FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Kambojas" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Kambojas
Articles related to Kambojas
Location
Language and ethnicity
Etymology
in Indian Literature
Kamboja Migration
Horsemen
Ashvakas
Kambojas of Panini
Kambojas and Manusmriti
Parama Kamboja
This box: view  talk  edit

The Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. They apparently belong to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family. Kamboja was ancient name of a country and the tribe settled therein. ... Kamboja (or Kambuja) is the name of an ancient Indo-Iranian tribe of Indo-European family, believed to be located originally in Pamirs and Badakshan in Central Asia. ... The Kambojas peoples are referenced in numerous Sanskrit and Pali literature including Sama Veda, Atharvaveda, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Puranas, Kautiliyas Arthashastra, Yasakas Nirukata, Buddhist Jatakas, Jaina Canons, ancient grammar books and plays etc. ... References to Kambojas abound in ancient literature, and this may have been just the expansion of an Indo-Iranian tribe with both Persian and Indic affinities from their homeland in the Afghanistan-Turkistan region along the foothills of the Himalayas towards Bengal, along the coast to Gujarat, to Sri Lanka... The profession of breeding, domesticating, training and utilizing the horses in warfare had originated in the vast Steppes of Central Asia. ... The Ashvakas or Ashvakans are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan (Nuristan), modern Pakistan, including the Chitral-Valley and north-west India . ... Pāṇini (पाणिन) was an ancient Sanskrit grammarian born in Shalātura, modern Lahur of North-West Frontier province of Pakistan. ... The Manusmriti (Sanskrit मनुस्मृति), translated Laws of Manu is a foundational work of Hindu law and ancient Indian society, written c. ... Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ... http://www. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ...


The Kambojas still live as Kamboj and Kamboh[1] in the greater Punjab, and as Kams/Kamoz/Kaumoj and Katirs/Kamtoz of the Siyaposh tribe in the Nuristan (former Kafirstan) province of Afghanistan[2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15][16] [17] [18]. Their numbers have greatly dwindled, and the total population still known by these forms of their ancient name is currently estimated to be about 1.5 million. Look up Kamboj in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Kamboh in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... The lower part of the Bashgul Valley of Nurestan (Afghanistan) is known as Kam. ... The lower part of the Bashgul Valley of Nurestan (Afghanistan) is known as Kam. ... The lower part of the Bashgul Valley of Nurestan (Afghanistan) is known as Kam. ... The Siah-Posh Kafir tribal group of Kafirstan (present Nuristan) includes five divisions or clans as under: Katirs, Kams or Kamoz Mumans or Madugals, Kashtoz or Kashtans and Gourdesh or Istrat. ... The Siah-Posh Kafir tribal group of Kafirstan (present Nuristan) includes five divisions or clans as under: Katirs, Kams or Kamoz Mumans or Madugals, Kashtoz or Kashtans and Gourdesh or Istrat. ... Nurestan Province (also spelled Nuristan) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... The term Kafirs in reference to the Hindukush Kafirs is usually taken to mean infidels or idolators and the term Kafirstan as The Land of the Infidels. ...

Contents

Ethnicity & Language of Kambojas

Main article: Ethnicity of Kambojas

Numerous classical sources indicate that ancient Kamboja was a center of Iranian civilization.[19] This is evident from the Mazdean religious customs of the ancient Kambojas,[20] as well as from the Avestan language they spoke.[21] Kamboja was ancient name of a country and the tribe settled therein. ... From Ahura Mazda. ... Yasna 28. ...

It is now widely accepted among scholars that the Kambojas were an Avestan speaking group of East Iranians, and were located mainly in north-eastern Afghanistan and parts of Tajikstan.[22] Some scholars also believe that the Zoroastrian religion originated in eastern Iran in the land of the Kambojas.[23] Faravahar, The depiction of the Human soul before birth and after death. ... Faravahar, The depiction of the Human soul before birth and after death. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The Republic of Tajikistan (Тоҷикистон), formerly known as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, is a country in Central Asia. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ...


Fourth/fifth century Buddhist commentator and great scholar Buddhaghosa [24] has also expressly described the Kambojas as Parasaka-vanna (i.e of Parasa or Persian affinties).[25][26][27][28] A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa was a 5th century Indian Theravadin Buddhist commentator and scholar. ...


The tribal name Kamboja has been traced to the royal name Kambujiya of the Old Persian Inscriptions (known as Cambyses to the Greeks).[29][30][31][32][33][34] [35] [36]. Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a Hindu country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... Cambyses (or Cambese) is the Greek version of the name of several monarchs of Achaemenid line of ancient Persia. ...


Kambujiya or Kambaujiya was the name of several great Persian kings of the Achaemenid line. This name also appears written as C-n-b-n-z-y in Aramaic, Kambuzia in Assyrian, Kambythet in Egyptian, Kam-bu-zi-ia in Akkadian, Kan-bu-zi-ia in Elamite, and Kanpuziya in Susian language. The Khmer of Angkor believed their mythical ancestors to be the people of "Kamboja" and traced their lineage to Kambujiya, hence the modern name of Cambodia, "Kampuchea". Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken in the ancient Elamite Empire. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... The Khmer people are the predominant ethnic group in Cambodia, accounting for approximately 90% of the 13. ... Map of the Angkor region in Cambodia. ...

Cambyses III, son of Cyrus the Great, is famous for his conquest of Egypt (525 BCE), and for the havoc he wrought upon that country. Image File history File links Cyrus_portrait. ... Image File history File links Cyrus_portrait. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... Cambyses (or Cambese) is the Greek version of the name of several monarchs of Achaemenid line of ancient Persia. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ...


According to several scholars, "Kambojas were probably the descendants of the Indo-Iranians (East Iranians) popularly known later on as the Sassanian and Parthians who occupied parts of north western India in first second centuries of the Christian era ".[37] Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... An era is a long period of time with different technical and colloquial meanings, and usages in language. ...


Original Home of Kambojas

Main article: Kamboja Location

Analysis of ancient Sanskrit texts[38] and inscriptions[39] place the Kambojas, Gandharas, Yavanas (Greeks), Madras, and the Sakas in the Uttarapatha - the northern division of Jambudvipa (the innermost concentric island continent in Hindu scripture). Geographically, this area sat along, and was named for, the main trade route from the mouth the Ganges to Balkh, now a small town in Northern Afghanistan. Some writers hold that Uttarapatha included the whole of Northern India and comprised very area of Central Asia, as far as the Urals and the Caspian Sea to the Yenisei and from Turkistan and Tien Shan ranges to as far as the Arctic (Dr S. M. Ali). Kamboja was the name of an ancient country and the Indo-Iranian warrior tribe settled therein. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ... Madra or Madraka is the name of an ancient region and its inhabitants, located in the north-west division of ancient Indian sub-continent. ... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical texts reveal that Uttarapatha was the name of northern division of Jambudvipa of ancient Indian traditions. ... According to Puranic cosmography, the earth is divided into seven concentric island continents (sapta-dvipa vasumati) separated by the seven encircling seas, each double the size of the preceding one. ... “Ganga” redirects here. ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Ural may refer to one of the following: Ural Mountains Ural (region) Ural River Urals Federal District IMZ-Ural, a Russian motorcycle Ural automobile Ural, Krasnoyarsk Krai, an urban settlement in Russia This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Енисей Length 5,550 (4,102) km Elevation of the source m Average discharge 19,600 m³/s Area watershed 2,580,000 km² Origin  ? Mouth Arctic Ocean Basin countries Russia The Yenisei basin, Lake Baikal, and the cities of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk... Türkistan (also spelled Turkistan or Turkestan) is a region in Central Asia, largely inhabited by Turkic people. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ...


Linguistic evidence, combined with this literary and inscriptional evidence, has led many scholars of note to conclude that ancient Kambojas originally belonged to the Ghalcha-speaking area of Central Asia. For example, Yasaka's Nirukata (II/2) attests that verb shavati in the sense "to go" was used by only the Kambojas. It has been proven that the modern Ghalcha dialects, Valkhi, Shigali, Sriqoli, Jebaka (also called Sanglichi or Ishkashim), Munjani, Yidga and Yagnobi, mainly spoken in Pamirs and countries on the headwaters of Oxus, still use terms derived from ancient Kamboja shavati in the sense "to go". The Yagnobi dialect spoken in Yagnobe around the headwaters of Zeravshan in Sogdiana, also still contains a relic from ancient Kamboja shavati in the sense "to go" [40]. Further, the former language of Badakshan was also a dialect of Galcha, said to have been replaced by Persian only in the last few centuries.[41] Thus, the ancient Kamboja probably included the Pamirs, Badakshan, and possibly parts of Tajikstan, including Yognobi region in the doab of the Oxus. On the east it was bounded roughly by Yarkand and/or Kashgar, on the west by Bahlika (Uttaramadra), on the northwest by Sogdiana, on the north by Uttarakuru, on the southeast by Darada, and on the south by Gandhara. For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Yaska Acharya is a celebrated Sanskrit scholar and grammarian of ancient India. ... Nirukta is Vedic glossary of difficult words. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... Yagnobi is a language spoken by abour two and a half thousand people in Tadjikistan. ... The Pamir languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages, spoken in the Pamir Mountains, primarily along the Panj River and its tributaries in the southern Gorno-Badakhshan region of Tajikistan around the administrative center Khorog ( ), and the neighboring Badakhshan province and is in Pamir Area Afghanistan. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... The Zeravshan or Zarafshan river, whilst smaller and less well-known than the two great rivers of Central Asia, the Oxus or Amu-Darya and the Jaxartes or Syr-Darya, is if anything more valuable as a source of irrigation in the region. ... Sogdiana, ca. ... Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... Farsi redirects here. ... A Doab, meaning two waters in Persian, is a term used in India and Pakistan for a tract of land between two confluent rivers. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Yarkand, 1868, showing city walls and gallows Yarkand (modern Chinese name 莎車), pinyin: ShāchÄ“ also written SuōchÄ“. Altitude about 1,189 m. ... Location of Kashgar Kashgars Sunday market Kashgar (also spelled Cascar[1]) (Uyghur: /; Chinese: ; pinyin: , ), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Bactria (Bactriana, also Bhalika in Indian languages) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra (now Balkh), was located in what is now northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. ... The Uttaramadra was the northern branch of the Madra people who are numerously referenced in ancient Sanskrit and Pali literature. ... Sogdiana, ca. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Daradas were a people who lived north and north-east to the Kashmir valley. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ...


Later, some sections of the Kambojas crossed the Hindukush and planted Kamboja colonies in Paropamisadae and as far as Rajauri. This view is fully supported by the Mahabharata,[42] which specifically draws attention to the Kambojas in the cis-Hindukush region as being neighbors to the Daradas, and the Parama-Kambojas across the Hindukush as being neighbors to the Rishikas (or Tukharas) of Ferghana/Sogdiana. The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... The Paropamisadae is an ancient area of the Hindu-Kush, in the Eastern part of Afghanistan. ... Rajauri is a town and a notified area committee in Rajauri district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... There is mention of Rishikas in the Mahabharata, Brhat Samhita, Markendeya Purana and Ramayana etc. ... The Tocharians were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Fergana is a city in the Fergana Valley, capital of the Fargona Viloyati of Uzbekistan. ...


