Kandahar Airfield (or Kandahar International Airport) (IATA: KDH, ICAO: OAKN) is located 16 kilometers (10 miles) south-east of Kandahar, Afghanistan. ...


Kandahar has its own public buses that take commuters on daily routes to many destinations throughout the city. There are also yellow taxicabs that can be spotted just about anywhere in and around the city. Commuting is the process of travelling from a place of residence to a place of work. ... Taxicab, short forms taxi or cab, is a type of public transport for a single passenger, or small group of passengers, typically for a non-shared ride. ...


Private vehicles are on the rise in Kandahar, with huge dealerships of fine imported cars from Dubai, UAE. More and more people are buying cars as the roads and highways are improved. The average car driven in Kandahar is Toyota Corolla.[24] Coordinates: Emirate Dubai Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Area    - City 4,114 km² Population (2006)  - City 1,321,453UNIQ223f616e3e085c16-ref-00,000,001-QINU  - Density 293. ... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ... This page is about the auto sedan Corolla manufactured by Toyota. ...


Communications and technology

Telecommunications in the city are provided by Afghan Wireless, Roshan and Areeba mobile companies. All three companies have boasted rapid increases in cellular phone usage. In November 2006, the Afghan Ministry of Communications signed a US 64.5 million dollar agreement with a company (ZTE Corporation) for the establishment of a countrywide fibre optical cable network. This will improve telephone, internet, television and radio broadcast services not just in Kandahar but throughout the country.[25] Ehsan Bayat The Afghan Wireless Communication Company provides wireless voice and data services with national and international connectivity in Afghanistan. ... Roshan - Afghanistans largest wireless communications provider. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


Local (Afghan) television channels include:

Ariana TV is a private, non-partisan, television in Kabul that along with a Ariana radio station is part of the Ariana Television Network (ATN). ... Tolo TV (Persian for Sunrise) is the name of an Afghan television service. ... Ariana Afghanistan TV is a satellite television channel based in Orange, California with branches in Hamburg. ...

Reconstruction and developments

The model plan of a 20,000 homes development project called Kandahar Valley.
Houses under construction in another neighborhood of the city.
Houses under construction in another neighborhood of the city.

Due to almost 30 years of destruction and no development, Kandahar (along with the rest of the country) is going through a nationwide reconstruction period. As of 2002, large amounts of money have been pouring in for construction purposes. New modern-style buildings are slowly replacing the older ones. Kandahar's major highways were repaired and completed including the highway to Kabul. However, work on smaller roads in some parts around the city is still in progress. Kandahar's residents have access to clean drinking water and electricity. Although not every part of the city may receive it, plans and works are underway to extend these services to every home. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 822 KB) Kandahar Valley is a new district that is under construction in Kandahar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 822 KB) Kandahar Valley is a new district that is under construction in Kandahar. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 331 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 331 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... // Reconstruction was the process in US history, 1863–1877, that resolved the issues of the American Civil War when both the Confederacy and its system of slavery were destroyed. ... Category: ... The Kabul-Kandahar highway links two major Afghan cities, Kabul and Kandahar. ... A resident is a person who lives in a particular place permanently, or for an extended period of time, i. ...


Up to 20,000 single-family homes and associated infrastructure such as roads, water and sewer systems, and community buildings, including schools, are under construction on empty land in Kandahar.[26] Community building is a field of practices directed toward the creation or enhancement of community between individuals within a regional area (such as a neighbourhood) or with a common interest. ...


About 6 miles (10km) east of Kandahar, a huge industrial park is under construction with modern facilities. The park will have professional management for the daily maintenance of public roads, internal streets, common areas, parking areas, 24 hours perimeter security, access control for vehicles and persons. [27] An industrial park (or industrial estate in British English) is an area of land set aside for industrial development. ...


A railroad track from the Pakistani town of Chaman to Kandahar is planned for the near future. The feasibility study was completed in or about early 2006, allowing for the next step to lay-down the railtrack. The work on the railtrack will take approximately 2 years to complete. Chaman is situated at the border of Pakistan to Afghanistan ... Possibility comprises that which one can achieve, or alternatively ones potential. ...


