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Encyclopedia > Kamikaze
USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near Kyūshū on May 11, 1945. Out of a crew of 2,600, 372 personnel were killed.

Kamikaze  (Japanese: 神風; literally: "god wind"; common translation: "divine wind") is a word of Japanese origin, which in English usually refers to the suicide attacks by military aviators from the Empire of Japan, against Allied shipping, in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II. Image File history File links BunkerHillKamikaze. ... Image File history File links BunkerHillKamikaze. ... USS Bunker Hill (CV-17) was an Essex-class aircraft carrier of the United States Navy, nicknamed Holiday Express for her many attacks launched around the end of the year. ... KyÅ«shÅ« region of Japan and the current prefectures on KyÅ«shÅ« island KyÅ«shÅ« ), literally Nine Provinces, is the third largest island of Japan and most southerly and westerly of the four main islands. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (132nd in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... The word Kamikaze has several meanings: Kamikaze refers to the suicide attackers used by the Japanese during World War II. A kamikaze is a cocktail. ... Image File history File links Kamikaze. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A suicide attack is an attack in which the attacker (attacker being either an individual or a group) intends to kill others and knows he or she will most likely die (see suicide). ... It has been suggested that Aerial warfare be merged into this article or section. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military (a. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. ... Combatants China (from 1937) United States (1941) U.K. (1941) Australia (from 1941) Free France (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) Soviet Union (1945) Japan (from 1937)  Germany (1941) Thailand (from 1942) Manchukuo Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston Churchill John Curtin Fumimaro Konoe Hideki Tojo... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa hit the aircraft carrier USS Bunker Hill (see picture right).
Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa hit the aircraft carrier USS Bunker Hill (see picture right).

These attacks, beginning in 1944, followed several very significant and critical military and strategic defeats for Japan, its decreasing capacity to wage war along with loss of experienced pilots, and the Allies' increased ability, due largely to the industrial capacity of the United States and Japan's reluctance to surrender. In these attacks Japanese pilots would deliberately attempt to crash their aircraft into naval vessels and other ships. Sometimes laden with explosives, extra bombs, and carrying just enough fuel to reach an Allied ship, their objective was to stop the Allied advance towards the Japanese home islands by causing as much damage and destruction as possible. Image File history File links Ensign_Kiyoshi_Ogawa_hit_Bunker_Hill. ... Image File history File links Ensign_Kiyoshi_Ogawa_hit_Bunker_Hill. ... Ensign is a junior rank of commissioned officer in the militaries of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy. ... Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Japanese Archipelago which forms the country of Japan extends from north to south along the eastern coast of the Eurasian Continent, the western shore of the Pacific Ocean. ...


Kamikazes were the most common and best-known form of Japanese suicide attack during World War II. The Imperial Japanese Army had long used "banzai charges", in some situations. However, the Imperial Japanese Navy, in particular, used or made plans for various suicide attacks, including midget submarines, human torpedoes, speedboats (some of which were also commissioned by the army) and divers. The Imperial Japanese Army (: 大日本帝國陸軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Japan from 1867 to 1945 when it was Imperial Japan. ... Banzai charge (or banzai attack) is a term related to the Japanese samurai spirit and ideology of not accepting the shame of defeat. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍   or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun), officially Navy of Empire of Greater Japan, also known as the Japanese Navy or Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force... During the Second World War, Japanese Special Attack Units were specialized units normally used for suicide missions. ... The Kairyu (海龍 Sea Dragon) was a class of Kamikaze midget submarines designed in 1943-1944, and produced from the beginning of 1945. ... The Kaiten (Japanese:回天, translated Change the World or Reverse the Destiny) was a torpedo modified as a suicide weapon, and used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in the final stages of the Second World War. ... Japanese Shinyo suicide boat, 1945 A Shinyo under way, being tested by an American soldier. ... During the Second World War, Japanese Special Attack Units were specialized units normally used for suicide missions. ...


Since the end of the war, the term "kamikaze" has sometimes been used as a pars pro toto for other kinds of attack in which an attacker is deliberately sacrificed. These include a variety of suicide attacks, in other historical contexts, such as the proposed use of Selbstopfer aircraft by Nazi Germany and various suicide bombings by terrorist organizations around the world (such as the September 11, 2001 attacks). In English, the word kamikaze may also be used in a hyperbolic or metaphorical fashion to refer to non-fatal actions which result in significant loss for the attacker, such as injury or the end of a career. Pars pro toto is Latin for (taking) a part for the whole; it is a kind of synecdoche. ... Selbstopfer (selbst+opfer, German for self-sacrifice) was a late-World War II German project to develop a smart weapon for attacking high-value targets such as bridges and command centers. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... A suicide bombing is an attack using a bomb in which the individual(s) carrying the explosive materials composing the bomb intend(s) and expect(s) to die upon detonation (see suicide). ... This article is becoming very long. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... This article is about a figure of speech. ... Look up metaphor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Origins of the word kamikaze

Lt Yamaguchi’s Yokosuka D4Y3 (Type 33) Suisei diving at USS Essex, November 25, 1944. The air brakes are extended and the non-self-sealing port wing tank is trailing fuel vapor and/or smoke.
Lt Yamaguchi’s Yokosuka D4Y3 (Type 33) Suisei diving at USS Essex, November 25, 1944. The air brakes are extended and the non-self-sealing port wing tank is trailing fuel vapor and/or smoke.
See also: kamikaze (typhoon)

In the Japanese language, kamikaze (IPA: [kamicozy]) (Japanese:神風), usually translated as "divine wind" (kami is the word for "god", "spirit", or "divinity"; and kaze for "wind"), came into being as the name of legendary typhoons said to have saved Japan from Mongol invasion fleets in 1274 and 1281. Image File history File links Yokosuka_D4Y3. ... Image File history File links Yokosuka_D4Y3. ... The Yokosuka D4Y Suisei (彗星, comet) was a single-seat dive bomber of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... The fourth USS Essex (CV-9) (also CVA-9 and CVS-9) was a United States Navy aircraft carrier, the lead ship of her class. ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... In aeronautics air brakes are a type of flight control used on aircraft to reduce speed during landing. ... Self-sealing fuel tanks are an aviation technology developed during World War II, when it quickly became apparent that fighter aircraft lacked adequate protection. ... Kamikaze (神風 kamikaze) is a Japanese word, usually translated as divine wind, beleived to be a gift from the gods. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Events May 7 - In France the Second Council of Lyons opens to consider the condition of the Holy Land and to agree to a union with the Byzantine church. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ...


In Japanese, the formal term used for units carrying out these suicide attacks during World War II is tokubetsu kōgeki tai (特別攻撃隊), which literally means "special attack unit." This is usually abbreviated to tokkōtai (特攻隊). More specifically, air suicide attack units from the Imperial Japanese Navy were officially called shinpū tokubetsu kōgeki tai (神風特別攻撃隊, "divine wind special attack units". Shinpū is the on-reading (on'yomi or Chinese-derived pronunciation) of the same characters that form the word Kamikaze in Japanese. However, during World War II, the actual word Kamikaze was never, or rarely, used in Japan in relation to suicide attacks. U.S. translators during the war erroneously used the kun'yomi (indigenous Japanese pronunciation) for Shinpū, giving the English language the word kamikaze, for Japanese suicide units in general. This usage gained acceptance worldwide. After the war, Japanese speakers re-imported the word and the English language pronunciation, under the influence of U.S. media sources. As a result, the special attack units are sometimes known in Japan as kamikaze tokubetsu kōgeki tai. The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍   or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun), officially Navy of Empire of Greater Japan, also known as the Japanese Navy or Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


History

Background

A kamikaze (just left of center near the top border), a Mitsubishi Zero in this case, about to hit the Missouri.
A kamikaze (just left of center near the top border), a Mitsubishi Zero in this case, about to hit the Missouri.
Model 52c Zeros are sent back from Korea to Kyūshū island, to take part in a Kamikaze attack (early 1945).
Model 52c Zeros are sent back from Korea to Kyūshū island, to take part in a Kamikaze attack (early 1945).

After six months of continuous victories following their Attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese forces were checked at the Battle of the Coral Sea in May of 1942, defeated at the Battle of Midway in June of that year, and finally lost their momentum at Guadalcanal. During 1943-44, Allied forces, backed by the industrial might and rich resources of the United States, were advancing steadily towards Japan. Download high resolution version (800x649, 88 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (800x649, 88 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Mitsubishi A6M3 Zero wreck abandoned at Munda Airfield, Central Solomons, 1943. ... Radars: AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar AN/SPS-67 Surface Search Radar Fire control: 4 × Mk 37 Gun Fire Control 2 × Mk 38 Gun Director 1 × Mk 40 Gun Director EW: AN/SLQ-32 Other: AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE Decoy System 8 × Super Rapid Bloom Rocket Launchers (SRBOC) Armor... Image File history File links A6M5_52c_Kyushu. ... Image File history File links A6M5_52c_Kyushu. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN), Mitsuo Fuchida (IJNAS), Shigekazu Shimazaki (IJNAS) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 9 destroyers, 2 battleships, 2 heavy cruisers, 1 light cruiser, 8... Combatants United States Navy Royal Australian Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Frank J. Fletcher John G. Crace Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 light carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 fleet carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker sunk 543 killed 1 light carrier... Combatants United States of America Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi † Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties... Combatants Allied forces including: United States Australia New Zealand British Solomon Is. ...