The two separate Kamboja settlements are also substantiated from Ptolemy's Geography, which references a geographical term Tambyzoi located on the river Oxus in Bactria,[43] and an Ambautai people living on the southern side of Hindukush in the Paropamisadae.[44] Scholars have identified both the Ptolemian Tambyzoi and Ambautai with Sanskrit Kamboja.[45][46] This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now...


The Yidga sub-dialect of Galcha Munjani is still spoken on the southern sides of Hindukush in Paropamisadae, further strengthening the view that some Kambojas crossed south of the Hindukush. Still further, Ptolemy Geography[47] attests a tribal people called Komoi located north of Bactria in Sogdiana. It has been pointed out that the Ptolemian Komoi is classical form of Kamboi (or Kamboika: from Pali Kambojika, Sanskrit Kamboja). This settlement of the Kamboj is believed to have resulted in the wake of tribal movement of the Scythian Komedes (which included Parama Kambojas) from Alai Valley/Alai Mountains into the west around second century BCE. Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Sogdiana, ca. ... Pali (IAST: ) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Komedes is the classical name applied to the people, who, as the scholars believe, had followed Scythian culture. ... Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ... Alay or Alai is a mountain range that extends from the Tien Shan mountain range in Tajikistan. ... Alay or Alai is a mountain range that extends from the Tien Shan mountain range in Tajikistan. ...


With time, the trans-Hindukush Kambojas remained essentially Iranian in culture and religion, while those in the cis-Hindukush region came partially (or partly) under Indian cultural influence. This probably is the reason as to why the ancient Kambojas are believed to have had both Indian as well as Iranian affinities.


Still later, some sections of the Kambojas apparently moved even farther, to Arachosia, as attested by the Aramaic version of Greco-Aramaic inscriptions of king Ashoka found in Kandahar. Some scholars have identified the original Kamboja with Arachosia, but this view does not seem to be correct. Arachosia is the ancient name of an area that corresponds to the southern part of today s Afghanistan, around the city of Kandahar. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ...


Kambysene/Cambysene & Kamboja connection?

Historians believe that, there was a movement of the Eurasian nomads in Iran in the early centuries of first millennium BCE, in which the Cimmerians and Yautiya figured prominently. Driven by Medes, these Eurasian nomads bifurcated into two wings, the right one pushing north-westwards up to Transcaspiana and the left one wheeling towards the south-east and penertrating into Afghanistan and Punjab. Closely allied to the Iranian Yautiya were the Kurus, Kambojas and some other clans of the Scythians, which in later centuries, had sided with Achaemenid Teispes (Cispi), and contributed to the formation of Achaemenian empire in Iran (Dr Buddha Prakash, Dr C. Chakravarty, Qamarud Din Ahmed etc). Soon these early Scythians merged with sedentary population of Iranians and became an integral part of them thus losing all traces of this ancient incursion except for some place-names, noted by a grammarian, interested in linguistics or some faint traditions lost in the multitudinous amalgam of legendary lore. According to Dr Buddha Prakash, the Indian epic Mahabharata, in reality, is a record of Scytho-Iranian invasion of India of the 9th c BCE.[48][49] Mahabharata abundantly attests that the Kambojas and their kindered migrating Scythian tribes like the Sakas, Tusharas etc had played a very prominent role in the Kurukshetra war where they had fought under the supreme command of Sudakshina Kamboja. Eurasian, also Euroasian or Euro-Asian can mean: Eurasian may be used as a slang term to refer to people of Asian decent, living in European countries who have no other traits of being Asian other then the fact that they look it. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Kuru or Kurus may be: Kuru (kingdom), a powerful Indian kingdom during the Vedic period and later a republic during the Mahajanapada period Kuru Kingdom, a kingdom based on the historic Kuru kingdom in Indian epic literature Kuru (disease), neurological, and associated with New Guinea, the Fore, and cannibalism Kuru... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Teispes (675-640 BC) was the son of Achaemenes and a King of Persia. ... Missing image Achaemenid empire in its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius the Great and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly encompassing some parts of today... This article is about the political and historical term. ... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... http://www. ... Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ... The Tocharians were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Combatants Pandavas led by Dhristadyumna Kauravas led by Bhishma Commanders Arjuna Bhima Yudhishthira Nakula Sahadeva Bhishma Drona Karna Duryodhana Ashwatthama Strength 7 Akshauhinis 1,530,900 soldiers 11 Akshauhinis 2,405,700 soldiers Casualties Almost Total Only 7 survivors - the five Pandavas, Krishna, and Satyaki Almost Total Only 3 survivors... Sudakshina Kamboja is the third king of the Kambojas referred to in the Mahabharata. ...


According to Dr Chandra Chakravarty, the nomadic invaders who had invaded Iran several centuries prior to Christian era were Scythian tribes of the Kambysene from west of Caspian region i.e. ancient Armenia. Name Kambysene has been attested anciently by Strabo which he specifies as a region bordering on Caucasus mountains.[50] It comprised a rugged region through which a road connecting Albania and Iberia passed.[51] The Greek form of the name is believed to have been derived in the Hellenistic period from an indigenous name, corresponding to Armenian Kamboean. In Georgian, it is written Kambeovani, in Arabic, Qambzan. In Sanskrit, it was spoken as Kamboja. Though not attested prior to Strabo, the region Kambysene is believed to have born this name since remote antiquity. The tribal people living around this region were also called by the same name. Strabo also attests two rivers viz: Cyrus (modern Kura) and Cambysene (modern Jori),[52] the latter was a tributary of the former. According to Ernst Herzfeld, the names of Cyrus and Cambyses rivers, as well as the Achaemenid names Kurush and Kambujiya, were derived from two ethnics.[53] Obviously these two ethnics were none else than the ancient Kurus and Kambojas of the Sanskrit traditions. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... For Caspian Sea, go to: Caspian Sea CASPIAN Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering (CASPIAN) is a national grass-roots consumer group dedicated to fighting supermarket loyalty or frequent shopper cards. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a Hindu country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... The name Cyrus (or Kourosh in Persian) may refer to: [[Cyrus I of Anshan]], King of Persia around 650 BC [[Cyrus II of Persia | Cyrus the Great]], King of Persia 559 BC - 529 BC — See also Cyrus in the Judeo-Christian tradition Cyrus the Younger, brother to the Persian king... Cambyses or Cambese is Greek version of the name of several monarchs of Achaemenid line of ancient Persia. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... . The new kuruş coin Kuruş are a Turkish currency subunit. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


According to Dr Chandra Chakravarty, the name Kambysene of the Greeks translates into Kamboja and the Cyrus into Kuru of the Sanskrit texts.[54] Dr Chakravarty also states that the hordes, who had participated in the earlier invasion of Iran along with Yautiyas were the Nordic Scythians who were living around the Kambysene region, near Mt Caucasus in ancient Armenia. They were the Kuru-Kambojas of the Sanskrit texts.[55] These Nordic Kuru-Kambojas, later mixed with the Alpine base "Parsa-Xsayatia" (Purush-Khattis) Iranians[56] and gave birth to the famous Achaemenian dynastic line of Persia. This might explain as to why the Achemenians chose to name their famous kings as Kambujia (Cambyses) and Kurush (Cyrus). Dr Chakravarty further states that the Kambohs of NW Punjab are the modern representatives of these Scythian Kambysene, whom he calls Scythian Kambojas.[57] Dr Chakravarty further writes that a branch of these Scythian Kambysene had also settled in the north-west India giving name to ancient Kamboja (Afghanistan); and yet another branch reached Tibetan plateau where they mixed with the locals; and some Tibetans are still called Kambojas.[58] And through Tibet, they went further to Mekong valley where they were called Kambujas (Cambodians), now represented by the Chams, still a tall, fair, dolichocephelic people with bilided eyes, of the Mon-Khmers.[59] Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a Hindu country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... The name Cyrus (or Kourosh in Persian) may refer to: [[Cyrus I of Anshan]], King of Persia around 650 BC [[Cyrus II of Persia | Cyrus the Great]], King of Persia 559 BC - 529 BC — See also Cyrus in the Judeo-Christian tradition Cyrus the Younger, brother to the Persian king... Kuru or Kurus may be: Kuru (kingdom), a powerful Indian kingdom during the Vedic period and later a republic during the Mahajanapada period Kuru Kingdom, a kingdom based on the historic Kuru kingdom in Indian epic literature Kuru (disease), neurological, and associated with New Guinea, the Fore, and cannibalism Kuru... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Look up Kamboh in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... For other uses, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... The Mekong is one of the world’s major rivers. ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan , frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... This article is about the Cham people of Asia. ...


Kambojas: A Kshatriya Clan

In India, the Kambojas obviously belonged to the Kshatriya caste of Indo-Aryan society. For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ...


The earliest and most powerful reference endorsing the Kshatriya-hood of the Kambojas is Panini's fifth century BCE Ashtadhyayi. Panini refers to the Kamboja Janapada, and mentions it as "one of the fifteen powerful Kshatriya Janapadas" of his times, inhabited and ruled by Kamboja Kshatriyas.[60] See: Kambojas of Panini Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (IPA ) was an ancient Gandharan grammarian (approximately 5th century BC, but estimates range from the 7th to the 3rd centuries) who is most famous for formulating the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology known as the . ... The Ashtadhyayi (Ạṣtādhyāyī, meaning eight chapters) is the earliest known grammar of Sanskrit, and one of the first works on descriptive linguistics, generative linguistics, or linguistics altogether. ... The political process among the ancient Aryans appears to have originally started with semi-nomadic tribal units called Jana (Sanskrit: Jana = tribe). ... Pāṇini (पाणिन) was an ancient Sanskrit grammarian born in Shalātura, modern Lahur of North-West Frontier province of Pakistan. ...

The Harivamsa attests that the clans of Kambojas, Sakas, Yavanas, Pahlavas etc. were "formerly noble Kshatriyas". It was king Sagara who had deprived the Kambojas, and other allied tribes, of their Kshatiya-hood[61] and forbade them from performing Svadhyayas and Vasatkaras.[62] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (400x609, 55 KB) Summary Deepak Kamboj, www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (400x609, 55 KB) Summary Deepak Kamboj, www. ... Look up Kamboj in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Warrior (disambiguation). ... The Harivamsha (also Harivamsa; Sanskrit the lineage of Hari (Vishnu)) is an important work of Sanskrit literature, containing 16,375 verses. ...


The Harivamsa calls this group of Sakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Pahlavas and Paradas as "Kśatriya-pungavah", i.e., foremost among the Kśatriyas. Vayu Purana calls them as "Kśatriya ganah" (Kshatriya hordes).[63][64][65] The Vayu Purana is a Shaiva Purana, dedicated to Vayu (the wind), containing some 24,000 shlokas. ... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ... Look up Horde in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Manusmriti attests that the Kambojas, Sakas, Yavanas etc were originally "noble Kshatriyas", but were gradually degraded to the status of Sudras, on account of their neglect of sacred rites and non-entertainment of the Brahmanas in their countries.[66] The Manu Smriti or Laws of Manu, is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous conduct), written c. ... Shudra or Sudra is the fourth Varna in the traditional four-section division in historic Indian society. ...


The Mahabharata likewise, also notes that the Kambojas, Sakas, Yavanas, Pahlavas, et al. were originally "noble Kshatriyas", who later got degraded to barbaric status due to the wrath of the Brahmanas.[67] For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...