Places of interest

The most important historical monument in Kandahar is the mausoleum of Ahmad Shah Durrani, fondly known as Ahmad Shah Baba (Father of Afghanistan) who ruled an empire from Kandahar. The shrine of Prophet Mohammad's cloak adjoins Ahmad Shah’s mausoleum. This is one of the holiest shrines in Afghanistan. Ahmad Shah received the Prophet’s Cloak from Murad Beg, Amir of Bokhara, in 1768, as part of a treaty settling the northern boundaries. The Durrani Empire was a state in present day Afghanistan. ... Muhammad is a common Muslim male name. ... A cloak is a type of loose garment that is worn over indoor clothing and serves the same purpose as an overcoat – it protects the wearer from the cold, rain or wind for example, or it may form part of a fashionable outfit or uniform. ... For other uses, see Bukhara (disambiguation). ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


The city of Kandahar was laid out by Ahmad Shah with amazing regularity. The four principal bazaar streets meet in the center of the city at the Char Suq, a square once covered with a lofty dome where public proclamations were made. The Mosque of the Hair of the Prophet is located inside the covered bazaar, on the left as you enter from the Kabul Bazaar. It was built by Kohendil Khan, one of the Kandarai Sardars who held sway over Kandahar during the first half of the 19th century.

Eidgah Durwaza
Eidgah Durwaza

The charming village of Sher Surkh is located southeast of the city, about a mile south of Jadi Haji Jamal, in the suburbs of the old city of Nadirabad. Jadi Haji Jamal continues to Zakud, the homelands and mausoleum of the 18th century Barakzai chief who stepped down in favor of Ahmad Khan, later Ahmad Shah Durrani, in 1747. His son, Payenda Khan, who was murdered by Ahmad Shah’s grandson, is also buried here. Payenda Khan was the father of Amir Dost Mohammad who was destined to take the throne from Ahmad Shah’s grandsons and establish the dynasty which ruled at Kabul until 1973. Image File history File links Eidgah_Durwaza_in_Kandahar. ... Image File history File links Eidgah_Durwaza_in_Kandahar. ... The Barakzai Dynasty was the line of rulers in Afghanistan in the 19th and 20th centuries. ...


Kandahar Museum is located at the western end of the third block of buildings lining the main road east of Eidgah Durwaza (gate). It has many paintings by the now famous Ghiyassuddin, painted while he was a young teacher in Kandahar. He is acknowledged among Afghanistan’s leading artists.


Just to the north of the city, off its northeast corner at the end of buria (matting) bazaar, there is a charming shrine dedicated to a celebrated saint who lived in Kandahar more than 300 years ago. The grave of Hazratji Baba, 23 feet long to signify his greatness, but otherwise covered solely by rock chips, is undecorated save for tall pennants at its head. The graves of the Kandarai Sardars lie near the saint’s tomb.


A monument to pious martyrs (Shahidan: those who died in battle defending their land) stands in the center of Kandahar’s main square called Da Shahidanu Chawk, which was built in the 1940s.


The Chilzina is a rock-cut chamber high above the plain at the end of the rugged chain of mountains forming the western defence of Kandahar’s Old City. Forty steps, about, lead to the chamber which is guarded by two chained lions, defaced, and inscribed with an account of Moghul conquest. The rugged cliffs from which the Chilzina was hewn form the natural western bastion of the Old City of Kandahar which was destroyed in 1738 by Nadir Shah Afshar of Persia. The very last battle for Kandahar, however, was fought among these ruins when the armies of Amir Abdur Rahman and his cousin, Ayub Khan, the hero of the Battle of Maiwand, faced each other here on September 22, 1881. Nadir Shah (Nadir Qoli Beg, also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan) (October 22, 1688 - June, 1747) ruled as Shah of Persia 1736-1747 and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. ... Amir Abdur Rahman Khan Abdur Rahman Khan (c. ... Ayub Khan 1857 (Kabul) - April 7, 1914 (Lahore) Not to be confused with Ayub Khan, the President of Pakistan (1907 - 1974). ...