Japan's fighter planes were becoming outnumbered and outclassed by newer US-made planes, especially the F6F Hellcat and F4U Corsair. The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service (IJNAS) was worn down by air battles against the Allies during the Solomons and New Guinea campaigns. Finally, in the Battle of the Philippine Sea, the Japanese lost over 400 carrier-based planes and pilots, an action referred to by the Allies as the "Great Marianas Turkey Shoot". Skilled fighter pilots were also becoming scarce. Tropical diseases, as well as shortages of spare parts and fuel made operations more and more difficult for the IJNAS. Grumman F6F-3 Hellcats on 1 January 1943 F6F-5 ready in catapult on USS Randolph Grumman F6F-3 Hellcat on the flight deck of USS Yorktown (CV-10) prior to take off, having its wings extended Grumman F6F-3 Hellcats in tricolor scheme on the flight deck The Grumman... Chance Vought F4U Corsair The Chance Vought F4U Corsair was a fighter aircraft that saw service in World War II and the Korean War. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service or Dai Nippon Teikoku Kaigun Koku Hombu was a major force in the Pacific War during World War II. The Japanese military acquired their first aircraft in 1910 and followed the development of air combat during World War I with great interest. ... The Solomon Islands Campaign was a large series of battles that occurred in the Pacific Theater of World War II. This was the first large-scale campaign in the War in the Pacific, and the victories achieved by the Americans in the battles of this campaign helped secure vital bases... The New Guinea campaign was one of the major military campaigns of World War II. Fighting in the Australian mandated Territory of New Guinea (the north-eastern part of the island of New Guinea and surrounding islands) and Dutch New Guinea, between Allied and Japanese forces, commenced with the Japanese... Combatants United States Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Ray Spruance Jisaburo Ozawa Strength 7 heavy carriers, 8 light carriers, 7 battleships, 79 other ships, 28 submarines, 956 planes 6 heavy carriers, 3 light carriers, 5 battleships, 43 other ships, 450 carrier-based planes, 300 land-based planes Casualties 123 planes... The Battle of the Philippine Sea was an air-sea battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II fought between the US Navy and the Imperial Japanese Navy on June 19 and June 20, 1944, off the Mariana Islands. ... Fuel is any material that is capable of releasing energy when its chemical or physical structure is changed or converted. ...


On July 15, 1944, the important Japanese base of Saipan fell to the Allied forces. Its capture provided adequate forward bases which enabled US air forces using B-29 Superfortress long-range bombers to strike the Japanese home islands. After the fall of Saipan, the Japanese high command predicted that the Allies would try to capture the Philippines, which were strategically important due to their location between the oil fields of Southeast Asia and Japan. July 15 is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Saipan seen from the air A map of Saipan, Tinian & Aquijan Saipan (IPA: in English) is the largest island and capital of the United States Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), a chain of 15 tropical islands belonging to the Marianas archipelago in the western Pacific Ocean (15°10... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine heavy bomber propeller aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and other military organizations afterwards. ... The B-17 Flying Fortress is one of the most recognizable and famous bombers of World War II. A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


The prediction came true in October 17, 1944, when Allied forces assaulted Suluan Island, beginning the Battle of Leyte Gulf. The Imperial Japanese Navy's 1st Air Fleet, based at Manila was assigned the task of assisting the Japanese ships which would attempt to destroy Allied forces in Leyte Gulf. However, the 1st Air Fleet at that time only had 40 aircraft: 34 Mitsubishi Zero carrier-based fighters, three Nakajima B6N torpedo bombers, one Mitsubishi G4M and two Yokosuka P1Y land-based bombers, with one additional reconnaissance plane. The task facing the Japanese air forces seemed totally impossible. The 1st Air Fleet commandant, Vice Admiral Takijiro Onishi decided to form a suicide attack unit, the Kamikaze Special Attack Force. In a meeting at Magracut Airfield near Manila on October 19, Onishi, visiting the 201st Navy Flying Corps headquarters, suggested: "I don't think there would be any other certain way to carry out the operation [to hold the Philippines], than to put a 250 kg bomb on a Zero and let it crash into a U.S. carrier, in order to disable her for a week." October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: Blanked by author, previous version was an untranslated sentence of some sort If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Combatants United States Australia Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr (3rd Fleet) Thomas C. Kinkaid (7th Fleet) Takeo Kurita (Centre Force) Shoji Nishimura(Southern Force) Kiyohide Shima(Southern Force) Jisaburo Ozawa(Northern Force) Strength 17 aircraft carriers 18 escort carriers 12 battleships 24 cruisers 141 destroyers and destroyer escorts... Nickname: Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Philippines Region National Capital Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Jose L. Atienza, Jr. ... Mitsubishi A6M5 Zero Model 52 The Mitsubishi A6M was a light-weight carrier-based fighter aircraft employed by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945. ... Nakajima B6N1 Tenzan torpedo bomber (Jill) explodes in the air after a direct hit by 5-inch shell from the USS Yorktown (CV-10) off Kwajalein on December 4, 1943 The Nakajima B6N Tenzan (Japanese: 中島 B6N 天山 - Heavenly Mountain, Allied reporting name: Jill) was the Imperial Japanese Navys standard torpedo... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... Mitsubishi G4M The Mitsubishi G4M (一式陸上攻撃機:Type 1 land-based attack aircraft; Allied reporting name Betty) was a twin-engined, land-based bomber aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in World War II. The bomber is nicknamed the Betty by the American military. ... The Yokosuka P1Y Ginga (銀河, Milky Way) was a twin-engine, land-based bomber developed for the Japanese Imperial Navy in World War II. It was the successor to the Mitsubishi G4M and given the Allied codename Frances. The P1Y was designed by the Yokosuka Naval Air Technical Arsenal... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... Takijirō ÅŒnishi (June 2, 1891–August 16, 1945) (Kanji: 大西瀧治郎, Hiragana: おおにし たきじろう) was a Japanese admiral known as the father of kamikaze. ... Nickname: Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Philippines Region National Capital Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Jose L. Atienza, Jr. ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Rituals for Kamikaze

There were rituals or ways in which Kamikaze pilots were sent off. They were given the flag of Japan or the Rising sun flag (Japanese naval ensign) with inspirational and spiritual words, Nambu pistol or katana and drank sake before they took off generally. It is also stated that they flew around once or more the mountain or anything with spiritual significance for the pilots and then they would set out on straight course to the target. It was highly patriotic and/or nationalistic procedure. Civil and state flag and ensign (Aug 13, 1999. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Nambu pistol was a semi-automatic pistol used by the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy during the First and Second World Wars. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine. ...

See also: Yamato spirit

Yamato Damashi (Japanese: 大和魂, yamato damashii) is a concept meaning Japanese Spirit or the Soul of Old Japan. 大和 (Yamato) refers to the Yamato, or the ancient Japanese and culture that existed before contact with China, and Damashii is the rendaku form of 魂 (tamashii, soul or spirit). This is often explained as...

The first kamikaze unit

Lt (Chui) Yukio Seki wearing a life preserver.
Lt (Chui) Yukio Seki wearing a life preserver.

Commander Asaiki Tamai asked a group of 23 talented student pilots, all of whom he had trained, to volunteer for the special attack force. All of the pilots raised both of their hands, thereby volunteering to join the operation. Later, Tamai asked Lt Yukio Seki to command the special attack force. Seki is said to have closed his eyes, lowered his head and thought for ten seconds, before saying: "please let me do that." Seki thereby became the 24th kamikaze pilot to be chosen. However, Seki later wrote: "Japan's future is bleak if it is forced to kill one of its best pilots. I am not going on this mission for the Emperor or for the Empire... I am going because I was ordered to." [1] Image File history File links Lt_Yukio_Seki_in_flightgear. ... Image File history File links Lt_Yukio_Seki_in_flightgear. ... Yukio Seki ( ?, 1921 - October 25, 1944) was japanese Kamikaze pilot who led the first official Kamikaze attack in the World War II. He was born 1921 in Iyo Saijo, a small town in Shikoku. ... Commander is a military rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. ... Asaiki Tamai was a commander in the Japanese Army in World War II. He is most noted for forming the first official kamikaze unit. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... Yukio Seki ( ?, 1921 - October 25, 1944) was japanese Kamikaze pilot who led the first official Kamikaze attack in the World War II. He was born 1921 in Iyo Saijo, a small town in Shikoku. ...


The names of four sub-units within the Kamikaze Special Attack Force, were Unit Shikishima, Unit Yamato, Unit Asahi, and Unit Yamazakura. These names were taken from a patriotic poem (waka or tanka), "Shikishima no Yamato – gokoro wo hito, towaba Asahi ni niou Yamazakura Bama" by the Japanese classical scholar, Motoori Norinaga. The poem reads: Waka (和歌) or Yamato uta is a genre of Japanese poetry. ... See Waka (disambiguation) for other usages. ... Motoori Norinaga (Japanese: 本居宣長; 21 June 1730–5 November 1801) was a Japanese philologist and scholar during the Edo period. ...

If someone asks about the Yamato [predominant ethnic group in Japan] spirit [Spirit of Japan] of Shikishima [a poetic name for Japan], it is the flowers of yamazakura [mountain cherry blossom ] that are fragrant in the Asahi [rising sun].

[or] Yamato Damashi (Japanese: 大和魂, yamato damashii) is a concept meaning Japanese Spirit or the Soul of Old Japan. 大和 (Yamato) refers to the Yamato, or the ancient Japanese and culture that existed before contact with China, and Damashii is the rendaku form of 魂 (tamashii, soul or spirit). This is often explained as... Washington, D.C. Tidal Basin showing cherry trees in flower Cherry tree blossoms A cherry is both a tree and its fleshy fruit, a type known as a drupe with a single hard pit enclosing the seed. ...


"If someone asks about the spirit of Japan, it is the flowers of mountain cherry blossom that are fragrant in the rising sun"

Training and attacking

We tried to live with 120 percent intensity, rather than waiting for death. We read and read, trying to understand why we had to die in our early twenties. We felt the clock ticking away towards our death, every sound of the clock shortening our lives.

