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Encyclopedia > Kanamycin
Kanamycin
Systematic (IUPAC) name
2-(aminomethyl)- 6-[4,6-diamino-3- [4-amino-3,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl) tetrahydropyran-

2-yl]oxy-2-hydroxy-cyclohexoxy]- tetrahydropyran-3,4,5-triol Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ...

Identifiers
CAS number 8063-07-8
ATC code A07AA08 J01GB04 S01AA24
PubChem 6032
DrugBank APRD00026
Chemical data
Formula C18H36N4O11 
Mol. mass 484.499
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability very low after oral delivery
Metabolism  ?
Half life 2 hours 30 minutes
Excretion  ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

? CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A division of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System A Alimentary tract and metabolism A07A Intestinal anti-infectives A07AA Antibiotics A07AA01 Neomycin A07AA02 Nystatin A07AA03 Natamycin A07AA04 Streptomycin A07AA05 Polymyxin B A07AA06 Paromomycin A07AA07 Amphotericin B A07AA08 Kanamycin A07AA09 Vancomycin A07AA10 Colistin A07AA11 Rifaximin A07AA51 Neomycin, combinations A07AA54 Streptomycin, combinations... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The DrugBank database available at the University of Alberta is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... The biological half-life of a substance is the time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism by either a physical or a chemical process. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ...

Legal status

? The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ...

Routes Oral, intravenous, intramuscular

Kanamycin sulfate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, available in both oral and intravenous forms, and used to treat a wide variety of infections. Kanamycin is isolated from Streptomyces kanamyceticus[1]. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Intramuscular injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are effective against certain types of bacteria. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ...

Contents

Pharmacology

Kanamycin works by affecting the 30S ribosomal subunit and causing a frameshift mutation or it prevents the translation of RNA. This means that instead of a codon CAT (for example in sequence CATG), a codon ATG is read by aminoacyl tRNA (aa-tRNA). Aminoacyl tRNA is consequently carrying a different amino acid, because the anticodon on the aa-tRNA is different. The protein needed cannot be synthesized: depending on the site and severity of the frame shift, either a completely different protein is synthesized, or a protein similar to the one needed is synthesized, but is folded incorrectly. A bacterium is destroyed because it cannot produce any of its proteins correctly.[citation needed] Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Sometimes the 30s is used as shorthand for the 1930s, the 1830s, or other such decades in various... A frameshift mutation (also called a frameshift or a framing error) is a genetic mutation that inserts or deletes a number of nucleotides that is not evenly divisible by three from a DNA sequence. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... RNA codons. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... An anticodon is a unit made up of nucleotides that plays an important role in various DNA cycles, including DNA transcription. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Protein before and after folding. ...


Kanamycin is not given to humans often because of its fairly toxic side-effects.


Side effects

Serious side effects include changes in hearing (either hearing loss or ringing in the ears), toxicity to kidneys, and allergic reactions to the drug.[2] Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ... Hearing (or audition) is one of the traditional five senses, and refers to the ability to detect sound. ... Tinnitus (pronounced or ,[1] from the Latin word for ringing[2]) is the perception of sound in the human ear in the absence of corresponding external sound(s). ... Nephrotoxicity is a poisonous effect of some substances, both toxic substances and medication, on the kidney. ... This article needs cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Use in research

Genes encoding kanamycin resistance are commonly used as selectable markers in molecular biology.[citation needed] At least one such gene, Atwbc19[3] is native to a plant species, of comparatively large size and its coded protein acts in a manner which decreases the possibility of Horizontal Gene Transfer from the plant to bacteria; it may be incapable of giving resistance to kanamycin to bacteria even if gene transfer occurs. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also Lateral gene transfer (LGT), is any process in which an organism transfers genetic material to another cell that is not its offspring. ...

Aminosalicylic acid (C7H7NO3) is also known as para-aminosalicylic acid, p-aminosalicylic acid or 4-aminosalicylic acid; abbreviated 4-ASA, PAS or P. It is sold in the US by Jacobus Pharmaceutical as Paser®. 5-aminosalicylic acid is a closely related compound that also has medical uses. ... Sulfasalazine is a sulfa drug, a derivative of Mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid abbreviated as 5-ASA), used primarily as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease as well as for rheumatoid arthritis. ... Mesalazine (INN, BAN), also known as Mesalamine (USAN) or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is an anti-inflammatory drug used to treat inflammation of the digestive tract (Crohns disease) and mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. ... Olsalazine is an anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Ulcerative Colitis. ... Balsalazide is an anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. ... Binomial name Saccharomyces boulardii Henri Boulard Saccharomyces boulardii is a tropical strain of yeast first isolated from lychee and mangosteen fruit in 1923 by French scientist Henri Boulard. ... Binomial name Linnaeus The Carob tree (from Arabic: خروب kharoub and Hebrew: חרוב Charuv), Ceratonia siliqua, is an evergreen shrub or tree native to the Mediterranean region, cultivated for its edible seed pods. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are effective against certain types of bacteria. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Streptomyces is a genus of Actinobacteria. ... Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. ... Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is found in many topical medications such as creams, ointments and eyedrops. ... Framycetin is a nasal preparation. ... Paromomycin sulfate (brand name Humatin) is a drug that fights intestinal amoeba infection, or amebiasis. ... Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. ... Tobramycin sulfate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat various types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infections. ... Hygromycin B, is an antibiotic produced by the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus. ... Spectinomycin hydrochloride (Trobicin®) is an aminocyclitol antibiotic produced by the bacteria Streptomyces spectabilis. ... Species see text Micromonospora is a genus of bacteria of the family Micromonosporaceae. ... Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, and can treat many types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infection. ... Netilmicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. ...

References

  1. ^ Garrod, L.P., et al.: "Antibiotic and Chemotherapy", page 131. Churchill Livingstone, 1981
  2. ^ Consumer Drug Information: Kanamycin, 2 April 2008, <http://www.drugs.com/cdi/kanamycin.html>. Retrieved on 4 May 2008 
  3. ^ Horizontal Gene Transfer: Plant vs. Bacterial Genes for Antibiotic Resistance Scenario's—What's the Difference?

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kantrex (Kanamycin) drug description - prescription drugs and medications at RxList (655 words)
As with other aminoglycosides, the major toxic effects of kanamycin sulfate are its action on the auditory and vestibular branches of the eighth nerve and the renal tubules.
Kanamycin sulfate should not be given concurrently with potent diuretics (ethacrynic acid, furosemide, meralluride sodium, sodium mercaptomerin, or mannitol).
Kanamycin sulfate Injection, USP, sterile solution for parenteral administration, contains respectively; kanamycin sulfate 75mg, 500 mg, and 1.0 g; sodium bisulfite, an antioxidant, 0.099%, 0.66%, and 0.45%; and sodium citrate, 0.33%, 2.2%, and 2.2% with pH of each dosage form adjusted to 4.5 with sulfuric acid.
Kanamycin: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional (1860 words)
The American Academy of Pediatrics considers kanamycin to be “usually compatible with breast-feeding”.
Although kanamycin transfers into human milk, it is not well absorbed when taken orally.
Hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis may enhance kanamycin elimination; exchange transfusion may also be considered in the newborn infant.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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