The Mausoleum of Mirwais Khan is located in the Mirwais Mina district of Kandahar.
The Mausoleum of Mirwais Khan is located in the Mirwais Mina district of Kandahar.
Image:Friday Mosque at Kandahar.jpg
The Friday Mosque, locally known as Khalka Sharifa, contains Prophet Mohammad's Cloak.
The Shrine of Baba Wali in the Arghandab district.
The Shrine of Baba Wali in the Arghandab district.
A Canadian soldier from the PRT is entertaining youths playing soccer at a stadium in the Shāri Noe district.
A Canadian soldier from the PRT is entertaining youths playing soccer at a stadium in the Shāri Noe district.

A short distance from Chilzina, going west on the main highway, a bright blue dome suddenly appears above a grove of trees on the right. This is the mausoleum of Mir Wais Khan, the Ghilzai chieftain who declared Kandahar’s independence from the Persians in 1709. Image File history File links Mausoleum_of_Mir_Wais_Khan_in_Kandahar. ... Image File history File links Mausoleum_of_Mir_Wais_Khan_in_Kandahar. ... It has been suggested that Mir Wais Khan be merged into this article or section. ... Muhammad is a common Muslim male name. ... A cloak is a type of loose garment that is worn over indoor clothing and serves the same purpose as an overcoat – it protects the wearer from the cold, rain or wind for example, or it may form part of a fashionable outfit or uniform. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3264x2448, 723 KB)[edit] Summary This is one of many places where people come on the weekends to enjoy and have fun. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3264x2448, 723 KB)[edit] Summary This is one of many places where people come on the weekends to enjoy and have fun. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x847, 141 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x847, 141 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) is an administrative unit of international aid to Afghanistan, consisting of a small operating base from which a group of sixty to more than one hundred civilians and military specialists work to perform small reconstruction projects or provide security for others involved in aid work. ...


The shrine of Baba Wali, its terraces shaded by pomegranate groves beside the Arghandab River, is also very popular for picnics and afternoon outings. The terrace in front of an elaborate teahouse affords a fine view of the valley. The British forces, in 1842 and 1878, fought several battles in this same exact location.[14] Arghandab is a river of Afghanistan, about 250 mi. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

  • Districts
    • Arghandab Valley
    • Daman
    • Dand
    • Kandahar Valley (under construction)
    • Karz
    • Mirwais Mina
    • Sarpuza
    • Shāri Noe
    • Zoar Shār (Old City)
  • General
    • Baba Saab (picnic area & weekend spot)
    • Bāghi Pull (picnic area & weekend spot)
    • Chilzina View (Emperor Babur's inscription site)
    • Kandahar Stadium
    • Shāri Noe Fairground (local amusement park)
  • Mosques and Shrines
    • Friday Mosque
    • Jumi Wraishtan Mubārak (displaying Prophet Mohammad's Hair piece)
    • Shrine of Baba Wali
  • Museums
    • Kandahar Musuem
  • Shopping
    • Herat Bazaar
    • Kabul Bazaar
    • Shah Bazaar
    • Shkar Pur Bazaar

Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ‎ , Hindi: ज़हिर उद-दिन मुहम्मद) also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... Inscriptions are words or letters written, engraved, painted, or otherwise traced on a surface and can appear in contexts both small and monumental. ... Muhammad is a common Muslim male name. ... Young Girl Fixing her Hair, by Sophie Gengembre Anderson Hair is a filamentous outgrowth of dead cells from the skin, found only in mammals. ... See Ahmad Shah Qajar for the Persian ruler (1909-1925). ... It has been suggested that Mir Wais Khan be merged into this article or section. ... The Grand Timcheh of Qoms Bazaar. ... AIB Logo Afghanistan International Bank (AIB) is a new local Afghan bank with its head office in Kabul. ... The Western Union Company (NYSE: WU) is a financial services and communications company based in the United States. ... Ehsan Bayat The Afghan Wireless Communication Company provides wireless voice and data services with national and international connectivity in Afghanistan. ... Roshan - Afghanistans largest wireless communications provider. ... Kandahar Airfield (or Kandahar International Airport) (IATA: KDH, ICAO: OAKN) is located 16 kilometers (10 miles) south-east of Kandahar, Afghanistan. ...