Also, according to numerous Puranas, the military Corporations of the Shakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Pahlavas and Paradas, known as five hordes (pānca-ganah), had militarily supported the Haihaya and Talajunga Kshatriyas in depriving Ikshvaku king Bahu (the 7th king in descent from Harishchandra), of his Ayodhya kingdom. A generation later, Bahu's son, Sagara recaptured Ayodhya after totally destroying the Haihaya and Talajangha Kshatriyas in the battle. Story goes that king Sagara had punished these foreign hordes by changing their hair-styles and turning them into degraded Kshatriyas.[68] The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Look up Horde in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Harishchandra, in Hindu mythology was one of the kings of the Solar Dynasty. ... Ayodhya   (Hindi: अयोध्या, Urdu: ایودھیا IAST Ayodhyā) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Ayodhya   (Hindi: अयोध्या, Urdu: ایودھیا IAST Ayodhyā) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ... Look up Horde in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Arthashastra of Kautiliya[69] attests the Kshatriya Shrenis (Corporations of Warriors) of the Kambojas, Surashtras, and some other nations, and mentions them as living by agriculture, trade and warfare. The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kautilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya. ... ... For other uses, see Warrior (disambiguation). ... Saurashtra, more correctly, Sauraṣṭri or Sauraṣṭram or Sourashtra, also known as Palkar, Sowrashtra, Saurashtram, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in parts of the Southern Indian State of Tamil Nadu. ...


The legend of Daivi Khadga or Divine Sword detailed in Shantiparva of Mahabharata[70] also powerfully endorses the Kshatriya-hood of the Kambojas. The sword as the "symbol of Kshatriya-hood" was wrested by the warrior king Kamboja from the Kosala king Kuvalashava alias Dhundhumara, from whom it went to another warrior king called Muchukunda.[71] For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ... The legend of Mahabharata sword appears in the Shantiparva of Mahabharata. ... The legend of Mahabharata sword appears in the Shantiparva of Mahabharata. ... For other uses, see Warrior (disambiguation). ... Epic Mahabharata refers to a king or warrior whom it calls Kamboja. ... Kosala was an ancient Indian Aryan kingdom, corresponding roughly in area with the region of Oudh. ... Muchukunda was a great sage who kills Kalayavana, the great Yavana warrior king in the Indian epic Mahabharata. ...


See: Mahabharata Sword The legend of Mahabharata sword appears in the Shantiparva section of Mahabharata. ...


Bhagavata Purana[72] references a king of the Kambojas, and calls him a "powerfully armed mighty warrior" (samiti-salina atta-capah Kamboja). The Bhagavata Purana (sometimes rendered as Bhagavatha Purana), also known as the Srimad Bhagavatam, written c. ...


Kalika Purana[73] refers to a war between the Buddhist king Kali (Maurya Brihadratha) and the Brahmanical king Kalika (Pusyamitra Sunga), where the Kambojas came as military supporters to Brihadratha, (187-180) BCE. The Purana notes the Kamboja warriors as Kambojai...bhimavikramaih, i.e. the Kambojas of terrific military prowess", again confirming the Kshatriya-hood of the Kambojas. The Kalika Purana is one of the eighteen Upapuranas. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Chandragupta Maurya (ruled 322–298 BC), known to the Greeks as Sandracottus, was the first emperor of the Mauryan empire. ... Brhadrata was the last ruler of the Indian Mauryan dynasty. ... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... Pusyamitra Sunga (also Pushyamitra Shunga) was the founder of the Indian Sunga dynasty (185-78 BCE). ...


Brahmanda Purana talks of 21 battles waged by Brahma-Kshatriya sage Parsurama against the ancient Haihaya dynasty clans of the Indian subcontinent. The list of Haihaya dynasty clans whom sage Parsurama fought with includes the Kambojas as well.[74] This ancient evidence again verifies that Kambojas were a Kshatriya clan. Brahmanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text , is considered the last of the Puranas, and it once contained Aadhyatma Ramayana. ...


There are numerous similar references in the Puranas, Mahabharata, Ramayana and other ancient Sanskrit and Pali literature, that further document the Kshatriya-hood of the Kambojas. Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ...


Passages in Mahabharata, Puranas and other ancient texts indicate that the Kambojas were 'valiant warriors' ;[75] particularly 'hard to fight with' ;[76] invincible;[77] expert in the use of 'diverse weapons' ;[78] 'wrathful, ferocious and shaved-headed warriors' ;[79] expert cavalarymen;[80] 'deadly like cobras' ;[81] 'strikers of fierce force' ;[82] 'Death-personified' ;[83] 'of fearful bearing like Yama' (the god of death);[84] and 'war-loving Kambojas' [85] etc. For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ...


Ancient Kambojas were a Learned Clan

Chudakarma Samskaara of Paraskara Grhya-Sutram [86], Vamsa Brahmana [87] of the Sama Veda[18], the Epic Ramayana as well as Mahabharata and some other ancient references profusely attest that a section of the ancient Kambojas also practiced Brahmanism i.e they had adopted the profession of learning and teaching. Thus we see that the ancient Kambojas are known to have been great scholars and teachers. Undoubtedly, they were intimately connected with ancient famous University of Taxila in Gandhara. The Sama Veda (सामवेद), or Veda of Holy Songs, is third in the usual order of enumeration of the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... Taxila is an important archaelogical site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city and university of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 5th century BCE to the 2nd century CE. In 1980, Taxila was declared... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ...


In Paraskara Gryya-sutram (verse 2.1.2), the Kambojas have been listed at par with the Vasishthas--the cultural heroes of ancient India. Their social customs are stated to be identical. Rsi Upamanyu, the composer of Rigvedic Hymn (1. 102. 9); and his son/descendent Kamboja Aupamanyava-- a hallowed sage and teacher mentioned in Vamsa Brahmana of the Sama Veda-- are some of the very distinguished ancient philosophers/scholars and teachers born of the Kamboja lineage. Vasishtha (Sanskrit: वसिष्ठ), in Hindu mythology was chief of the seven venerated sages (or Saptarishi) and the Rajaguru of the Suryavamsha or Solar Dynasty. ... RSI may refer to: Repetitive strain injury, a disorder affecting bone and muscle from repetitive movements Rapid sequence induction, a form of anæsthesia Relative strength index, a security market indicator Radiotelevisione svizzera di lingua italiana, a Swiss radio broadcaster Research Science Institute, a summer research program held at MIT... Upamanyu is the name of a Vedic seer who finds reference in Book I, Hymn 102. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ... Kamboja Aupamanyava finds mention in the list of ancient Vedic teachers given in the Vamsa Brahmana (1. ... The Sama Veda (सामवेद), or Veda of Holy Songs, is third in the usual order of enumeration of the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures. ...


Drona Parva section of Mahabharata amply attests that, besides being fierce warriors, the entire Kamboja soldiery was also noted as a learned people.[88].


Benjamin Walker observes:


"Kambojas were not only famous for their furs and woolen blankets embroidered with threads of gold, their wonderful horses and their beautiful women, but by epic period, they had become especially renowned as Vedic teachers and their homeland as a seat of Brahmanical learning" [89]. What is an epic? ... Map of early Iron Age Vedic India after Witzel (1989). ...


Dr A. D. Pusalkar observes:


“The speech of Kambojas is referred to by Yaska as differing from that of other Aryans and Grierson sees in this reference the Iranian affinities of the Kambojas, but the fact that the Kambojas teachers were reputed for their Vedic learning shows them to have been Vedic Aryans, so that the Kamboja was an Aryan settlemen”[90] Yaska Acharya is a celebrated Sanskrit scholar and grammarian of ancient India. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ...


Viveka Nanda and Lokesh Chander write:


"The teachers of Kamboja were known for their Vedic learning. Culturally, Afghanistan then formed part of India...." [91].


See also : Brahmanism of Ancient Kambojas for further details. The Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of Indian sub-continent (Central Asia). ...


Kambojas: Master Horsemen[92]

Main article: Kamboja Horsemen

The horses of the Kambojas were famous throughout all periods of ancient history. Ancient literature is overflowing with excellent references to the famed Kamboja horses. The Puranas, the Epics, ancient Sanskrit plays, the Buddhist Jatakas, the Jaina Canon, and numerous other ancient sources, all agree that the horses of the Kambojas were a foremost breed. The profession of breeding, domesticating, training and utilizing the horses in warfare had originated in the vast Steppes of Central Asia. ... The Jatakas form a part of Buddhist canonical literature. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ...

War Horse
War Horse

In Buddhist texts like Manorathpurani, Kunala Jataka and Samangavilasini, the Kamboja land is spoken of as the "birth place of horses" (Kambojo assánam áyatanam.... Samangalavilasini, I, p. 124). Download high resolution version (1192x922, 461 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1192x922, 461 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


The Aruppa-Niddesa of Visuddhimagga of Buddhaghosa mentions Kamboja as the "base of horses" (10/28). Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa was a 5th century Indian Theravadin Buddhist commentator and scholar. ...


The Jaina Canon Uttaradhyana-Sutra[93] tells us that a trained Kamboja horse exceeded all other horses in speed and no noise could ever frighten it.[94]


The Bhishamaparva of Mahabharata[95] lists the best horses from various lands, but places the steeds from Kamboja at the head of the list, and specifically designates them as the leaders among the best horses (Kamboja....mukhyanam).[96]


In the great battle fought on the field of Kurukshetra, the fast and powerful steeds of Kamboja were of greatest service (Dr. B. C. Law). Kurukshetra may refer to: The Kurukshetra war described in the Mahabharata, an Indian epic The town and district of Kurukshetra in the Indian state of Haryana This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Besides, the Ramayana,[97] Kautiliya's Arthashastra,[98] the Brahmanda Purana,[99] Somes'ara's Manasollasa,[100] Ashva. Chakitsata by Nakula (p. 415), Raghuvamsha[101] and Mandakraanta of Kalidasa, Karanabhaar (Ch 19) of Bhaasa, Vamsa-Bhaskara, Madhypithika, Karnatakadambari of Nagavarman (verse 96, p 305) and numerous other ancient texts and inscriptions also make highly laudatory references to Kamboja horses, and state them the finest breed. For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Brahmanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text , is considered the last of the Puranas, and it once contained Aadhyatma Ramayana. ... Kalidasas Raghuvamsha tells of the family of Rama and his descendents, including the conqueror Raghu. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Vishnu Vardhana (12th century), the real founder of Hoysala greatness, who later on became ruler of Mysore, made the earth tremble under the tramp of his powerful Kamboja horses.[102] , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ...


There were Kamboja steeds in the cavalry of Pandya king Vallabhadeva who is referred to as the proud possessor/rider of the Kamboja horses and elephants.[103] The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ...


These references amply demonstrate that Kamboja horses were sleek, very powerful and a foremost breed. They have been especially noted for their great fleetness and remarkable behavior on the battle field. No doubt, Kamboja steeds were the prized possession of kings and warriors in ancient times.