—Irokawa Daikichi, Kamikaze Diaries: Reflections of Japanese Student Soldiers

Tokkōtai/Kamikaze pilot training, as described by Kasuga Takeo, generally "consisted of incredibly strenuous training, coupled with cruel and torturous corporal punishment as a daily routine." Irokawa Daikichi, who trained at Tsuchiura Naval Air Base, recalled that he "was struck on the face so hard and frequently that [his] face was no longer recognizable." He also wrote: "I was hit so hard that I could no longer see and fell on the floor.


The minute I got up, I was hit again by a club so that I would confess." This brutal "training" was justified by the idea that it would instill a "soldier's fighting spirit." However, daily beatings and corporal punishment would eliminate patriotism among many pilots.


Pilots were given a manual which detailed how they were supposed to think, prepare, and attack. From this manual, pilots were told to "eliminate all thoughts about life and death" in order to "concentrate [their] attention on eradicating the enemy with unwavering determination," to "attain a high level of spiritual training," and to "keep [their] health in the very best condition." These things, among others, were meant to put the pilot into the mindset in which he would be mentally ready to die.


The Tokkōtai pilot's manual also explained how a pilot may turn back if the pilot could not a locate a target and that "[a pilot] should not waste [his] life lightly." However, one pilot who continuously came back to base was shot after his ninth return.


The manual was very detailed in how a pilot should attack. A pilot would dive towards his target and would "aim for a point between the bridge tower and the smoke stacks." Entering a smoke stack was also said to be "effective." Pilots were told not to aim at a ship's bridge tower or gun turret but instead to look for elevators or the flight deck to crash into. For horizontal attacks, the pilot was to "aim at the middle of the vessel, slightly higher than the waterline" or to "aim at the entrance to the aircraft hangar, or the bottom of the stack" if the former was too difficult.


The Tokkōtai pilot's manual told pilots to never close their eyes. This was because if a pilot closed his eyes he would lower the chances of hitting his target. In the finals moments before the crash, the pilot was to yell "Hissatsu" at the top of his lungs which roughly translates to "Sink without fail."[2] [3]


The first attacks

The bridge and forward turrets of HMAS Australia, in September 1944. The officer facing right is Captain Emile Dechaineux, killed by the first kamikaze to hit an Allied ship, on October 21, 1944.
The bridge and forward turrets of HMAS Australia, in September 1944. The officer facing right is Captain Emile Dechaineux, killed by the first kamikaze to hit an Allied ship, on October 21, 1944.

At least one source cites Japanese planes crashing into the USS Indiana and USS Reno in mid-late 1944 as the first kamikaze attacks of World War II. [1] However, there is little evidence that these hits were more than accidental collisions or last-minute decisions by pilots in doomed aircraft, of the kind likely to happen in intense sea-air battles. Download high resolution version (733x1000, 155 KB)View of the bridge and forward 8-in turrets of heavy cruiser HMAS Australia, 4 September 1944. ... Download high resolution version (733x1000, 155 KB)View of the bridge and forward 8-in turrets of heavy cruiser HMAS Australia, 4 September 1944. ... HMAS Australia [1] , launched in 1927, was a County-class heavy cruiser in the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). ... Geoff/Gsl 07:06, 27 February 2006 (UTC) Category: ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... USS Indiana (BB-58), a South Dakota-class battleship, was the fourth ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the 19th state. ... The second USS Reno (CL-96) was laid down by Bethlehem Steel Co. ...


Another source claims that the first kamikaze mission happened on September 13, 1944. A group of pilots, from the army's 31st Fighter Squadron, on Negros Island decided to launch a suicide attack the following morning.[4] First Lieutenant Takeshi Kosai and a sergeant were selected. Two 100-kilogram bombs were attached to two fighters, and the pilots took off before dawn on September 13, planning to crash into carriers. They never returned and there is no record of an enemy plane hitting an Allied ship on September 13, 1944. September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... Negros is an island of the Philippines located in the Visayas. ...


Captain Masafumi Arima, the commander of the 26th Air Flotilla (part of the 11th Air Fleet), is also sometimes credited with inventing the kamikaze tactic. Arima personally led an attack by about 100 Yokosuka D4Y Suisei (or "Judy") dive bombers against a large Essex class aircraft carrier, USS Franklin near Leyte Gulf, on (or about, accounts vary) October 15, 1944. Although Arima was killed, and part of a plane hit the Franklin, it is not clear that this was a planned suicide attack. [2] The Japanese high command and propagandists seized on Arima's example: he was promoted posthumously to Admiral, and was given official credit for making the first kamikaze attack. Official accounts of his attack bore little resemblance to the events concerned. Captain is a nautical term, an organizational title, and a rank in various uniformed organizations. ... Masafumi Arima (1895-October, 1944) was a Japanese naval aviator during World War II. He is sometimes credited with being the first to use the Kamikaze attack, but there is little evidence to support this. ... Lt. ... A dive bomber is a bomber aircraft that dives directly at its targets in order to provide greater accuracy. ... The United States Navys Essex-class aircraft carriers constituted the Twentieth Centurys largest class of heavy warships, with 24 ships built. ... The fifth USS Franklin (CV-13) (also CVA-13, CVS-13, and AVT-8), nicknamed Big Ben, was an Essex-class aircraft carrier of the United States Navy, notable as the hardest-hit carrier to survive World War II. The actual kamikaze attacks on the ship are depicted in the... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Soviet Propaganda Poster during the Great Patriotic War. ... A posthumous name (Traditional Chinese: 諡號/謚號 Simplified Chinese: 谥号; Pinyin: shì hào; Romaji: shigō/tsuigō; Revised Romanization of Korean: siho) is a honorary name given to royalty in some cultures posthumously, that is, after the persons death. ...


According to eyewitness accounts, the first kamikaze attack to hit an Allied ship was carried out by an unknown pilot, who was also not a member of the Kamikaze Special Attack Force; the target was the flagship of the Royal Australian Navy, HMAS Australia. [3] The attack took place on October 21, 1944, near Leyte Island; gunners from HMAS Australia and HMAS Shropshire fired at, and reportedly hit, an unidentified Japanese aircraft. The plane then flew away from the ships, before turning and flying into Australia, striking the ship's superstructure above the bridge, and spewing burning fuel and debris over a large area, before falling into the sea. A 200 kg (440 pound) bomb carried by the plane failed to explode; if it had, the ship might have been effectively destroyed. At least 30 crew members died as a result of the attack, including the commanding officer, Captain Emile Dechaineux; among the wounded was Commodore John Collins, the Australian force commander. The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... HMAS Australia [1] , launched in 1927, was a County-class heavy cruiser in the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Leyte (pronounced LAY-teh or LAY-tee) is an island in the Visayas group of the Philippines. ... HMS Shropshire (83) was a County class heavy cruiser laid down by William Beardmore and Company, Limited, at Dalmuir in Scotland on 24 February 1926, launched on 5 July 1928 by the Countess of Powis, Baroness D?Arcy de Knayth and completed on 12 September 1929. ... Bridge of the brigantine LEtoile The bridge of a ship is an area or room where the ships navigational controls and other essential equipment related to ship operations are housed and operated. ... Geoff/Gsl 07:06, 27 February 2006 (UTC) Category: ... Commodore is a military rank used in some navies for officers whose position exceeds that of a Captain, but is less than that of a Flag Officer. ... Captain John Collins in 1943 Vice-Admiral Sir John Augustine Collins, KBE, CB (1899–1989) was an Australian naval officer who served in World War I and World War II, and who eventually rose to become the First Naval Member of the Australian Commonwealth Naval Board and Chief of the...


On October 25, 1944 the Australia was hit again and was forced to retire to the New Hebrides for repairs. That same day, the Kamikaze Special Attack Force carried out its first mission. Five Zeros, led by Seki, and escorted to the target by leading Japanese ace Hiroyoshi Nishizawa, attacked several escort carriers. One Zero attempted to hit the bridge of the USS Kitkun Bay, but instead exploded on the port catwalk and cartwheeled into the sea. Two others dove at USS Fanshaw Bay, but were destroyed by anti-aircraft fire. The last two ran at the USS White Plains, however one, under heavy fire and trailing smoke, aborted the attempt on the White Plains and instead banked toward the USS St. Lo, plowing into the flight deck. Its bomb caused fires that resulted in the bomb magazine exploding, sinking the carrier.[5] October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Motto In God we stand Anthem Yumi, Yumi, Yumi Capital (and largest city) Port Vila Official languages Bislama, English, French Government Republic  -  President Kalkot Mataskelekele  -  Prime Minister Ham Lini Independence from France and the UK   -  Date 30 July 1980  Area  -  Total 12,189 km² (161st) 4,706 sq mi   -  Water... Hiroyoshi Nishizawa (January 27, 1920 - October 26, 1944) was an ace pilot of the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force during World War II. It is within reason that he was the most successful individual pilot of the IJN, with over seventy victories. ... The escort aircraft carrier or escort carrier, was a small aircraft carrier developed by the Royal Navy in the early part of World War II to deal with the U-boat crisis of the Battle of the Atlantic. ... Mitsubishi A6M3 Zero wreck abandoned at Munda Airfield, Central Solomons, 1943. ... USS Kitkun Bay (CVE-71) was a US Navy Casablanca class escort carrier launched on 8 November 1943. ... USS Fanshaw Bay (CVE-70) was a Casablanca-class United States Navy escort aircraft carrier, launched 1 November 1943 by Kaiser Shipbuilding Company, Vancouver, Wash, sponsored by Mrs. ... USS White Plains (CVE-66) was laid down on 11 February 1943 at Vancouver, Wash. ... USS (CVE‑63) was laid down as Chapin Bay 23 January 1943; renamed Midway 3 April 1943; launched 17 August 1943; sponsored by Mrs. ...