Trivia

Tim Hortons donut shop at NATO's military base in Kandahar.
Tim Hortons donut shop at NATO's military base in Kandahar.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (876x1280, 117 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (876x1280, 117 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tim Hortons [2] (TSX: THI, NYSE: THI) is a fast food restaurant chain founded in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada with locations in Canada and the eastern United States. ... Binomial name Punica granatum L. The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–8 m tall. ... Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis lincecumii Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis... Hamid Karzai (Pashto: حامد کرزي, Persian: حامد کرزی) (b. ... The President of Afghanistan is Afghanistans head of state, head of government, and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. ... Said Tayeb Jawad Said Tayeb Jawad was appointed ambassador of Afghanistan to the United States on Dec. ... Tim Hortons [2] (TSX: THI, NYSE: THI) is a fast food restaurant chain founded in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada with locations in Canada and the eastern United States. ... Burger King, Seoul, South Korea Burger King is a large international chain of fast food restaurants, predominantly selling burgers, french fries, soft drinks, desserts, and various sandwiches. ... Pizza Hut is a restaurant chain and international franchise based in Dallas, Texas, USA, specializing in American-style pizza along with side dishes including buffalo wings, breadsticks, and garlic bread. ... Exterior of a typical Subway restaurant in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico Locations of Subway stores Subway is the name of a multinational restaurant franchise that mainly sells sandwiches and salads. ... Kandahar Airfield (or Kandahar International Airport) (IATA: KDH, ICAO: OAKN) is located 16 kilometers (10 miles) south-east of Kandahar, Afghanistan. ... For other persons named Robin Williams, see Robin Williams (disambiguation). ... David Michael Letterman (born April 12, 1947 Indianapolis, Indiana) is an American television personality, late night talk show host, comedian, television producer, Indy Racing League car owner and philanthropist. ... Drew Carey Drew Allison Carey (born May 23, 1958 in Cleveland, Ohio, USA) is an American actor and comedian recognizable by his crew cut and black-rimmed glasses. ... Angela Lanza performing for US soldier at Kandahar Airfield, Afghanistan (2004) . Angela Lanza is an American singer who has performed in different American cities and internationally as well. ... Tracy Williams Tracy Williams is an American singer who belongs to UC3, an all female trio from Tampa Bay, Florida. ... UC3 performing with US soldier at Kandahar Airfield, Afghanistan. ... Hooters logo Hooters is the trade name of two privately held American restaurant chains: Hooters of America, Inc based in Atlanta, Georgia, and Hooters, Inc. ... The DCC on board the USS Harry S Truman on December 16, 2000 The DCC visit U.S. sailors on board the USS Nimitz on June 19, 2003 The Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders (DCC), a National Football League cheerleading squad from Texas, are one of the most famous cheerleading organizations in...

See also

Excavation of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree, the University of Pennsylvania, the Smithsonian Institute and others suggests that early humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, and that farming communities in Afghanistan were among the earliest in the world. ... The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1736) was founded by Afghans (Pashuns) from the Ghilzai clan. ... The Durrani Empire was a state in present day Afghanistan. ... A Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) is an administrative unit of international aid to Afghanistan, consisting of a small operating base from which a group of sixty to more than one hundred civilians and military specialists work to perform small reconstruction projects or provide security for others involved in aid work. ... Logo of ISAF. Persian writing: کمک و همکاری (Komak va Hamkari) means Help and Cooperation. One of many ISAFs military bases in Afghanistan. ...