It was on account of their supreme position in horse (Ashva) culture that the ancient Kambojas were also popularly known as Ashvakas, i.e. horsemen. Their clans in the Kunar andSwat valleys have been referred to as Assakenoi and Aspasioi in classical writings, and Ashvakayanas and Ashvayanas in Panini's Ashtadhyayi. The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... Kunar Valley is a valley in Afghanistan. ... Swat River flows from Karakorum Mountains to flows into Kabul River in Swat, Sarhad, Pakistan. ... The Ashvakas or Ashvakans are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan (Nuristan), modern Pakistan, including the Chitral-Valley and north-west India . ... The Ashvakas or Ashvakans (Paninian Ashvakayans) are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan (Nuristan), modern Pakistan , including the Chitral-Valley and north-west India (Punjab). ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ...


The Mahabharata specifically refers to the Kambojas as Ashva-Yuddha-Kushalah, i.e., expert cavalrymen.[104] Similarly, Vishnudharmotra Purana also attests that the Kambojans and Gandharans were proficient in cavalry warfare (Ashva-Yuddha).[105][106][107] For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...


Dronaparva highly applauds the Kamboja cavalry as extremely fast and fleet i.e. ’’Kambojah... yayur.ashvair.mahavegaih’’.[108] Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ...


The Mahabharata, Ramayana, numerous Puranas and some foreign sources amply attest that "Kamboja cavalry-troopers were frequently requisitioned in ancient wars" (see Ashvaka#Kamboja cavalry in ancient wars). For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ...


Therefore, there is no exaggeration in the Mahabharata statement portraying the ancient Kambojas as horse-lords and masters of horsemanship.


Kambojas in Indian Literature

Main article: Kambojas in Indian Traditions

Kambojas find repeated reference in ancient Sanskrit and Pali literature including Atharvaveda, Paninis Ashtadhyayi, Yasakas Nirukata, Mahabharata, Ramayana, numerous Puranas, Kautiliyas Arthashastra, Buddhist Jatakas, Jaina Canons, several Sanskrit plays and numerous other ancient texts. ...

The Kambojas and Alexander the Great

Because the Kambojas were famous for their horses (ashva) and as cavalry-men (ashvaka) they were also popularly called "Ashvakas". The Ashvakas inhabited Eastern Afghanistan, and were included within the more general term Kambojas.[109] French scholars like Dr. E. Lamotte also identify the Ashvakas with the Kambojas.[110] [111] [112] [113] [114] [115]. According to one line of scholars, the name Afghan is evidently derived from Ashvakan, the Assakenoi of Arrian.[116] See: Origins of the name Afghan The Ashvakas or Ashvakans are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan (Nuristan), modern Pakistan, including the Chitral-Valley and north-west India . ... Afghanistan literally means the Land of Afghans. In this case, Afghan is synonymous with Pashtun. ...

Bust of Alexander in the British Museum.
Bust of Alexander in the British Museum.

The Kambojas entered into conflict with Alexander the Great as he invaded Central Asia: "The Macedonian conqueror made short shrifts of the arrangements of Darius and over-running Achaemenid Empire, dashed into Afghanistan and encountered stiff resistance of the Kamboja tribes called Aspasioi and Assakenoi known in the Indian texts as Ashvayanas and Ashvakayanas".[117] [118] [119] [120]. These Ashvayana and Ashvakayana Kamboj clans fought the invader to a man. When worse came to worse, even the Ashvakayana Kamboj women took up arms and joined their fighting husbands, thus preferring "a glorious death to a life of dishonor".[121] Diodorus gives a detailed graphic accounts as to how the Ashvakayanas had conducted themselves when faced with the sudden treacherous onslaught from Alexander.[122] Download high resolution version (768x1062, 127 KB)Copy of a Greek (near contemporary?) bust of Alexander the Great in the British Museum. ... Download high resolution version (768x1062, 127 KB)Copy of a Greek (near contemporary?) bust of Alexander the Great in the British Museum. ... The British Museum in London, England is a museum of human history and culture. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Darius (in Persian داريوش (Dah-rii-yoosh)) is a common Persian male name. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... Look up Kamboj in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ...


Commenting on the heroic resistance and courage displayed by the Ashvakayanas (Kambojas) in the face of treacerous onslaught of Alexander, Dr Buddha Prakash remarks: "Hardly could any Thermopylae be more glorious!"[123] For other uses, see Battle of Thermopylae (disambiguation). ...


The Ashvakas had fielded 30,000 strong cavalry, 30 elephants and 20,000 infantry against Alexander.


The Ashvayans (Aspasioi) were also good cattle breeders and agriculturists. This is clear from large number of bullocks, 230,000 according to Arrian, of a size and shape superior to what the Macedonians had known, that Alexander captured from them and decided to send to Macedonia for agriculture.[124] Alexander the Great Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ...


Main article: Alexander's Conflict with the Kambojas Greek historians refer to three warlike peoples -viz. ...


The Kambojas and the Mauryan Empire

The Mudrarakshas play of Visakhadutta as well as the Jain work Parisishtaparvan refers to Chandragupta Maurya's alliance with the Himalayan king Parvatka. The Himalayan alliance gave Chandragupta a composite army made up of Yavanas, Kambojas, Sakas, Kiratas, Parasikas and Bahlikas (Bactrians) (Mudrarakshas, II).[125] Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य; Romanized Greek: Sandrakottos), whilst often referred to as Sandrakottos outside India, is also known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ... Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... The Kiratas are one of the earliest inahbitants of Nepal. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh). ...


With the help of these frontier warlike clans from the northwest whom Justin brands as "a band of robbers", Chandragupta managed to defeat, upon Alexander's death, the Macedonian straps of Punjab and Afghanistan, and following this, the corrupt Nanda ruler of Magadha, thereby laying the foundations of a powerful Maurya Empire in northern and north-western India. See also Clan (computer gaming) A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. ... This article deals with the fourth century BC founder of the Maurya dynasty. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... A strap is a strip, usually of fabric or leather. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ...


The Kambojas find prominent mention as a unit in the 3rd century BCE Edicts of Ashoka. Rock Edict XIII tells us that the Kambojas had enjoyed autonomy under the Mauryas. The republics mentioned in Rock Edict V are the Yonas, Kambojas, Gandharas, Nabhakas and the Nabhapamkitas. They are designated as araja. vishaya in Rock Edict XIII, which means that they were kingless i.e. republican polities. In other words, the Kambojas formed a self-governing political unit under the Maurya Emperors.[126] The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan... For the village on Guam, see Yona Yona is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greek speakers. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ...

Kambojas affect Buddhism

King Ashoka sent missionaries to the Kambojas to convert them to Buddhism, and recorded this fact in his Rock Edict V. Image File history File links Buddha_image_-_white_stone. ... Image File history File links Buddha_image_-_white_stone. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ...


Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa attest that Ashoka sent thera Maharakkhita to Yona, and Majjhantika to Kashmra and Gandhara, to preach Dharma among the Yonas, Gandharas and Kambojas. The Dipavamsa (Island Chronicle in Pali) is the oldest historical record of Sri Lanka, believed to be compiled in the 4th century. ... The Mahavansha, also Mahawansha, (Pāli: great chronicle) is a historical record, often thought to be the oldest written record oh history, written in the Pāli language, of the Buddhist kings as well as Dravidian kings of Sri Lanka. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...


Sasanavamsa specifically attests that Maharakkhita thera went to Yonaka country and established Buddha's Sasana "in the lands of the Kambojas and other countries"[127] Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ...


Thus, the Zoroastrian as well as some Hindu Kambojas appear to have embraced Buddhism in large numbers, due to the efforts of king Ashoka and his envoys. Although it is unknown whether they were patrons of Buddhistic Hinduism or nastik Buddhism. Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... Nastika is a Sanskrit term meaning: It is the antonym of Astika, or one who sees. ...

See also: Edicts of Ashoka

The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan...

Kambojas' migration to India and beyond

Main article: Migration of Kambojas

References to Kambojas abound in ancient literature, and this may have been just the expansion of an Indo-Iranian tribe with both Persian and Indic affinities from their homeland in the Afghanistan-Turkistan region along the foothills of the Himalayas towards Bengal, along the coast to Gujarat, to Sri Lanka...

Modern Kamboj and Kamboh

The population of the modern people who still call themselves Kamboj (or prikritic Kamboh, or Kamoz) or Kambhoj is estimated to be around 1.5 million and the rest of their population, over the time, submerged with other occupationalized castes/groups of the Indian subcontinent. Look up Kamboh in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kamboj is very frequently used as surname or last name by many Kambojs, currently living in India. ...


The Kambojs, by tradition, are divided into 52 and 84 clans. 52 line is stated to be descendants of Cadet branch and 84 from the elder Branch. This is claimed as referring to the young and elder military divisions under which they had fought the Bharata War. Numerous of their clan names overlap with other Kshatriyas and the Rajput castes of the north-west India, thereby suggesting that some of the Kshatriya/Rajput clans of north-west must have descended from the Ancient Kambojas.[128] Combatants Pandavas led by Dhristadyumna Kauravas led by Bhishma Commanders Arjuna Bhima Yudhishthira Nakula Sahadeva Bhishma Drona Karna Duryodhana Ashwatthama Strength 7 Akshauhinis 1,530,900 soldiers 11 Akshauhinis 2,405,700 soldiers Casualties Almost Total Only 7 survivors - the five Pandavas, Krishna, and Satyaki Almost Total Only 3 survivors... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ... Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ...


The Kambojs/Kambohs practiced weapon-worship in the past but the practice is now going out of vogue.[129]


Diaspora

The Kamboj or Kamboh living in upper India (Greater Punjab) are identified as the modern representatives of the ancient Kambojas. They are found as Hindus, Sikhs, Muslims, Buddhists and the Jains. Kambojs are known as adventurous and enterprising people. Therefore, as a colonists, servicemen, and businessmen, they have also spread, after the partition, into various parts of India, including a belt of Haryana from Karnal to Yamunanagar, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Ganganagar in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. There is also minuscule Kambhoj (jaina) community living since olden times near Nanded in Maharashtra, possibly the dwindling remnant of ancient Kambojas who had settled southwest India around the Christian era. (See links: [19] , [20] ) [130]. The community obviously seems to have mixed with the local communities over time and imbibed local cultures and languages. Look up Kamboj in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Kamboh in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ... A Norwegian soldier (a Corporal, armed with an MP-5) A soldier is a person who has enlisted with, or has been conscripted into, the armed forces of a sovereign country and has undergone training and received equipment to defend that country or its interests. ... Set out below is an annotated listing of corporate leaders, who are or have been the head of large or successful business enterprises, or who are otherwise well known for their commercial acumen, listed alphabetically by last name. ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... Karnal district, in Haryana, India, has an area of 1,967 sq km and its population is 8,85,000. ... , Yamunanagar (Hindi:यमुनानगर) is a city and a municipal council in Yamunanagar District in the Indian state of Haryana. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... An era is a long period of time with different technical and colloquial meanings, and usages in language. ...