A Mitsubishi Zero (A6M5 Model 52) towards the end of its run at the escort carrier USS White Plains (CVE-66) on October 25, 1944. The aircraft exploded shortly after this picture was taken, scattering debris across the deck.
A Mitsubishi Zero (A6M5 Model 52) towards the end of its run at the escort carrier USS White Plains (CVE-66) on October 25, 1944. The aircraft exploded shortly after this picture was taken, scattering debris across the deck.
Starboard horizontal stabilizer from the tail of a "Judy" on the deck of USS Kitkun Bay.
Starboard horizontal stabilizer from the tail of a "Judy" on the deck of USS Kitkun Bay.

By day's end on October 26, 55 kamikaze from the special attack force had also damaged the large escort carriers USS Sangamon (CVE-26), USS Suwannee (CVE-27), USS Santee (CVE-29), and the smaller escorts USS White Plains, USS Kalinin Bay, and USS Kitkun Bay. In total seven carriers had been hit, as well as 40 other ships (five sunk, 23 heavily damaged, and 12 moderately damaged). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (900x720, 65 KB) Licensing Source: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (900x720, 65 KB) Licensing Source: http://www. ... Mitsubishi A6M3 Zero wreck abandoned at Munda Airfield, Central Solomons, 1943. ... The escort aircraft carrier or escort carrier, was a small aircraft carrier developed by the U.S. Navy in the early part of World War II to deal with the U-boat crisis of the Battle of the Atlantic. ... USS White Plains (CVE-66) was laid down on 11 February 1943 at Vancouver, Wash. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x781, 69 KB)Remains of Yokosuka D4Y Suisei aircraft tail section (starboard elevator unit) aboard USS Kitkun Bay (CVE 71) after Kamikaze attack. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x781, 69 KB)Remains of Yokosuka D4Y Suisei aircraft tail section (starboard elevator unit) aboard USS Kitkun Bay (CVE 71) after Kamikaze attack. ... A view of the Starboard side of the Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer USS Ross Starboard is the nautical term that refers to the right side of a vessel as perceived by a person on board the ship and facing the bow (front). ... The tail of a Lufthansa airliner (Airbus A319) in flight, showing the horizontal and vertical stabilizer Mathematics: see Group action. ... Lt. ... USS Kitkun Bay (CVE-71) was a US Navy Casablanca class escort carrier launched on 8 November 1943. ... Two ships of the United States Navy have been named USS Sangamon. ... The USS Suwannee (CVE-27) (originally designated as oiler AO-33, reclassified as an escort aircraft carrier as AVG-27 then later as ACV-27) was laid down on 3 June 1938 at Kearney, New Jersey, by the Federal Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. ... Two ships of the United States Navy have been named USS Santee, after the Santee River of South Carolina. ... Two ships of the United States Navy have been named USS White Plains, after the Battle of White Plains during the American Revolutionary War. ... USS Kalinin Bay (CVE-68), originally designated an AVG, was classified ACV-68 on 20 August 1942; laid down under a Maritime Commission contract 26 April 1943 by the Kaiser Shipbuilding Co. ... USS Kitkun Bay (CVE-71) was a US Navy Casablanca class escort carrier launched on 8 November 1943. ...


HMAS Australia returned to combat at the Battle of Lingayen Gulf in January 1945. However, on January 5, 6, 8 and 9, the ship was again attacked by kamikazes and suffered damage which forced it to retire once more. [4] The ship lost about 70 crew members to kamikaze hits. Other Allied ships which survived repeated hits from kamikazes during World War II included the Franklin and another Essex class carrier, USS Intrepid. Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Walter Krueger Tadamichi Kuribayashi Strength 68,000 unknown Casualties none none The Invasion of Lingayen Gulf was an American amphibious operation of WWII carried out in the Phillipines. ... This article is about the aircraft carrier USS Intrepid. ...

USS Columbia is attacked by a kamikaze off Lingayen Gulf, 6 January 1945
The kamikaze hits Columbia at 17:29. The plane and its bomb penetrated two decks before exploding, killing 13 and wounding 44.
The kamikaze hits Columbia at 17:29. The plane and its bomb penetrated two decks before exploding, killing 13 and wounding 44.

A kamikaze attacking USS Columbia (CL-56) off Lingayen Gulf, 6 January 1945 Downloaded from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A kamikaze attacking USS Columbia (CL-56) off Lingayen Gulf, 6 January 1945 Downloaded from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The sixth USS Columbia (CL-56) was a light cruiser of the United States Navy, launched 17 December 1941 by New York Shipbuilding Corp. ... The Lingayen Gulf is an extension of the South China Sea on Luzon in the Philippines. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... A kamikaze hits USS Columbia (CL-56) off Lingayen Gulf, 6 January 1945 Downloaded from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A kamikaze hits USS Columbia (CL-56) off Lingayen Gulf, 6 January 1945 Downloaded from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

The main wave of kamikaze attacks

Louisville hit by a kamikaze in Lingayen Gulf, January 1945
When you eliminate all thoughts about life and death, you will be able to totally disregard your earthly life. This will also enable you to concentrate your attention on eradicating the enemy with unwavering determination, meanwhile reinforcing your excellence in flight skills.
(A paragraph from the kamikaze pilots' manual.)

Early successes, such as the sinking of the St. Lo were followed by an immediate expansion of the program, and over the next few months over 2,000 planes made such attacks. USS Louisville (CA-28) hit by a kamikaze in Lingayen Gulf, January 1945 Downloaded from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... USS Louisville (CA-28) hit by a kamikaze in Lingayen Gulf, January 1945 Downloaded from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Lingayen Gulf is an extension of the South China Sea on Luzon in the Philippines. ...


Purpose-built kamikaze planes, as opposed to converted fighters and dive-bombers, had no landing gear at all. A specially-designed propellor plane, the Nakajima Ki-115 Tsurugi, was a simple, easy-to-build plane, intended to use up existing stocks of engines, in a wooden airframe. The undercarriage was non-retractable: it was jettisoned shortly after take-off for a suicide mission, and then re-used on other planes. Yokosuka MXY7 Ohka rocket-bombs — essentially anti-ship missiles guided by pilots; were first used in March 1945. These were also used against B-29 formations over Japanese cities, and were derisively known as the Baka Bomb ("baka" is Japanese for "idiot" or "stupid"). Small boats packed with explosives, and manned torpedoes, called Kaiten were also manufactured. The Nakajima Ki-115 Tsurugi (剣 Sword) was a one-man kamikaze aircraft developed by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force in the closing stages of World War 2 in late 1945. ... Luftwaffe Junkers Ju 87s, with fixed conventional landing gear. ... Ohka Model 11 replica at the Yasukuni Shrine The Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka (櫻花 cherry blossom) was a purpose-built kamikaze aircraft employed by Japan towards the end of World War II. The United States gave the aircraft the name Baka (Japanese for fool). It was a small flying bomb that... RBS-15 missile launched from a Sisu missile carriage. ... The Kaiten (Japanese:回天, translated Change the World or Reverse the Destiny) was a torpedo modified as a suicide weapon, and used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in the final stages of the Second World War. ...


In early 1945, Commander John Thach, a U.S. Navy air operations officer, who was already famous for developing effective aerial tactics against the Japanese such as the Thach Weave, developed an anti-kamikaze strategy called the "big blue blanket".[6] This plan called for round-the-clock fighter patrols over Allied fleets. However, the US Navy had cut back training of fighter pilots due to a perceived need for a higher percentage of pilots to fly bombers and transport aircraft,[citation needed] so there were not enough Navy pilots available to counter the kamikaze threat. The Navy hurriedly began to cross-train their carrier pilots on the F6F Hellcat,[citation needed] and brought Marine F4U Corsair squadrons aboard aircraft carriers.[citation needed] John Smith Thach (19 April 1905 - 15 April 1981) was a World War II naval aviator, air combat tactician, and Admiral in the United States Navy. ... An example of the Thach Weave The Thach Weave was an aerial combat tactic developed by naval aviator John S. Thach of the United States Navy early during World War II. Thach had heard of the Japanese Mitsubishi Zeros extraordinary maneuverability and climb rate before he ever experienced it... A diagram of the big blue blanket. ... Grumman F6F-3 Hellcats on 1 January 1943 F6F-5 ready in catapult on USS Randolph Grumman F6F-3 Hellcat on the flight deck of USS Yorktown (CV-10) prior to take off, having its wings extended Grumman F6F-3 Hellcats in tricolor scheme on the flight deck The Grumman... The Chance Vought F4U Corsair was an American fighter aircraft that saw service in World War II and the Korean War (and in isolated local conflicts). ...


Thach also recommended larger combat air patrols (CAP), further from the carriers than had previously been the case, intensive fighter sweeps over Japanese airfields, the bombing of Japanese runways with delayed action fuses, to make repairs more difficult, a line of picket destroyers and destroyer escorts at least 50 miles (80 km) from the main body of the fleet, to provide earlier radar interception, and improved coordination between fighter direction officers on carriers. Combat air patrol (CAP) is a type of defensive mission for fighter aircraft, in which they guard a designated site, either a fixed site on land, ships at sea, or less commonly support aircraft such as aerial tankers. ... A delay-action bomb is an aerial bomb designed to explode some time after impact with the ground. ... USS McFaul (DDG-74) In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range but powerful attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... A Destroyer Escort (DE) is classification for a small, comparatively slower warship designed to be used to escort convoys of merchant marine ships, primarily of the United States Navy in World War II. It is usually employed primarily for anti-submarine warfare, but also some protection against aircraft and smaller... This long range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll. ...