References and footnotes

  1. ^ a b c Alexander the Great: his towns - Alexandria in Arachosia...Link
  2. ^ Columbia Encyclopedia (Sixth Edition) - Kandahar...Link
  3. ^ Columbia Encyclopedia (Fifth Edition) - The City of Kandahar...Link
  4. ^ Ashoka's Rock Edicts...Link
  5. ^ Gandara...Link
  6. ^ W. Vogelsang, "Gandahar", in The Circle Of Ancient Iranian Studies, (LINK)
  7. ^ E. Herzfeld, "The Persian Empire: Studies on Geography and Ethnography of the Ancient Near East", ed. G. Walser, Wiesbaden 1968, pp. 279, 293-94, 336-38, 345
  8. ^ a b Nancy Hatch Dupree - An Historical Guide To Afghanistan - Sites in Perspective (Chapter 3)... Link
  9. ^ Map of the Median Empire from the University of Texas in Austin, showing Pactyans in what is now Kandahar, Afghanistan...Link
  10. ^ Mentioned in Bopearachchi, "Monnaies Greco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques", p52. Original text in paragraph 19 of Parthian stations
  11. ^ Maurya dynasty...Link
  12. ^ CIA World Factbook - Afghanistan...Link
  13. ^ a b Encyclopaedia Britannica - Ahmad Shah Durrani...Link
  14. ^ a b c Nancy Hatch Dupree - An Historical Guide To Afghanistan - The South (Chapter 16)...Link
  15. ^ Columbia Encyclopedia - Afghanistan: History...Link
  16. ^ History Of Nations - History of Afghanistan...Link
  17. ^ Afghanistan Online - Biography (Ahmad Shah Abdali)...Link
  18. ^ Britannica Student Encyclopedia - Government and History (from Afghanistan)...Link
  19. ^ Afghanland - Mirwais Khan Hotak...Link
  20. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica - The Hotakis (from Afghanistan)...Link
  21. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica - The Durrani dynasty...Link
  22. ^ Conflict Studies Journal at the University of New Brunswick...Link
  23. ^ Pajhwok Afghan News - AAA begins flights for Kandahar... Link
  24. ^ Lonely Planet - Tony Wheeler - Afghanistan Practicalities...Link
  25. ^ Pajhwok Afghan News - Ministry signs contract with Chinese company...Link
  26. ^ U.S. Department of State - South Asia - U.S. Government Agency Grants $3 Million to Build Afghan Homes...Link
  27. ^ Afghanistan Industrial Parks Development Authority...Link
  28. ^ JWorld.com...Link
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu. Draft annotated English translation.[1]
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. [2]
  • Thapar, Romila (1963): Aśoka and the Decline of the Mauryas. Oxford University Press. 3rd impression, New Delhi, 1980.
  • Frye, Richard N. (1963). The Heritage of Persia. World Publishing company, Cleveland, Ohio. Mentor Book edition, 1966.
  • Toynbee, Arnold J. (1961). Between Oxus and Jumna. London. Oxford University Press.
  • Vogelsang, W. (1985). "Early historical Arachosia in South-east Afghanistan; Meeting-place between East and West." Iranica antiqua, 20 (1985), pp. 55-99.
  • Wood, Michael (1997). In the footsteps of Alexander the Great: A Journey from Greece to Asia. BBC, London. First published 1997. Paperback Edition 2001.

Wiesbaden is a city in central Germany. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kandahar - LoveToKnow 1911 (2185 words)
Although Kandahar has long ceased to be the seat of government, it is nevertheless by far the most important trade centre in Afghanistan, and the revenues of the Kandahar province assist largely in supporting the chief power at Kabul.
The plains about Kandahar are chiefly watered by canals drawn from the Arghandab near Baba-wali, and conducted through the same gap in the hills which admits the Herat road.
Kandahar was occupied, and Shah Shuja reinstated on the throne of his ancestors.
frontline: campaign against terror: on the ground: the fall of kandahar | PBS (1636 words)
The fall of Kandahar signaled the collapse of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.
Kandahar was the next big step to me, because that was the center for the Taliban.
So basically what was happening was you had Karzai's forces moving in to Kandahar from the north and you had Sherzai's force moving in from the south.
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