The Tajiks, Siyaposh tribe (Kam/Kamoz, Katir/Kamtoz) of Nuristan, Yashkuns, Swatis, and the Yusufzais of Eastern Afghanistan and NWFP of Pakistan are said by various scholars to have descended from the ancient Kambojas.[131] According to Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, the Kambus (Kambohs/Kambojs) are an offshoot of the Afghan stock[132] link Tajiks are Central Asian Iranians or East-Iranians. ... The lower part of the Bashgul Valley of Nurestan (Afghanistan) is known as Kam. ... The lower part of the Bashgul Valley of Nurestan (Afghanistan) is known as Kam. ... The Siah-Posh Kafir tribal group of Kafirstan (present Nuristan) includes five divisions or clans as under: Katirs, Kams or Kamoz Mumans or Madugals, Kashtoz or Kashtans and Gourdesh or Istrat. ... Nurestan Province (also spelled Nuristan) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... For information on the language spoken in Swaziland, see Swati language. ... The Yousafzai or Yusufzai (also Esapzey) (Urdu: یوسف زئی ) are an Afghan tribe. ...


Traditions

The Kambohs are stated to be the ancient inhabitants of Persia.[133] Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty...


The Sikh Kamboj of Kapurthala & Jullundur (Punjab) claim descent from Raja Karan. They also have a tradition that their ancestors came from Kashmir.[134] Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... Kapurthala (Punjabi: ) is a city in Punjab state of India. ... small alley in Jalandhar, close to the fish-market rikshaws with bananas in Jalandhar, close to the fish-market // Jalandhar is a city in the state of Punjab, India. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...


Hindu Kambohs claim to be related to the Rajputs and to have come from Persia through southern Afghanistan.[135] The Chapter III of Gazetteer of Muzaffarnagar (UP) based on British India census reports of 1881/1891 etc note that about 1200 Muslim and Hindu Kamboj were living in Saharanpur who also claimed to be Rajputs. The Kamboj in Phillaur, District Jullundur, too claimed to be Suryavanshi Rajputs.[136] The Kambohs of Bijnor claim that they came from Trans-Indus country and Mr Purser accepts this as evidently true. Many of the Bijnor Kambohs also have a tradition that they are of the same ethnic stock as the Chattris or Khatris [137]. "In the Census of 1891, it is reported that the Kamboh, who lived around Mathura in the United Province (Uttar Pradesh), were originally Kshatriyas" [138] [139] [140]. The Rajasthan [district Gazetteers] asserts that the Kambohs are probably related to the Khatris [141]. The Hindu Kambohs from Karnal claim their origin from Garh-Gajni. Their Pandits still pronounce the following couplet at the phera during their marriage ceremony to give information about their original home: Garh Gajni nikaas, Lachhoti Ghaggar vaas (Trans: Originated from the fort of Gajni, and settled down in Ghaggar region (in Haryana or Punjab)). One Gajni or Ghazni is located in Afghanistan, but based on another tradition of the Karnal Kamboj, the eminent ethnographers like H. A. Rose and several other scholars have identified this Gajni in Kambay in Saurashtra (port of Vallabhi)[142] Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India. ... Persia redirects here. ... , Muzaffarnagar   (Hindi: मुज़फ़्फ़रनगर, Urdu: مظفر نگر) is a city and a municipal board in Muzaffarnagar district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... , Saharanpur (Hindi: सहारनपुर, Urdu: شاہجہان پور) is a city and a Municipal Corporation in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. ... Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India. ... Phillaur is a town in the Indian state of Punjab. ... , Bijnor (Hindi: बिजनौर, Urdu: بجنور) variously spelt as Bijnaur and Bijnour, is a city and a municipal board in Bijnor district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... , Mathura   (Hindi: मथुरा, Urdu: متھرا) is a holy city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... A Kshatriya is a member of the military or reigning order, according to the law-code of Manu the second ranking caste of the Indian varna system of four castes, the first being the Brahmin or priestly caste, the third the Vaishya or mercantile caste and the lowest the Shudra. ... Khatri (Punjabi: ਖੱਤਰੀ, khatrÄ«) is the Punjabi adaptation of Sanskrit word Kshatriya (Hindi: क्षत्रिय, kÅŸhatriya). ... Karnal district, in Haryana, India, has an area of 1,967 sq km and its population is 8,85,000. ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , ÄžaznÄ«) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ... Vallabhi (modern Vala) is an ancient city located in Saurashtra peninsula in Gujarat, in western India, near Bhavnagar. ... Cambay, also known as Khambhat, is a town in Gujarat state, India. ... Saurashtra in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ... For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ... Vallabhi (modern Vala) is an ancient city located in Saurashtra peninsula in Gujarat, in western India, near Bhavnagar. ...


Muslim Kambohs have a tradition that they descended from ancient Kai dynasty of Persia, to which the emperors Kaikaus, Kaikhusro, Kaikubad, Kai-lehrashab and Darius all belonged. On the last king of the dynasty having been dethroned, and expelled from the country, he wandered about some time with his family and dependents in the neighboring countries and finally settled in Punjab[143][144][145][146][147].[148][149][150][151][152][153] There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Persia redirects here. ... Kai Kaus was an eleventh-century ruler of several provinces on the south shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Darius (in Persian داريوش (Dah-rii-yoosh)) is a common Persian male name. ...


During Muslim Rule

Muslim Kambohs/Kambojs were very influential and powerful in the early days of Moghul rule. General Shahbaz Khan Kamboh was the most trusted general of Akbar [154]. Sheikh Gadai Kamboh was the Sadar-i-Jahan in Akbar's reign.[155] Numerous other Kamboj are known to have occupied very key civil and military positions during Lodhi, Pashtun and the Moghul reign in India. The Sayyids and the Kambohs among the Indian Muslims were specially favored for high military and civil positions during Moghul rule [156] [157] [158] [159] Ain-i-Akbari of Abu-Al-Fazal Alami informs us that it was a matter of honor to belong to the Kamboh lineage during the reigns of Mughal emperors like Akbar and Jahangir etc [160] [161] [162]. The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). ... Lodhi (also sometimes Lodi) is a Pashtun tribe, most likely a sub-group of the larger Ghilzai of Afghanistan and Pakistan who were part of a wave of Pashtuns who pushed east into what is today Pakistan and India. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Ain-e-Akbari is a detailed document recording the administration of emperor Akbars empire written by Abul-Fazl ibn Mubarak, it also contains details of Hindu beliefs and practices as well as a history of India. ...


The Kambohs held Nakodar in Jullundur [163] [164] and Sohna in Gurgaon some centuries ago; and the tombs and mosques that they have left in Sohna show that they must have enjoyed considerable position.[165] Nakodar (pronounced Nuh-Koh-Durh) is a small town in the Jalandhar District of the state of the Punjab, India. ... small alley in Jalandhar, close to the fish-market rikshaws with bananas in Jalandhar, close to the fish-market // Jalandhar is a city in the state of Punjab, India. ... , Gurgaon   (Hindi: गुड़गांव) is a city in the northern Indian state of Haryana, and has a population of about 249,000 according to the 2001 national census [2]. Gurgaon is one of Delhis four major satellite cities and is therefore considered to be a part of the National Capital Region... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...

Main article: Kamboj in Muslim and British Era

Kamboj or Kambohs (Urdu: کمبوہ ) is an ancient tribe settled in South Asia. ...

Agriculturists

The modern Kamboj are still found living chiefly by agriculture, business and military service which were the chief professions followed by their Kamboja ancestors some 2500 years ago as powerfully attested by Arthashastra[166] and Brhat Samhita.[167] Numerous foreign and Indian writers have described the modern Kambojs/Kambohs as one of the finest class of agriculturists of India.[168] British colonial writers such as H. A. Rose and Denzil Charles J. Ibbetson note the Kamboj and Ahir agriculturists as the first rank husbandmen and they rate them above the Jatts.[169] They occupy exactly the same position in general farming as the Ramgarhias occupy in general industry. In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kautilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya. ... Sir Denzil Charles Jelf Ibbetson (1847–1908), was an administrator in British India and an author. ... The people of the Ahir tribe are traditionally cow herders and shepherds. ... Jatt is a caste of Sikhs who live in Punjab. ...


The Kambojs have made great contributions in agriculture and military fields. The majority of Krishi Pandit awards in Rajasthan/India have been won by the Kamboj agriculturists[170] . Col Lal Singh Kamboj, a landlord from Uttar Pradesh, was the first Indian farmer to win the prestigious Padam Shri Award for progressive farming in 1968 from President of India. According to Dr M. S. Randhawa (Ex-Vice Chancellor, Punjab University), the Kamboj farmers have no equals in industry and tenacity.[171] , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Punjab University can refer to one of the following: In Pakistan: University of the Punjab, Lahore In India: Panjab University, Chandigarh This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Physical Characteristics

Several foreign and indigenous observers have described the modern Kambojs as very industrious, stiff-necked, hardy, turbulent, skillful, provident and an enterprising race [172]. British commentator, William Crooke, observes that "The Kambohs are a hardy independent people and do not pay much deference to the leading castes" [173] [174]. Some commentators have described the Kambohs/Kambojs as ethnically more akin to the Afghans than to any of the "meek Hindu races" of the plains of India wherein they have now settled for generations.[175] [176] [177]


There is a medieval era Persian proverb (verse) current in the north-west to the effect that of the Afghans, the Kambohs (Kamboj) and the Kashmiris... all three are rogues.[178][179][180] Prof Blochman comments on this proverb: "This verse is very modern, for during the reigns of Akbar and Jehangir, it was certainly a distinction to belong to the Kamboh tribe" [181] [182] [183]. For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Nuruddin Jahangir (August 31, 1569 - October 28, 1627) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1605 until 1627. ...


This old proverb seems to convey the historical fact that in the distant past, the Persians, the Afghans, the Kambojs/Kambohs and the Kasmiris lived more or less as neighbors and belonged to one inter-related racial group. The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Look up Kamboh in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...


Against the above proverb and with reference to the Kambohs/Kambojs, other investigators and scholars like Sardar Gurdial Singh note that "during the reign of terror, it were the Kambojs/Kambohs only who were most trusted by the rich bankers for carrying their cash in the disguise of faqirs" [184]. British ethnographer H. A. Rose also states that: "As agents to the bankers, the Kambohs are much trusted" .[185][186] The honesty and integrity of the Kamboj/Kamboh community of Punjab is proverbial.[187]


The Kamboj integrity and honesty has also been specifically acknowledged in the Census Report of India, 1881 by Denzil Ibbetson.[188]


The Kambojs are also proverbial in Hindustan for "their sagacity and quickness of apprehension" (perception or understanding).[189][190] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Kambojs have also been noted for their courage, tenacity and stamina for fighting. They (Kamboj) make excellent soldiers, being of very fine physique and possessing great courage.....They have always been noted for their cunning strategy, which now, being far less 'slim' than in former times, has developed into the permissible strategy of war.[191] [192]. This article is about a military rank. ...