The peak in kamikaze attacks came during the period of April-June 1945, at the Battle of Okinawa. On April 6, 1945 waves of planes made hundreds of attacks, in Operation Kikusui ("floating chrysanthemums"). At Okinawa, kamikaze attacks focused at first on Allied destroyers on picket duty, and then on the carriers in the middle of the fleet. Suicide attacks by planes or boats at Okinawa sank or put out of action at least 30 US warships[5] and at least three US merchant ships[6], along with some from other Allied forces. The attacks expended 1,465 planes. Many warships of all classes were damaged, some severely, but no aircraft carriers, battleships or cruisers were sunk by kamikaze at Okinawa. Most of the ships destroyed were destroyers or smaller vessels, especially those on picket duty.[7] Combatants United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner†, Joseph W. Stilwell, Ray Spruance Mitsuru Ushijima† Isamu Cho† Strength 548,000 regulars, 1300 ships,  ? aircraft 100,000 regulars and militia,  ? ships,  ? aircraft Casualties 12,513 dead or missing, 38,916 wounded, 33,096... April 6 is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... This article is about the prefecture. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... Picketing is a form of non-violent resistance in which people congregate outside a place of work or location where an event is taking place and attempt to dissuade others from going in (crossing the picket line). It has two main aims: to harm the business or activity by losing... Cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship that carries goods and materials from one port to another. ... This article is about a battleship as a type of warship. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ...

Photo shows Corporal Yukio Araki holding a puppy with four other young men of the 72nd Shinbu Corps around him. An Asahi Shimbun cameraman took this photo on the day before the departure from Bansei Air Base. Araki died at the age of 17 in a suicide attack on US ships near Okinawa on May 27, 1945.
Photo shows Corporal Yukio Araki holding a puppy with four other young men of the 72nd Shinbu Corps around him. An Asahi Shimbun cameraman took this photo on the day before the departure from Bansei Air Base. Araki died at the age of 17 in a suicide attack on US ships near Okinawa on May 27, 1945.

US aircraft carriers, with their wooden flight decks, were more vulnerable to kamikaze hits, than the reinforced steel-decked carriers from the British Pacific Fleet (BPF) which operated in the theatre during 1945. The resilience of well-armoured vessels was shown on May 4. Just after 11.30 a.m. there was a wave of attacks against the BPF. One Japanese plane made a steep dive from "a great height" at the carrier HMS Formidable and was engaged by AA guns.[8] The kamikaze was hit at close range, but crashed into the flight deck, making a massive dent about 10 feet (3 m) long, two feet (0.6 m) wide and two feet deep in the armoured flight deck. A large steel splinter speared down through the hangar deck and the centre boiler-room, where it ruptured a steam line, and came to rest in a fuel tank, starting a major fire in the aircraft park. Eight crew members were killed and 47 were wounded. One Corsair and 10 Grumman Avengers were destroyed. However, the fires were gradually brought under control and the crater in the deck was repaired with concrete and steel plate. By 5 p.m., Corsairs were again able to land on Formidable. Image File history File links Youngest_kamikaze_only_17_years_old. ... Image File history File links Youngest_kamikaze_only_17_years_old. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, supercarrier USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft — in effect acting as a sea... The British Pacific Fleet (BPF) was a multinational Allied naval force which saw action against Japan during World War II. The fleet was comprised mainly of British Commonwealth naval vessels. ... HMS Formidable was an Illustrious class aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy during World War II. She was constructed by Harland & Wolff, Belfast and commissioned on 24 November 1940. ... Chance Vought F4U Corsair The Chance Vought F4U Corsair was a fighter aircraft that saw service in World War II and the Korean War. ... Grumman TBF Avengers in 1942 The Grumman TBF Avenger (designated TBM for aircraft manufactured by General Motors) was an American torpedo bomber, developed initially for the United States Navy and Marine Corps and used by a large number of air forces around the world. ...


As the end of the war approached, the Allies did not suffer significantly more damage, despite having far more ships than was previously the case and being attacked in far greater density. Due to their poor training, kamikaze pilots tended to be easy targets for experienced Allied pilots, who also flew superior aircraft. Moreover the U.S. Fast Carrier Task Force alone could bring over 1,000 fighter aircraft into play. Allied pilots also became adept at destroying enemy aircraft before they struck ships. Allied naval crews had also begun to develop techniques to negate kamikaze attacks, such as firing their high-caliber guns into the sea in front of attacking planes flying near sea level, in order to create walls of water which would swamp the attacking planes. Although such tactics could not be used against Okhas and other fast, high angle attacks, these were in turn more vulnerable to anti-aircraft fire. The Fast Carrier Task Force, known at different times as Task Force 38 and Task Force 58, was the main striking force of the United States Navy in the latter half of the Pacific War. ... USS Iowa (BB-61) fires a full broadside of nine 16/50 and six 5/38 guns during a target exercise near Vieques Island, Puerto Rico, 1 July 1984. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ...


During 1945, the Japanese military began stockpiling hundreds of Tsurugi, other propellor planes, Ohka, and suicide boats, for use against Allied forces expected to invade Japan. Few were ever used.

A Yokosuka MXY7 Ohka at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester.
A Yokosuka MXY7 Ohka at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2733x1537, 433 KB) Summary Japanese (unused) kamikaze airplane in the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester, United Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2733x1537, 433 KB) Summary Japanese (unused) kamikaze airplane in the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester, United Kingdom. ... Museum of Science and Industry. ...

Use of the tactic for air raid defense

When Japan began to be subject to intense strategic bombing by B-29 Bombers after the capture of Iwo Jima, the Japanese military attempted to use suicide attacks against this threat. The city heart of Rotterdam after being terror bombed by Nazi Germany in 1940, the ruin of the (now restored) Laurens Kerk is the only building that reminds people of Rotterdams medieval architecture. ... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress (Boeing Model 341/345) was a four-engine heavy bomber flown by the United States Army Air Force. ... For other uses, see Iwo Jima (disambiguation). ...


However, it proved much less successful and practical since an airplane is a much faster, more maneuverable, and smaller target than a warship. Taken with the fact that the B-29 model also had formidable defensive weaponry, suicide attacks against the plane type demanded considerable piloting skill to be successful. That worked against the very purpose of using expendable pilots and even encouraging capable pilots to bail out before impact was ineffective because vital personnel were often lost when they mistimed when to exit and were killed as a result.


Effects

A crewman in an AA gun aboard the battleship USS New Jersey watches as a kamikaze plane prepares to strike USS Intrepid
A crewman in an AA gun aboard the battleship USS New Jersey watches as a kamikaze plane prepares to strike USS Intrepid

By the end of World War II, the Japanese naval air service had sacrificed 2,525 kamikaze pilots and the army air force had lost 1,387. At least one of these pilots was a conscripted Korean with a Japanese name, adopted under the pre-war Soshi-kaimei ordinance that compelled Koreans to take Japanese personal names. [7] According to an official Japanese announcement, the missions sank 81 ships and damaged 195, and according to a Japanese tally, suicide attacks accounted for up to 80 percent of US losses in the final phase of the war in the Pacific. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 403 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (516 × 768 pixel, file size: 42 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kamikaze USS New Jersey (BB-62... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 403 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (516 × 768 pixel, file size: 42 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kamikaze USS New Jersey (BB-62... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... USS New Jersey (BB-62), known as Big J, is an Iowa-class battleship, and was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named in honor of the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... This article is about the aircraft carrier USS Intrepid. ... Sōshi-kaimei (Japanese: 創氏改名) was a policy created by Jiro Minami, Governor-General of Korea under the Empire of Japan, implemented upon Japanese subjects from Korea (referred to below as Koreans). ...


According to a U.S. Air Force source: Seal of the Air Force. ...

Approximately 2,800 Kamikaze attackers sunk 34 Navy ships, damaged 368 others, killed 4,900 sailors, and wounded over 4,800. Despite radar detection and cuing, airborne interception and attrition, and massive anti-aircraft barrages, a distressing 14 percent of Kamikazes survived to score a hit on a ship; nearly 8.5 percent of all ships hit by Kamikazes sank. [9]

In a 2004 book, World War II, the historians Wilmott, Cross & Messenger stated that more than 70 U.S. vessels were "sunk or damaged beyond repair" by kamikazes. This long range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll. ...


Cultural background and attitudes in Japan

While commonly perceived that volunteers signed up in droves for Kamikaze missions, it has also been contended that there was extensive coercion and peer pressure involved in recruiting soldiers for the sacrifice. Their motivations in "volunteering" were complex and not simply about patriotism or bringing honour to their families.


Special ceremonies were often held, immediately prior to kamikaze missions, in which pilots, carrying prayers from their families, were given military decorations. Such practices honoured and legitimized the suicide missions. Mary Magdalene in prayer. ... A military decoration is a decoration given to military personnel or units for heroism in battle or distinguished service. ...


According to legend, young pilots on kamikaze missions often flew southwest from Japan over the 922 metre (3,025 ft) Mount Kaimon. The mountain is also called "Satsuma Fuji" (meaning a geometrically symmetrical beautiful mountain like Mount Fuji, but located in the Satsuma Province region). Suicide mission pilots looked over their shoulders to see this, the most southern mountain on the Japanese mainland, while they were in the air, said farewell to their country, and saluted the mountain. Mount Fuji Mount Fuji , IPA: )   is the highest mountain in Japan. ... Satsuma (薩摩国; -no Kuni) was an old province of Japan that is now the western half of Kagoshima prefecture on the island of Kyushu. ...

Chiran high school girls wave farewell with cherry blossom branches to departing kamikaze pilot in a Ki-43-II Hayabusa.
Chiran high school girls wave farewell with cherry blossom branches to departing kamikaze pilot in a Ki-43-II Hayabusa.

Residents on Kikaijima island, east of Amami Oshima, say that pilots from suicide mission units dropped flowers from the air, as they departed on their final missions. According to legend, the hills above Kikaijima airport have beds of cornflower that bloom in early May.[8] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa (隼, Peregrine Falcon) was a single-engined fighter used by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force in World War II. The army designation was Type 1 Fighter (一式戦闘機); the Allied codename was Oscar. ... Amami ÅŒshima is one of the Ryukyu Islands (also known as Nansei Islands). ... Binomial name Centaurea cyanus L. Centaurea cyanus (Cornflower) is a small annual flowering plant in the family Asteraceae, native to Europe. ...