Modern Kamboj are a generally tall, well-built, sharp featured, and generally very fair (gaura varna) race, with brown, sometimes reddish hair, brown or sometimes gray or blue or green eye color, and long sharp noses. "Pure blood Kamboj ladies are very beautiful and attractive".[193] Kamboj women have especially been noted for their beauty in ancient times too.[194][195][196][197][198] In ancient references, the Kambojas have been described as a very handsome race.[199] Ancient Kamboj princes have also been noted as tall like towers, exceedingly handsome and of gaura varna,[200] having faces illustrious like the full moon,[201] lotus eyed,[202] handsome like the lord-moon among the stars.[203] Even Ramayana calls the Kambojas ravisanibha i.e. with faces illustrious like the Sun.[204] Look up Kamboj in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Kamboj in Sports

  • The Kamboj have made outstanding contributions in wrestling, field hockey and Kabaddi.
  • Jodh Singh, Natha Singh, Hazara Singh, Santa Kharasia, Bakshisha, Chhiba, Khushal, Chanan and Maula Bakhsh are the few foremost Punjabi Kamboj wrestlers of yester-years who had earned great name and fame in wrestling.
  • Olympian Prithipal was probably the greatest hockey full-back of the 20th century. Known as King of short-corner and the Mahabahu of Indian hockey, Prithipal was the first Indian to win both the Arjuna Award, and later Padma Shri Award for his achievements in hockey.
  • Rasool Akhtar, President of Pakistan Hockey Federation, is one of the greatest hockey Olympians from Pakistan. He skippered Pakistani Hockey team in the World Cup competition (1982) which won gold medal by defeating India in the finals. His father, Dr Gulam Rasool Chaudhury was also a world renowned Hockey Olympian who had captained Pakistan Hockey team to victories in 1960 Olympics and later in Asian Hockey Competitions in 1962 and won gold medals for the first time for Pakistan. He also remained President of Pakistan Hockey Federation and Chairman of the Selection Committee. Arshad Chaudhury, nephew of Dr Gulam Rasool Chaudhury is another world renowned Hockey Olympian who participated in 55 international Hockey competitions out of which Pakistan won 50 matches. Arshad won three gold, two silver and one bronze medals in the International Hockey competitions.
  • Er. Mohammad Jehangir (Kamboj), the first Pakistani Japanese to obtain black belts both in Judo and Karate had won gold medal in southern Asian Judo Championship. He also won triple crown by winning three consecutive championships in Judo. From 1977 onwards, Jehangir has bagged several gold and silver medals.
  • Rattan Singh alias Rattu has been the greatest defender in freestyle Kabaddi.

Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ... A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a sport for men, women and children in many countries around the world. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... The Arjuna Awards were instituted in 1961 by the government of India to recognize outstanding achievement in National sports. ... Padma Shri (also spelt Padma Shree, Padmashree, Padma Sree and Padma Sri) is an award given by the Government of India generally to Indian citizens to recognize their distinguished contribution in various spheres of activity including the Arts, Education, Industry, Literature, Science, Sports, Social Service and public life. ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ... For other uses, see Karate (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Kamboja principalities in West/Southwest India

Markendeya Purana[205] lists the Kambojas and Pahlavas among the countries of Udichya division i.e. Uttarapatha, but the next chapter (58.30-32) of the same work also refers to other Kamboja and Pahlava settlements, locating them in the south-west of India neighboring the Sindhu, Sauvira and Anarta (north Saurashtra) countries.[206] Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical texts reveal that Uttarapatha was the name of northern division of Jambudvipa of ancient Indian traditions. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ...


Brhatsamhita of Varaha Mihira (6th century CE) also locates a Kamboja and Pahlava settlement specifically in the south-west (nairrtyam dizi) of India, neighbouring Sindhu, Sauvira, Saurashtra and Dravida.[207] Varahamihira (505 – 587) was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer born in Ujjain. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Arthashastra of Barhaspatya[208] refers to the Kamboja as a great country (Mahavishaya) and locates it adjacent to the Dasrana country (southern Malwa), east of Gujarat.[209] Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a Hindu country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... This article is for the Indian state. ...


Vishnu Dharmottari[210] includes the Kambojas in the list of Janapadas of south-west India.[211]


Raajbilaas, a medieval text, locates a Kamboj settlement in the neighborhood of Kachcha, Sorata or Saurashtra and Gurjara countries of SW India.[212]


Interestingly, Agni Purana locates two Kamboja settlements in India itself....... Kambhoja in south-west India and Kamboja in southern parts of India.[213] Agni Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text believed to be written and compiled in the 10th century, contains descriptions and details of various incarnations (avatars) of Vishnu. ...


The Garuda Purana which was composed comparatively late, also locates a Kamboj principality/settlement in the neighborhood of Ashmaka, Pulinda, Jimuta, Narashtra, Lata and Karnata countries, and also specifically informs us that this section of Kambojas were living in southern division of India (dakshina.path.vasinah).[214] Garuda Purana is one of the Puranas which are part of the Hindu body of texts known as the smriti. ...


But like Agni Purana, some recensions of Garuda Purana rather mention two Kamboja settlements within India proper....one Kamboja in south-west India and the second Kamboja in southern India.[215]


The above post-Christian Sanskrit references abundantly establish as historical fact, that in the wake of the major events of the second and first centuries BCE, some groups of Central Asian Kambojas in alliance with the Sakas and Pahlavas, had settled the western and south-western parts of India. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ...


IHQ observes: "A branch of the Kambojas known as Apara Kambojas (western Kambojas) is also noticed ".[216]


The Kambojas in and around west, south-west India are also mentioned in inscriptions by king Sahasiva Raya of the Sangama Dynasty (1336-1478), kings Harihara & Deva Raya of Narasinga Dynasty (1496-1567), and from the references of king Vishnuvardhana of Hoiyasala Dynasty/Mysore (12th century CE). , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ...


Due to the above cited literary/inscriptional evidence, some historians, including Dr Aiyangar and Dr Banerjee, have located Kamboja in Sindhu and Gujarat.[217] It seems clear that the Kamboja they refer to are the post-Christian settlements of Kambojas in western or south-western India and not the original Kamboja of the Sanskrit/Pali literature.


The biography of Shankara Acharya, which is based on religious itineraries, refers to Kambhoja located in Saurashtra comprising Girnar, Somnath, Prabhasa and other regions and a Kamboja located in Central Asia adjacent to Daradistan but lying north of Kashmir. This eighth-century reference attests to two Kamboja settlements, one specifically situated in Saurashtra http://www.geocities.com/advaitavedant/shankarabio.htm. Some historians have also invested western Kshatrapas, especially the Kshahrata Kshatrapas with Kamboja ethnicity.[218] Kamboja is ancient name of a country and the tribe settled therein. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ...


Kambhoja Raja Kathalu is highly popular in Andhra traditions. The story deals with the militaristic exploits of a fierce and adventurous Kambojan king. The tale probably relates to a historical brush between the Andhraites and the intruding Kamboja/Pahlavas hordes in the Christian era. Andhra Pradesh (ఆంధర దేశం), a state in South India, lies between 12°41 and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40E longitude . ... Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a Hindu country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ...


The Kamboja hordes of the second/first century BCE have left indelible foot prints in the names of mountains, rivers and other geographical places in western India. The Kamb/Kambuh river and Kamboh/Kambo mountain in Sindh[219] are reminiscent of Sanskrit Kamboja. The Kamboi (ancient town/port) in district Patan, Khambhoj in district Anand, Kambay (port/town and Gulf) ... all in Saurashtra; Kumbhoj/Kambhoj (an ancient town) in Kolhapur in Maharashtra; and the Koimbatore city of Tamilnadu in southern India carry the unmistakable footprints of Kambojas. There is also an ancient Kambhoj jaina community living near Nanded in Maharashtra, possibly the dwindling remnant of ancient Kambojas who had settled southwest India around the Christian era. (See links: [21] , [22] ) [220]. The community obviously seems to have mixed with the local communities over time and imbibed local cultures and languages. Look up Horde in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a Hindu country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... Kamboi is a an ancient village/town located in Limkheda taluka, in Patan district, in the modern Indian State of Gujarat. ... For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ... Patan is : a city in Nepal (Patan, Nepal) a city and district in Gujarat (Patan, Gujarat) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Look up Kamboja in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Anand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cambay, also known as Khambhat, is a town in Gujarat state, India. ... The bay at San Sebastián, Spain A headland is an area of land adjacent to water on three sides. ... Kumbhoj (pronunced as kambhoj) is the name of an ancient town located in Kolhapur district in Maharashtra. ... Kumbhoj (pronunced as kambhoj) is the name of an ancient town located in Kolhapur district in Maharashtra. ... Kolhapur   (Marathi:कोल्हापुर) is a city situated in the south west corner of Maharashtra, India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... , Coimbatore   (Tamil: ), also known as Kovai (Tamil: ), is a major industrial city in India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... An era is a long period of time with different technical and colloquial meanings, and usages in language. ...