With the passing of time, some prominent Japanese military figures who survived the war became critical of the policy. Saburo Sakai, an IJN ace said: PO2/c Sakai in the cockpit of a Mitsubishi A5M Type 96 fighter (Hankow airfield, China in 1939). ... The Red Baron, Manfred von Richthofen, perhaps the most famous ace of all. ...

A kamikaze is a surprise attack, according to our ancient war tactics. Surprise attacks will be successful the first time, maybe two or three times. But what fool would continue the same attacks for ten months? Emperor Hirohito must have realized it. He should have said "Stop."
Even now, many faces of my students come up when I close my eyes. So many students are gone. Why did headquarters continue such silly attacks for ten months! Fools! Genda, who went to America — all those men lied that all men volunteered for kamikaze units. They lied.

In 2006, Watanabe Tsuneo, Editor in Chief of the Yomiuri Shimbun, criticized Japanese nationalists' glorification of kamikaze attacks:[9] [10] "It's all a lie that they left filled with braveness and joy, crying, 'Long live the emperor!' They were sheep at a slaughterhouse. Everybody was looking down and tottering. Some were unable to stand up and were carried and pushed into the plane by maintenance soldiers." Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ... Minoru Genda (源田実 Genda Minoru, 16 August 1904–15 August 1989) served in the Imperial Japanese Navy before and during World War II and in the Japanese Air Self-Defense Force after the war, eventually rising to the rank of major general. ... Yomiuri-TOKYO Office Yomiuri-Osaka Office Yomiuri YC The Yomiuri Shimbun (読売新聞 Yomiuri Shinbun) is a Japanese newspaper published in Tokyo, Osaka, Fukuoka, and other major Japanese cities. ...


Personnel involved in the development of World War II kamikaze attacks

Statue of kamikaze pilot in Yasukuni shrine
Statue of kamikaze pilot in
Yasukuni shrine

In the creation of the kamikaze defensive tactic, in the beginning certain Imperial Japanese Navy officers were involved. Later in World War II, some personnel of the Imperial Japanese Army also participated in the development of this defensive tactic: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1536 pixel, file size: 510 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ich machte dieses Foto von mir in 2006. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1536 pixel, file size: 510 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ich machte dieses Foto von mir in 2006. ... The name PILOT is an acronym, and stands for Programmed Instruction, Learning, Or Teaching. ... Torii Gate at Yasukuni Shrine The main building of Yasukuni Shrine Yasukuni Shrine 75th anniversary Stamp (1944) Yasukuni Shrine ) is a Shinto shrine located in Tokyo, Japan, dedicated to the spirits of soldiers and others who died fighting on behalf of the Emperor of Japan. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍   or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun), officially Navy of Empire of Greater Japan, also known as the Japanese Navy or Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Imperial Japanese Army (: 大日本帝國陸軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Japan from 1867 to 1945 when it was Imperial Japan. ...

  • On May 29, 1943, 2,500 Japanese marines, lead by Captain Yasugo Yamazaki, who was determined to die rather than surrender in defense of Attu island, Alaska under Japanese control. He wrote a diary entry: "Only 33 years of living and I am to die here...I have no regrets. Banzai to the Emperor...Goodbye Tasuko, my beloved wife." Yamazaki gathered the remaining 1,000 Japanese troops and charged the Americans. He died Katana in hand, personally leading one of last Banzai charges. Only 28 Japanese were alive and taken prisoner by Americans.
  • An unknown Japanese naval pilot is alleged to have made a suicide attack with his Mitsubishi A6M "Zero" against the USS Indiana, near Guam, during June 19, 1944. However there is no proof that this was not an acccidental collision.
  • Similarly, on October 12-14, 1944, the USS Reno shot down six enemy planes. One torpedo bomber crashed and exploded on the Reno’s main deck aft, causing serious damage.
  • Rear Admiral Masafumi Arima, the commander of the Japanese 26th Air Fleet, led an attack by about 100 Yokosuka D4Y Suisei "Judy" dive bombers against the US Navy carrier USS Franklin on October 21, 1944. Although Arima was killed, and part of a plane hit the Franklin, it is unclear that this was a planned suicide attack.[10]
  • An unknown Army pilot, possibly in a Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa "Oscar" fighter-bomber, hit the Australian flagship HMAS Australia during October 21, 1944. This was perceived at the time, by Allied personnel, to be a suicide attack.
  • Captain Motoharu Okamura, commander of the Tateyama Base in Tokyo and the 341st Air Group Home, may have first proposed these tactics in June 15, 1944, during the first naval battle at the Philippines.
  • Vice Admiral Shigeru Fukudome, C-in-C (Commander-in-Chief) of the Second Navy Air Fleet, showed interest in these tactics as well.
  • Vice Admiral Seishi Ito, sub-Chief of Navy State Major, was also another supporter of these operations.
  • Captain Eiichiro Jyo was commander of the carrier Chiyoda during the Philippines Battle. He himself proposed this style of attack to the Japanese Mobile Fleet Command.
  • Vice Admiral Tokusaburo Ozawa, the C-in-C, supported this idea of alternative strikes alongside conventional attacks.
  • Rear Admiral Sueo Obayashi, Commander of CarDiv Three, also supported this tactic.
  • Admiral Soemu Toyoda, the C-in-C of the Imperial Combined Fleet, at first was opposed to the tactic, but he later promoted the organization of units for these operations.
  • Vice Admiral Kimpei Teraoka, previous commander of the First Naval Air Fleet, also knew about Defensive operations.
  • Rear Admiral Takijiro Ohnishi was head of Naval Aviation in the Munitions and Armaments Ministry and "father" of the Japanese Navy "Kamikaze Corps". He himself took command of the First Air Fleet in the Philippines, shortly after the American landings on Leyte.
  • Captain Rikihei Inogushi was adviser of the State Major of First Air Fleet.
  • Lieutenant Colonel Asaiki Tamai was an officer expert in Strategics.
  • Captain Sakae Yamamoto, high rank officer, Commander of the 201 Air Group, was charged with preparing the Special Unit.
  • High Rank Officer Yoshioka, 26th Air Fleet State Major Member, responded to the question of the destructive effects of any Collision of Mitsubishi A6M3 (Model 32), or "Hamp" fighters against American Carriers.
  • Lieutenant Yukio Seki, the first official Kamikaze pilot, was assigned by Officer Tamai to be the first direct leader of the first special group called Shimpu, or the Kamikaze Tokubetsu Kogekitai Unit. Officer Seki himself guided these units, which were also divided into "Shikishima", "Yamato", "Asahi", and "Yamazakura" sections. Later, he organized the sixth unit "Giretsu" and decided to use light bombers and other aircraft types in such missions.
  • Lieutenant Naoshi Kanno, another commander, was elected to examine how to possibly replace officer Seki in guiding this special mission.
  • Captain Tadashi Nakajima, commander of the Mabalacat Air Base, the 201 Air Group home in the Philippines, also entered Special Operations and was first recruiter and trainer of these tactics.
  • Lieutenant j.g. Takeshi Shimizu was another expert of Special operations in this base and keeper of some archives related to these tactics.
  • Lieutenant j.g. Yoshiyasu Kuno was one of some pilots calling to these operations. He was also in command of the "Yamato" section of the Special group.
  • Petty Officer Hiroyoshi Nishizawa, the Japanese Navy's best Air ace with somewhere between 87 and 120 victories, also participated in special operations. He was charged with guiding and escorting the "Shikishima" section in the first Special mission against the American Fleet, and he announced the first success of the strike.
  • During the winter of 1944–1945, IJAAF organized the Shinten special unit, who defended the Tokyo metropolitan area along with regular interceptor aircraft, with the base in Narimasu, near the metropolitan area. This unit stayed equipped with Nakajima Ki-44 Shoki "Tojo" fighters for use in collision tactics against USAAF B-29 bombers in their striking incursions over Japan.
  • During January 5, 1945, Lieutenant Kanaya guided the special mission of the takeoff of 18 aircraft from the Mabalacat base. At the same time, other groups also took off from the Cebu airbase.
  • During the night of January 9January 10, 1945, the Japanese Army, in coordination with the Japanese Navy in the Philippines, introduced the Maru-Ni (Shin-Yo for the navy) suicide boats to complement their defensive efforts. Their fire was directed against the American Attack Transport Warhawk and Vessel LST-610.
  • Petty Officer Goro Yonai was under the command of Lieutenant Yukio Seki during the first mission. PO Yonai was a native of Yamagata, Honshu, born in June 16, 1921, and was also a comrade of PO Tada.
  • Pilot and Young petty officer Tomi Zai, in November 25, 1944, at the control of a Mitsubishi A6M, caused severe damage to the American Carrier Intrepid during the Philippines Campaign.
  • The last Kamikaze operation in the Philippines was formed by Lieutenant j.g. Nakano, PO Shihara, Captain Nakano, and PO Goto and PO Taniushi. All took off in January 6, 1945 from the Mabalacat Airbase.
  • In the Takao Airbase, Formosa, Admiral Ohnishi formed the official second Kamikaze Unit, called "Niitaka", with some Mitsubishi A6M and Yokosuka D4Y, during January 8, 1945.
  • Vice Admiral Kimpei Teraoka and 601st Air group Commander Riishi Sugiyama, following the orders of Kamikaze Commander Ohnishi, organized the second special unit "Mitate" in the Airbase previously mentioned during February 16, 1945.
    The USS Hinsdale (APA-120) showing kamikaze damage inflicted 1 April 1945.
    The USS Hinsdale (APA-120) showing kamikaze damage inflicted 1 April 1945.
  • During March 1945, they organized another special unit called "Azusa", specially formed for striking American units in Ulithi atoll.
  • Naval Ensign Ohta suggested to Ohnishi that manned glider bombs, carried to within reach of targets by a mother-plane, should be developed for attacks on enemy shipping. Following his idea, in Konoike, Yokosuka, the 721 Air Corps was formed under the direct command of Lieutenant Commander Goro Nonaka. This was the first unit specialized in the Ohka glider-bomb. The bombs were carried in the Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" Medium bomber. At the same time, under the command of Captain Okamura, who responded to Admiral Matome Ugaki, had other Ohka Bases stay in Kanoya and Toizaki.
  • The technical air naval center in Yokosuka arsenal approved and developed Ohta's idea of the Ohka Glider-bomber.
  • Lieutenant j.g. Saburo Dohi was an Ohka Pilot and son of Colonel Zazuho Dohi. During August 13, 1945, he himself treated along Ohnishi, continuing the Japanese resistance. Dohi's Ohka are the unique why obtain success in these strikes, and their mother airplane Mitsubishi G4M are the unique in return to airbase.
  • Admiral Takeo Tada, colleague and friend of Ohnishi, father of Lieutenant j.g. Keita Tada, was one of the pilots in the first special mission. He was also a knower of special tactics.
  • In January 29, 1945, seven Kawasaki Ki-48 "Lily" from the Japanese Army "Shichisi Mitate" Special group, took off from Palembang, Sumatra to strike the British Pacific Fleet.
  • In March 1945, some Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate "Frank" of the 58th "Shimbu" Chutai took off from the IJAAF base in the Miyakonojo airfield, Miyazaki prefecture, for Kikusui mission against Americans in the Okinawa campaign.
  • During April 6, 1945, in the Okinawa Campaign, Admiral Seiishi Ito led the special action of Superbattleship Yamato, Cruiser Yahaghi and some eight other vessels in Okinawa, in coordination of Kamikaze units.
  • In May 8, 1945, the British Royal Navy Carriers HMS Victorious, HMS Formidable and Destroyer HMS Howe suffered some damage during special strikes from Formosa.
  • In May 11, 1945, the Tjisadane, a Dutch Merchant ship and unique civil vessel, was the victim of a special striker, but suffered minor damage.
  • Some Mitsubishi Ki-67 KAI (Kamikaze type) of 1st Chutai, 7th Sentai IJAAF, took off from Formosa against American Forces in Okinawa during April 1945–July 1945.
  • Petty Officer Shiogi Kanako, the "Solitaire Kamikaze", himself, realizing with your Mitsubishi A6M, some one non-coordinate attack from Kamiyama Island (Ryu-Kyu archipelago), against American Cruisers during April 22, 1945.
  • In March 20, 1945, the American Submarine Devilfish suffered some strikes at the charge of Japanese Navy aircraft.
  • During June-July 1945 Japanese navy attempt to realizing the "Operation ARASHI" (Mountain Storm): The "Seiran" Bombing Special Attack on Ulithi US Navy Base,but later was suspend this plan.
  • Some unknown Japanese Navy pilots made further suicide strikes aboard an Aichi D3A2 "Val" against US Navy ships (USS Borie and USS Assault Transport Lagrange) during August 13, 1945.
  • During August 1945, Proper Kangde Manchu Emperor assist in quality of honoured guests to a Japanese Army special ceremony in praise of the "Human bullets" (some calling them "banzai charges") and certain infantry "Special volunteers" with explosives, the land equivalent of Kamikaze pilots. Puyi made one speech for the desire to achieve victory in the fight against Red Army forces, suggesting Yasunori Yoshioka, Army adviser in Manchukuo. These units were also used in Alaska, South Pacific Mandate, Iwo Jima and Okinawa defensive Campaigns for Japanese forces. Tanks, trucks and other land vehicles were also used.
  • The squadron of the Kwantung Army's Hane Air Unit completed the escort mission for Prince Takeda Tsuneyoshi (a nobility member), with 4 planes in a suicide plunge. Loza, in Commanding the Red Army’s Sherman Tanks, reports an attack by 6 suicide planes on his 46th Tank Brigade, 6th Guards Tank Army, near Tongliao, Manchukuo, in August 19, 1945. One truck was destroyed and a Sherman was damaged.
  • Rear Admiral Matome Ugaki, second chief of the Combined Pacific Fleet, realized the last official kamikaze attack, guiding some Yokosuka D4Y Suisei "Judy" Dive bombers of the 701st Air Group against the US Navy Fleet in Okinawa during August 15, 1945.
  • Furthermore, some sources report that the Soviet Navy Minesweeping cutter (little minelayer motor boat) KT-152 was sunk by a possibly Japanese Kamikaze (either a Nakajima B5N "Kate" or a Mitsubishi A6M "Zero") aircraft attack on August 18 or August 19, 1945, in the Shumushu area, Kuriles archipelago, during the August Storm Russian Campaign against Japanese territories.

The Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces (SNLF), (海軍陸戦隊 Tokubetsu Rikusentai) were the marine troops of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) and was only part of the IJN Land Forces. ... Attu Island Attu is the westernmost and largest island in the Near Islands group of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, making it the westernmost point of land relative to Alaska and the United States. ... Official language(s) none Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Mitsubishi A6M3 Zero wreck abandoned at Munda Airfield, Central Solomons, 1943. ... USS Indiana (BB-58), a South Dakota-class battleship, was the fourth ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the 19th state. ... June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The second USS Reno (CL-96) was laid down by Bethlehem Steel Co. ... A torpedo bomber is a bomber aircraft designed primarily to attack ships with torpedoes, but they could also carry out conventional bombings. ... Masafumi Arima (1895-October, 1944) was a Japanese naval aviator during World War II. He is sometimes credited with being the first to use the Kamikaze attack, but there is little evidence to support this. ... Lt. ... The fifth USS Franklin (CV-13) (also CVA-13, CVS-13, and AVT-8), nicknamed Big Ben, was an Essex-class aircraft carrier of the United States Navy, notable as the hardest-hit carrier to survive World War II. The actual kamikaze attacks on the ship are depicted in the... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... Nakajima Ki-43 Nakajima Ki-43-II Nakajima Ki-43-IIa The Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa (éš¼, Peregrine Falcon) was a single-engined land-based fighter used by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force in World War II. The army designation was Type 1 Fighter (一式戦闘機); the Allied codename was Oscar. ... HMAS Australia [1] , launched in 1927, was a County-class heavy cruiser in the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... Tateyama (Japanese: 館山市; -shi) is a city located at the southern tip of the Boso Peninsula in Chiba, Japan. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Shigeru Fukudome (1891-1971) was a Japanese vice admiral and Chief of Staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Graduating from the Japanese Naval Academy in 1913, and later the Naval Staff College in 1926, Fukudome was first assigned to the Combined Fleet in 1940 to April... Categories: Wards of Tokyo | Japan geography stubs ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Takijiro Onishi (1891—1945) was a Japanese general with a especially romantic view on life, being obsessed with self-sacrifice. ... Leyte (pronounced LAY-teh or LAY-tee) is an island in the Visayas group of the Philippines. ... Asaiki Tamai was a commander in the Japanese Army in World War II. He is most noted for forming the first official kamikaze unit. ... Mitsubishi A6M5 Zero Model 52 The Mitsubishi A6M was a light-weight carrier-based fighter aircraft employed by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945. ... Yukio Seki ( ?, 1921 - October 25, 1944) was japanese Kamikaze pilot who led the first official Kamikaze attack in the World War II. He was born 1921 in Iyo Saijo, a small town in Shikoku. ... Yamato (大和) may refer to: // Yamato people, the dominant ethnic group of ancient Japan Yamato period, which is the period of Japanese history when the Japanese Imperial court ruled from Yamato Province Yamato Takeru, a legendary Japanese prince of the Yamato dynasty Yamato (music), a Japanese musical group which performs Taiko... Asahi (朝日 or æ—­) means morning sun in Japanese. ... The Imperial Japanese Army Giretsu special forces unit was active in 1944 and 1945. ... Mabalacat is a 1st class municipality in the northern part of the province of Pampanga, Philippines. ... Hiroyoshi Nishizawa (January 27, 1920 - October 26, 1944) was an ace pilot of the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force during World War II. It is within reason that he was the most successful individual pilot of the IJN, with over seventy victories. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... 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Yamagata is the name of several places: Yamagata Prefecture Yamagata City, Yamagata Prefecture, Japan Yamagata City, Gifu Prefecture, Japan Yamagata, a village located in Higashichikuma District, Nagano, Japan. ... June 16 is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mitsubishi A6M5 Zero Model 52 The Mitsubishi A6M was a light-weight carrier-based fighter aircraft employed by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945. ... Look up Intrepid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... Mabalacat is a 1st class municipality in the northern part of the province of Pampanga, Philippines. ... A type of Japanese cruiser class during World War II. They were modified from the Myoko Class and has an almost battleship-like, large bridge structure. ... This article is about the history, geography, and people of the island known as Taiwan. ... Jade Mountain or Yushan (玉山) is situated in the Yushan National Park (玉山國家公園) in the Republic of China on Taiwan. ... Mitsubishi A6M5 Zero Model 52 The Mitsubishi A6M was a light-weight carrier-based fighter aircraft employed by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945. ... Lt. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... USS Hinsdale (APA-120) was a Haskell-class attack transport of the US Navy. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Azusa is a city located in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... Ulithi atoll Ulithi is an atoll in the Caroline Islands of the western Pacific Ocean, about 100 km (62 mi) east of Yap. ... A glide bomb is an aerial bomb that is modified with aerodynamic surfaces to modify its flight path from a purely ballistic one, to a flatter, gliding, one. ... Categories: Cities in Kanagawa Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... Ohka Model 11 replica at the Yasukuni Shrine The Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka (櫻花 cherry blossom) was a purpose-built kamikaze aircraft employed by Japan towards the end of World War II. The United States gave the aircraft the name Baka (Japanese for fool). It was a small flying bomb that... Mitsubishi G4M The Mitsubishi G4M (一式陸上攻撃機:Type 1 land-based attack aircraft; Allied reporting name Betty) was a twin-engined, land-based bomber aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in World War II. The bomber is nicknamed the Betty by the American military. ... Kanoya (鹿屋市; -shi) is a city located in Kagoshima, Japan. ... Categories: Cities in Kanagawa Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... Ohka Model 11 replica at the Yasukuni Shrine The Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka (櫻花 cherry blossom) was a purpose-built kamikaze aircraft employed by Japan towards the end of World War II. The United States gave the aircraft the name Baka (Japanese for fool). It was a small flying bomb that... Ohka Model 11 replica at the Yasukuni Shrine The Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka (櫻花 cherry blossom) was a purpose-built kamikaze aircraft employed by Japan towards the end of World War II. The United States gave the aircraft the name Baka (Japanese for fool). It was a small flying bomb that... August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... Mitsubishi G4M The Mitsubishi G4M (一式陸上攻撃機:Type 1 land-based attack aircraft; Allied reporting name Betty) was a twin-engined, land-based bomber aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in World War II. The bomber is nicknamed the Betty by the American military. ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kawasaki Ki-48 was a Japanese twin-engined light bomber that was used during World War II. It was known to the Allies as Lily. // They served in China, and at the end of the war many were converted in Kamikaze aircraft armed with a 800 kg (1,764... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... The British Pacific Fleet (BPF) was a multinational Allied naval force which saw action against Japan during World War II. The fleet was comprised mainly of British Commonwealth naval vessels. ... The Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate (疾風, Gale) was a single-seat fighter used by the Japanese Imperial Army in World War II. It was the last in Nakajimas line of classic fighters and considered one of the best-performing craft from any country. ... The Imperial Japanese Army Air Service was Imperial Japans land based aviation force. ... Miyakonojō (都城市; -shi) is a city located in Miyazaki, Japan. ... Miyazaki can be: Miyazaki prefecture Miyazaki city of Miyazaki prefecture Name of famous Japanese animator and filmmaker, Hayao Miyazaki Takiri Miyazaki, an athlete Tsutomu Miyazaki, a serial killer and otaku A common Japanese family name. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Yamato (大和) may refer to: // Yamato people, the dominant ethnic group of ancient Japan Yamato period, which is the period of Japanese history when the Japanese Imperial court ruled from Yamato Province Yamato Takeru, a legendary Japanese prince of the Yamato dynasty Yamato (music), a Japanese musical group which performs Taiko... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Five ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Victorious. ... At least two ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Formidable. ... Several ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Howe, after Admiral Richard Howe: Howe, launched 1860, was a 121-gun ship of the line, renamed Bulwark, and then renamed Impregnable in 1886. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (132nd in leap years). ... The Ki-67. ... The Imperial Japanese Army Air Service was Imperial Japans land based aviation force. ... This article is about the prefecture. ... Mitsubishi A6M2 Zero Model 21 (cowling removed) The Mitsubishi A6M was a light-weight carrier-based fighter aircraft employed by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... The Devilfish. ... Ulithi atoll Ulithi is an atoll in the Caroline Islands of the western Pacific Ocean, about 100 km (62 mi) east of Yap. ... The Aichi D3A (99式艦上爆撃機, Allied code name Val) was a World War II dive bomber produced by the Aichi company in Japan. ... Two ships in the United States Navy have been named USS Borie for Adolph Edward Borie. ... Lagrange may mean: Joseph Louis Lagrange, mathematician and mathematical physicist A Lagrange point in physics and astronomy The Lagrange_Multiplier mathematical technique Places in the United States: Lagrange, Georgia Lagrange, Indiana Lagrange, Maine Lagrange, New York (three places): Lagrange, Dutchess County Lagrange, Orange County Lagrange, Wyoming County Lagrange, Ohio Lagrange, Virginia... Aisin-Gioro Puyi¹ (February 7, 1906 - October 17, 1967) was the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1912, and non-ruling emperor between 1912 and 1924), the tenth (and last) emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty to rule over... The Imperial Japanese Army (: 大日本帝國陸軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Japan from 1867 to 1945 when it was Imperial Japan. ... PÇ”yí (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the Qing Dynasty... Red Army flag The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that, in 1922, became the army of the Soviet Union. ... Manchukuo (1932–1945), Manchu country, was a former state in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia created by former Qing Dynasty officials and Imperial Japan in 1932. ... Official language(s) none Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... The South Pacific Mandate (Nan-Yo) refers to a group of islands in Micronesia. ... For other uses, see Iwo Jima (disambiguation). ... This article is about the prefecture. ... Trucks can refer to several things: The plural of: Truck, the motorized vehicle Truck, other uses of the singular As a name: Trucks was a rock band Trucks is a short story by Stephen King Trucks is a movie based on the Stephen King short story Trucks! is a television... The Kwantung Army or Guandong Army (関東軍 Japanese: Kantōgun) was a unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that originated from a Guandong garrison established in 1906 to defend the Kwantung Leased Territory and the areas adjacent to the South Manchurian Railway. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Takeda Tsuneyoshi ) of Japan (3 March 1909 – 11 May 1992) was the second and last heir of the Takeda-no-miya ōke branch of the Japanese Imperial Family. ... Red Army flag The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that, in 1922, became the army of the Soviet Union. ... WWII foreign variants and use: Lend-Lease Sherman tanks Post-WWII foreign variants and use: Postwar Sherman tanks The Medium Tank M4 was the primary tank produced by the United States for its own use and the use of its Allies during World War II. Production of the M4 Medium... Manchukuo (1932–1945), Manchu country, was a former state in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia created by former Qing Dynasty officials and Imperial Japan in 1932. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Matome Ugaki (宇垣纏; 1890-August 14, 1945?) was a Japanese admiral during World War II, most notably serving at the Battle of Leyte Gulf. ... Lt. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... The Soviet Navy (Russian: Военно-морской флот СССР, Voyenno-morskoy flot SSSR, literally Naval military forces of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet armed forces. ... Nakajima B5N2 Kate in flight. ... Mitsubishi A6M5 Zero Model 52 The Mitsubishi A6M was a light-weight carrier-based fighter aircraft employed by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kuril Islands The Kuril Islands (Russian: Кури́льские острова́), also known as Kurile Islands, stretch northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the North Pacific Ocean. ... Operation August Storm was the code name for the Soviet invasion of Japanese occupied Manchuria, Korea and southern Sakhalin Island during World War II. The Soviets agreed at the Yalta Conference to enter the war against Japan within 3 months of the end of the war in Europe. ...