References

  1. ^ See refs: An Inquiry into the Ethnography of Afghanistan, 1891, pp. 2, 146, 150, H. W. Bellew; Supplementary Glossary of Tribes, 1844, p 304, H. M. Ellot; The Tribes and Castes of North-western and Oudh, 1906, pp 119-120, 458, William Crooke; Report on the Settlement of Land Revenue of Sultanpur Distt. (With) Accompaniment; 1873, p 88, A. F. Millet; Die Holztempel Des Oberen Kulutales in Ihren Historischen, Religiosen Und Kunstgeschichtlichen ..., 1974, p 26, Gabriele Jettmar; Report on the settlement of the land revenue of the Sultánpur district. [With] Accompaniments, 1873, p 88, A F. Millett; Paradise of Gods, 1966, p 331, Qamarud Din Ahmed; Literary History of Ancient India, 1952, p 165, Dr Chandra Chakraverty; Problems of Indian Society, 1968, p 69, Dr D. Bose; Bhartiya Itihaas ki Mimamsa, p 230, Dr J. C. Vidyalankar; Bani Kanta Kakati Memorial Lecturers, p 21, Gauhati University; "India and the World", 1964, p 154, Dr Buddha Prakash; Geographical Data in Early Purana, A Critical Study, 1972, p 168, Dr M. R. Singh; Tribes of Ancient India, 1977, p 322, Dr M. Choudhury; Early History of India, 1942, p 2, Roshan Rai; History of Poros, 1967, p 12, Dr Buddha Prakash; Kirata-Kriti: The Indo-Mongloloids, Their Contribution to History and Culture of India, 1974, p 113, Dr S. K. Chatterjee; Cf: Indo-Aryans: contributions towards the elucidation of their ancient and mediæval history, 1881, 187, Rājendralāla Mitra; Geography from Ancient Indian Coins & Seals, 1989, p 24, Parmanand Gupta; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada (Ancient Kamboja, people and country), 1981, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī ; History of Origin of Some Clans in India, with Special Reference to Jats, 1992, p 149, Mangal Sen Jindal; Balocistān: siyāsī kashmakash, muz̤mirāt va rujḥānāt, 1989, Munīr Aḥmad Marrī; تاريخ قوم كمبوه: جديد تحقيق كى روشنى ميں, چوهدرى محمد يوسف حسن, 1996, Cauhdrī Muḥammad Yūsuf Ḥasan; Folklore of the Punjab, 1971, p 7, Sohindara Singh Wanajārā Bedī; Cf: Inscriptions of A�soka: Translation and Glossary, 1990, p 86, Beni Madhab Barua, Binayendra Nath Chaudhury etc.
  2. ^ See refs: Mountstuart Elphinstone, "An account of the kingdom of Caubol", fn p 619; Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1843, p 140; Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1874, p 260 fn; Die altpersischen Keilinschriften: Im Grundtexte mit Uebersetzung, Grammatik und Glossar, 1881, p 86, Friedrich Spiegel; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 133, fn, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Banerjee; The Achaemenids and India, 1974, p 13, Dr S Chattopadhyaya .
  3. ^ Cf: There is an apparent trace of their (Kambojas') name in the Caumogees of Kaferistan, who may have retreated to the mountains before the advance of the Turk tribes (Dr H. H. Wilson). See fn 374:15: [1] .
  4. ^ Cf: " The tribe (Kambojas), who most likely occupied Paropamisan mountains and the plains to the northward, which are still famous for their breed of horses, may have perhaps subsequently extended to east, as we find traces of the name in the Hindukush, as a part of the Kafirs bearing the appellation of Kaumojees, which we can scarcely doubt to represent the ancient denomination Kambojas" (See Ref: Art. XV, Notes on Sabhaparva of Mahabharata, illustrative of some Ancient Usages and Articles of Traffic of Hindus, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1843, p 140, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland).
  5. ^ Cf: "The geographical title of Kamboja is retained to present days in the Kamoj of Cafferistan" (See: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1990, p 97, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland).
  6. ^ Cf: "Kambojas must have inhabited the Hindukush mountain and the adjoining country, as its Kafirs, says Elphinstone, still call them Kamoj" (Peter weiss: Von existentialistischen Drama zum marxistischen Welttheater, eine kritische Bilanz, 1971, Otto F. Best).
  7. ^ Kāmarūpaśāsanāvalī, 1981, p 137, Dimbeswar Sarma, Premadhar Chowdhury, Rajani Kanta Deva Sarma; Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa, 1991, p 114, M. R. (Moreshvar Ramchandra) Kale, Kālidāsa, Mallinātha.
  8. ^ Cf: "Thus traces of the old Kamboja tribe exist at the present day in the Badakshan and the Pamirs regions. In the west, the tribe (Kamboja), in the ancient days, seems to have extended as far as the eastern part of Afghanistan, for here we find peoples who call themselves Kamoja and in which we can trace probably the survival of the name Kamboja” (See: The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 192 ).
  9. ^ Cf: Die Kafirs werden Kamoze oder Kamboja genannt (nach Elphinstone) (Adolf Bastian) (See: Die Voelker des Oestlichen Asien Studien und Reisen, Band I. Die Geschichte der Indochinesen, p 456: See link: [2]) .
  10. ^ Cf: "A trace of Kambojas, in their original seat, seems to remain in the Kaumojas of the Hindukush" (See foot note 4: [3]).
  11. ^ Cf: "The Kambojas were probably represented by the Kafir tribe of Kamoj. And it seems not unlikely that a remnant of the Kambojas may have been driven into the mountains by some of the invaders of the country. Popular tradition says, in fact, that the Kamoj were driven out of the country of Candahar (Gandhara)" (Ref: The Sun and the Serpent: p 127-128, Charles Fredrick Oldham: See link: [4].
  12. ^ See also: Die altpersischen Keilinschriften: Im Grundtexte mit Uebersetzung, Grammatik und Glossar – 1881, Page 86, Fr. (Friedrich) Spiegel): See link: [5].
  13. ^ The Journal of the United Service Institution of India, 1871, United Service Institution of India.
  14. ^ Cf: "The Kamoz tribe of the Kafirs are fairly supposed to be the surviving representatives of the Kambojas of primeval Indian literature, a name with which scholars have connected that of Cambyses..." (See ref: The Quarterly Review, 1873, p 537, William Gifford, George Walter Prothero, John Gibson Lockhart, John Murray, Whitwell Elwin, John Taylor Coleridge, Rowland Edmund Prothero Ernle, William Macpherson, William Smith - 1873); Also: Central Asia (in Living Age), 1873, p 781.
  15. ^ Cf: “The Shia-posh tribe which now resides on the Hindukush Mountain is said to have descended from Kambojas” (See: The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 513; See also: Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval India, p 87).
  16. ^ Revue d'ethnographie also notes that the Kamoze, Hilar, Silar and Kamoje were the former clans of the Siaposh Kaffirs and they are linked to the Kambojas of Mahabharata (See: Revue d'ethnographie, 225. See link: [6]).
  17. ^ See: Mid-Decade World Conference on Women: Bengaladesh Perspective, 1980, (Published in 1981), Women Development Unit, Bhanudatta Misra, Dimbeswara Sarma.
  18. ^ A Treatise on Nepali Language, 1978, p 46, Gokul Sinha.
  19. ^ The Kamboja Janapada, January 1964, Purana, Vol VI, No 1, Dr V. S. Aggarwala, p 229; Jataka edited by Fausboll, Vol VI, p 210
  20. ^ Jataka, VI, p 110, Trans. E. B. Cowell; cf: Videvati XIV.5-6; cf: Herodotus I.140; Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1912, p 256, Dr G. A. Grierson
  21. ^ Nirukuta II/2; Patanjali's Mahaabhaa.sya is p. 9, in Vol. 1 Kielhorn's Edition
  22. ^ Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1912, p 256, Dr G. A. Grierson; Purana, Vol V, No 2, July 1963, p 256, Dr D. C. Sircar; Journal Asiatique, CCXLVI 1958, I, pp 47-48, E. Benveniste; The Afghans (Peoples of Asia), 2001, p 127, also Index, W. J. Vogelsang and Willem Vogelsang; Also Fraser 1979; The Cambridge Ancient History: Volume 4, Persia, Greece and the Western Mediterranean, (c.525 to 479 BC), Volume 4, 1988, p 199, John Boardman, N. G. L. Hammond, D. M. Lewis, and M. Ostwald; cf Early Eastern Iran and the Atharvaveda, Persica-9, 1980, fn 81, p 114, Dr Michael Witzel who however, locates the Kambojas in Archosia and Kandhahar
  23. ^ Bharatiya Itihaas Ki Rup Rekha, p 229-231, Dr Jaychandra Vidyalankar; Bhartrya Itihaas ki Mimansa, p 229-301, Dr J. C. Vidyalankar; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 217, 221, Dr J. L. Kamboj
  24. ^ According to other source, Buddhaghosa belonged to second century AD (See: Freedom, Progress and Society: Essays in honour of Prof K. Satchidananda Murty, 1966, p 109, B. Subramanian, K. Satchidananda).
  25. ^ Quoted in: Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1940, p 256, by India Asiatic Society (Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal.
  26. ^ See also: Foreign Elements in Ancient Indian Society, 2nd Century BC to 7th Century AD, 1979, p 16, Dr Uma Prasad Thapliyal; Studies in Indian History and Civilization, 1962, p 351, Dr Buddha Prakash; Cultural Heritage of India, p 625, Dr Debala Mitra; Indological Studies, 1950, p 78, Dr Bimala Churn Law.
  27. ^ Inscriptions of A�soka: Translation and Glossary, 1990, p 84, Beni Madhab Barua, Binayendra Nath Chaudhury.
  28. ^ Cf: The Śikh Gurus and the Śikh Society: A Study in Social Analysis, 1975, p 139, Niharranjan Ray.
  29. ^ This view is held by scholars like C. Lassen, S. Levi, M. Witzel, J. Charpentier, La Valle Poussin, A. Hoffman, A. B. Keith, A. A. Macdonnel, G. K. Nariman, E. Kuhn, H. W. Bellow, A. D. Pusalkar, S. Sen, D. R. Bhandarker and numerous others; See also: An Enquiry into the Ethnography of Afghanistan H. W. Bellow; also see: Sectarianism and Ethnic Violence in Afghanistan, Musa Khan Jalza
  30. ^ H. W. Bellow writes: "Darius succeeded, about 521 BC to the empire founded by Cyrus (Kurush), and enlarged and consolidated by his son and successor Cambyses (Kambojia, Kambohji). Cyrus, whose mother was called Mandane (Mandana; perhaps a princess of the Mandan tribe), and said to be a Mede, and whose father was called Cambyses (Kambohji; probably a chieftain of the Kamboh tribe) having reduced the Medes and conquered the kingdom of Croesus the Lydian (Lùdi), thereby became master of all the territory extending from the Indus to the Hellespont". — (An enquiry into the Ethnography of Afghanistan H. W. Bellow; See also: Sectarianism and Ethnic Violence in Afghanistan, Musa Khan Jalzai).
  31. ^ Cf: “Historians tend to believe Kambojas were in fact an Iranian tribe. (Old Iranian and old Sanskrit are very close languages. All these people called themselves Aryan, from which comes the name Iran). Panini, the Indian genius of grammar, observed (Panini's Grammar, IV, 1, 175.) that the word Kamboja meant at the same time the tribe and its king. Later historians identified the same word in the name of several great Persian kings, Cambyse (Greek version) or Kambujiya (in Persian) (See: La Valle Poussin, L'Inde aux temps des Maurya, p. 15 and 40.). Cambyse the Second is famous for his conquest of Egypt (525 B.C.) and the havoc he wrought upon this country (ON SOME CAMBODIAN WORDS, Serge Thion, [7]).
  32. ^ James Hope Moulton writes: “The names Kuru and Kamboja are of disputed etymology, but there is no reason whatever to doubt their being Aryan. I do not think there has been any suggestion more attractive than that made long ago by Spiegel (Altpers. Keilinsch.'-, 96) that they attach themselves to Sanskrit Kura and Kamboja, originally Aryan heroes of the fable, whose names were naturally revived in a royal house. Spiegel thinks that the myths about Cyrus may have originated in confusion between the historical and the mythical heroes. (Kamboja is a geographical name, and so is Kuru often: hence their appearance in Iranian similarly to-day as Kur and Kamoj". (Early Zoroastrianism, 2005, Page 45, James Hope Moulton - Kessinger Publishing).