See also

Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Imperial Japanese Army Giretsu special forces unit was active in 1944 and 1945. ... USS Randolph (CV-15) alongside a repair ship at Ulithi Atoll in the Caroline Islands on 13 March 1945, showing damage to her after flight deck resulting from a kamikaze hit on 11 March. ... A suicide weapon is a weapon that is specially designed for a suicide attack. ... In warfare, ramming is a technique that was used in the air, sea and tank combat. ... A vehicle explosion is the destruction of, or damage to, a vehicle caused by an explosion. ...

References

  • The article contains materials from Mr. Nobu's personal website with permission for use.
  • Axell, Albert; Hideaki Kase (2002). Kamikaze: Japan's Suicide Gods. New York: Longman. ISBN 0-582-77232-X. 
  • Hoyt, Edwin P. (1993). The Last Kamikaze. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-94067-5. 
  • Millot, Bernard (1971). DIVINE THUNDER: The life and death of the Kamikazes. Macdonald. ISBN 0-356-03856-4. 
  • Sheftall, M.G. (2005). Blossoms in the Wind: Human Legacies of the Kamikaze. NAL Caliber, 480pp. ISBN 0-451-21487-0. 
  • Ugaki, Matome; Masataka Chihaya (Translator) (1991). Fading Victory: The Diary of Admiral Matome Ugaki, 1941-1945. University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-3665-8. 
  • Warner, Denis & Peggy; Sadao Seno (1984). The Sacred Warriors: Japan’s Suicide Legions. Avon Books, 400pp. ISBN 0-380-67678-8. 
  • Wilmott, H.P; Robin Cross & Charles Messenger (2004). World War II. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN. 
  1. ^ (Albert Axell & Hideaki Kase, 2002. Kamikaze: Japan's Suicide Gods. London: Pearson Education, p.16.
  2. ^ http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/619508.html, accessed April 20, 2007
  3. ^ http://warbirdforum.com/tokko.htm, accessed April 20, 2007
  4. ^ John Toland, The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936-1945, Random House, 1970, p. 568
  5. ^ John Toland, The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936-1945, Random House, 1970, p. 567
  6. ^ Bill Coombes, 1995, "Divine Wind The Japanese secret weapon - kamikaze suicide attacks"
  7. ^ http://www.hindu.com/2005/08/22/stories/2005082202742000.htm
  8. ^ Jiro Kosaka, 1995, Kyō ware Ikiteari
  9. ^ New York Times, "THE SATURDAY PROFILE; Shadow Shogun Steps Into Light, to Change Japan.” Published: February 11, 2006. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F50C11FB3E5A0C728DDDAB0894DE404482, accessed February 15, 2007
  10. ^ International Herald Tribune, "Publisher dismayed by Japanese nationalism.” Published: February 10, 2006. http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/02/10/news/MOGUL.php, accessed March 11, 2007

Matome Ugaki (宇垣纏; 1890-August 14, 1945?) was a Japanese admiral during World War II, most notably serving at the Battle of Leyte Gulf. ... Hideaki Kase is a Japanese revisionist, who is known for praising Kamikaze pilots, and claiming that Japans actions in World War II were justifiable. ...

External links


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