  33. ^ Dr Chandra Chakraverty writes: "The Achaemenids were Kamboja-Kuru Scythian people on the base of Parsa ('Khatti-Puru') tribe. It was a marvelous racial blend and their culture was a similar good synthesis...."(See: The Racial History of India, 1944, p 225, Chandra Chakraberty)
  34. ^ Dr Ranajit Pal: " Toynbee wrote that the Achaemenian universal state belonged also to the Hinduis, the Pathavis etc. - the Indian Kurus and Kambojas were linked with Achaemenian history – Kurush (Cyrus) was a Kuru. (Also See: C. Eliot, Hinduism and Buddhism,, part III, pp .652, 654, 449) ”.
  35. ^ Dr Michael Witzel wrote in one of his research articles: "The Old Persian -s- (as in < asa 'horse') <*śś <śv <c'v <Indo-European k'w, shares the development of Indo-Iranian c'v > śś with Saka -śś-, while the rest of Iranian has -sp- (aspa) and Vedic has -śv- (Aśva). This feature and others (cf. further grammatical features in Witzel 1989, Ch 10) may point to an ultimately north-eastern (Bactria?) rather than north-western (Urartu/Median) origin of the Old Persian and thus to a track of immigration from the North-east via Media to the Persis, somewhat like Nichols' (1997-98) 'southern trajectory'. A North-eastern origin would be close to the location of the Vedic Parśu".
    COMMENT: Dr Michael Witzel (Harvard University) seems to convey that the Persians may have migrated to Persipolis from Balkh or Bactria in remote antiquity. This is quite a valid and scientific reasoning as the above extract from Dr Michael Witzel seems to show. This shows that the Parsa Achaemenids may have off-shot from the Kambojas in remote antiquity. The remote connection of the Achaemenids to the Kambojas and Kurus is indeed reflected in the royal name Kuru and Kambujiya/Kambaujiya which several of the great monarchs of the Achamenean line of rulers had adopted. Seeing close connections of the Kambojas (Parama-Kambojas), the Madras (Bahlika-Madras or Uttaramadras) and the Kurus (Uttarakurus) which tribes were all located in/around Oxus in Central Asia in remote antiquity, it can be thought that the Kurus, the Kambojas and the Parśus were a related people.
  36. ^ Cf: "Kambujiya Kambujiyam, Kabujiya, Cambyse. This is the true vernacular orthography of name which was written Kambyses by the Greeks and Kauvays in Zend ……From the name of a king Kambyses was derived the geographical title of Kamboja (Sanskrit), which is retained to present days in the Kamoj of Cafferstan……The Persian historians do not seem to be aware of the name Kabus, which was born by the Dilemite sovereigns, is the same with the Kaus of Romance; yet the more ancient form of Kaubus or kabuj for latter name, renders the identification also most certain. The Georgians, even to the present day, name the hero of romance Kapus still retaining the labial which has merged in the Persian…." (See: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Published 1990, p 97, Cambridge University, Press for the Royal Asiatic Society [etc.], By Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland).
  37. ^ D. D. Kosambi Commemoration Volume, 1977, p 287, Damodar Dharmanand Kosambi, Lallanji Gopal, Jai Prakash Singh, Nisar Ahmed, Dipak Malik, Banaras Hindu University, Dept. of Ancient Indian History, Culture & Archaeology, Banaras Hindu University; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 139 seqq, Kirpal Singh; See also: These Kamboja People, 1979, p 162 seqq.
  38. ^ See Mahabharata verses (12/201/40), (6/11/63-64), 5/5/15, 5/159/20 etc; Also Kirfels text of Uttarapatha countries of Bhuvankosha; See: Brahama Purana 27/44-53, Vayu Purana 45/115; Brahmanda Purana 12/16-46; Vamana Purana 13/37 etc
  39. ^ Ashoka’s Rock Edicts, V and XIII etc
  40. ^ Proceedings and Transactions of the ... All-India Oriental Conference, 1930, p 118; cf: Linguistic Survey of India, Vol X, pp 455-56, Dr G. A. Grierson; cf: History and Archeology of India's Contacts with Other Countries from the ... , 1976, p 152, Dr Shashi P. Asthana - Social Science.
  41. ^ Linguistic Survey of India, X, p. 456
  42. ^ Mahabharata 2/27/23-25
  43. ^ Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, History - 2000, p 99,(Editors) Richard J.A. Talbert.
  44. ^ Geography 6.18.3; See map in McCrindle, p 8.
  45. ^ For Tambyzoi = Kamboja, see refs: Indian Antiquary, 1923, p 54; Pre Aryan and Pre Dravidian in India, 1993, p 122, Dr Sylvain Lévi, Dr Jean Przyluski, Jules Bloch, Asian Educational Services; Cities and Civilization, 1962, p 172, Govind Sadashiv Ghurye; Problems of Ancient India, 2000, p 1, K. D. Sethna; Asiatic Society, Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1956, p 37; Purana, Vol VI, No 2, January 1964, pp 207-208; Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1956, p 88, Asiatic Society (Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal); Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p 165, Dr M. R. Singh; Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, 2000, p 99, edited by Richard J.A. Talbert - History; Neuro-ophthalmology, 2005, p 99 Leonard A. Levin, Anthony C. Arnold; Purana-vimar'sucika -: Bibliography of Articles on Puranas, 1985, p 133, P. G. Lalye.
  46. ^ For Ambautai = Kamboja, see Refs: Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies, Vol. 5,1999, issue 1 (September), Dr. M. Witzel; Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History, 2005, p 257, Laurie L. Patton, Edwin Bryant; The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: : Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity, 1995, p 326, George Erdosy; Linguistic Aspects of the Aryan non-invasion theory, Part I, Dr. Koenraad Elst, See Link: [8]; The official pro-invasionist argument at last, A review of the Aryan invasion arguments in J. Bronkhorst and M.M. Deshpande: Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia, Dr. Koenraad Elst, See link: [9].
  47. ^ Geography 6.18.3;Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, p 199.
  48. ^ See: Political and Social Movements in Ancient Panjab (from the Vedic Age Upto [sic] the Maurya Period) – 1964, p 125-128, Dr Buddha Prakash
  49. ^ Paradise of Gods – 1966, p 323-24, Qamarud Din Ahmed.
  50. ^ Strabo Geog., 11.14.4
  51. ^ Strabo Geog., 11.4.5; cf. 11.3.5; see also Fabricius, pp. 146, 160, and map; Trever, p. 113 and map
  52. ^ A. Herrmann, in Pauly-Wissowa, X/2, col. 1810, s.v. Kambysene.
  53. ^ The Persian Empire' Studies in Geography and Ethnography of the Ancient Near East, Ernst Herzfeld, ed. G. Walser, Wiesbaden, 1968, esp. pp. 344-46); [10]
  54. ^ Literary History of Ancient India in Relation to Its Racial and Linguistic Affiliations – 1950, p 149, 165, Chandra Chakraberty.
  55. ^ op cit, pp 37, 149, Dr C. Chakravarty.
  56. ^ op cit, pp 32-33, Dr C. Chakravarty; The Racial History of India, 1944, p 225, Chandra Chakraberty: e.g: "The Achaemenids were Kamboja-Kuru Scythian people on the base of Parsa ('Khatti-Puru') tribe. It was a marvelous racial blend and their culture was a similar good synthesis...."; See also: Paradise of Gods – 1966, p 330, Qamarud Din Ahmed: e.g: “It seems therefore, that the Achaemenidae were mixed with Saka Kuru-Kamboja with the Alpine base Khatti-Purus" (i.e. Parsa-Xsayatia).
  57. ^ op cit, pp 37, 149, 165, Dr C. Chakravarty.
  58. ^ op cit, p 165, Dr C. Chakravarty.
  59. ^ op cit, p 165, Dr C. Chakravarty; Cf also: History of Origin of Some Clans in India, with Special Reference to Jats, 1992, p 153, Mangal Sen Jindal.
  60. ^ Ashtadhyayi, 4.1.168-175
  61. ^ Harivamsa 14.19
  62. ^ Harivamsa, 14.17
  63. ^ Vayu Purana: v 88.127-43.
  64. ^ Cultural History from Vayu Purana, 1973, p 27, fn 185, Reprint of 1946 Edition, published by Deccan College Post Graduate Research Institute, Poona
  65. ^ Foreign Elements in Ancient Indian Society, 2nd Century BC to 7th Century AD - 1979, p 125, Uma Prasad Thapliyal.
  66. ^ Manusmriti verses X.43-44
  67. ^ MBH 13.33.31-32
  68. ^ Harivamsa 14.1-19
  69. ^ Arthashastra 11.1.04
  70. ^ MBH 12.166.1-81
  71. ^
    Sanskrit:
    Dhundhumarachcha Kambojo Muchukundastato.alabhat
    MuchukundanMaruttashcha Maruttadapi Raivatah
    (MBH 12.166.77-78)
  72. ^ BHagavata Purana 2.7.35
  73. ^ Kalika Puranna 20/40
  74. ^ Brahmanda Purana, 3.41.36; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 19, Dr J. L. Kamboj; Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 15, S. Kirpal Singh
  75. ^ ete Durvarana nama Kambojah (=Kamboja warriors, difficult to be resisted like wild elephants), Mahabharata 7.112.43; The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 124.
  76. ^ Journal of the American Oriental Society - P 295, American Oriental Society.
  77. ^ Kambojasainyan vidravya durjayam yudhi bharata.
  78. ^ Ibid.; The Social and Military Position of the Ruling Caste in Ancient India, as Represented by the Sanskrit Epic, Edward W. Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 13, 1889 (1889), pp. 57-376.
  79. ^ ibid.; Mahabharata 7.112.43-45; mundanetan ....Kambojan.eva... MBH 7.119.23.
  80. ^ Ashva.yuddha.kushalah: Mahabharata 7.7.14; Vishnudharmotra Purana, Part II, Chapter 118; Post Gupta Polity (AD 500-700): A Study of the Growth of Feudal Elements and Rural Administration 1972, p 136, Ganesh Prasad Sinha; Wisdom in the Puranas 1969, p 64, prof Sen Sarma etc.
  81. ^ tikshnai.rashivishopamah: Mahabharata 7.112.48-49.
  82. ^ tigmavega.praharinam.
  83. ^ samana.mrityavo.
  84. ^ Kambojah Yama vaishravan.opamah: MBH 7,23.40-42.
  85. ^ damshitah krurakarmanah Kamboja yuddhadurmadah i.e. lip-biting, hardy and war-intoxicated Kambojas: Mahabarata 7.119.26-28; Traditional History of India: A Digest – 1960, p 136, Govinda Krishna Pillai.
  86. ^ Paraskara Gryya-sutram verse 2.1.2; Commentary: Pt Harihar.
  87. ^ Vamsa Brahmana verse 1.18-19.
  88. ^
    Sanskrit:
    ye tvete rathino rajandrishyante kanchanadhvajah |
    ete durvarana nama Kamboja yadi te shrutah || 43 ||
    shurashcha kritavidyashcha dhanurvede cha nishthitah |
    sa.nhatashcha bhrisha.n hyete anyonyasya hitaishinah || 44 ||
    akshauhinyashcha sa.nrabdha dhartarahhtrasya bharata. |
    (Mahabharata 7.12.43-44)
    Translation:
    "Those other car-warriors with golden standards, O king, whom you see, and who, like the wild elephants are difficult of being resisted, they are called the Kambojas. They are brave, a learned people and are firmly devoted to the science of weapons. Desiring one another's welfare, they are all highly united and mutually cooperative. They constitute a full Akshauhini of wrathful warriors".
  89. ^ Hindu World, Vol I, Benjamin Walker, p. 520.
  90. ^ History & Culture of Indian People, The Vedic Age, Dr A. D. Pusalkar, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr K. D. Munshi, 1952, pp 259-260; cf: Location of Kamboja, Purana, Vol VI No1, Jan 1964 pp 212-213; Problems of Ancient India, 2000, p 224, K. D. Sethna.
  91. ^ India's Contribution to World and Culture, 1970, p 216, Veveka Nanda, Lokesh Chandra.
  92. ^ Journal of American Oriental society, 1889, p 257, American Oriental Society; Mahabharata 10.18.13.
  93. ^ :Prakrit
    jaha se Kamboyanam aiiyne kanthai siya |
    assai javeyan pavre ayam havayi bahuassuye ||
    (Uttaradhyana Sutra XI.17 20).
  94. ^ “....And such a monk practising the rigours of an ascetic for the sake of a fuller and more perfect life here and here-after-is superior to all others like a trained 'Kamboja steed' whom no noise frightens, Iike a strong irresistible elephant, like a strong bull and a proud lion ". (See ref: Jivaraja Jaina Granthmala, No. 20, JAINA VIEW OF LIFE: BY T. G. Kalghati, M.A., Ph.D. Reader in Philosophy, Karnatak University, and Principal, Karnatak Arts College, Dharwar General Editor Dr. A. N. Upadhya & Dr. H. L. Jain and Pt. Kailaschand Shastri Published by LAL CHAND HIRACHAND DOSHI Jaina Sanskriti Samraksaka Sangha, Sholapur. First Edition 1969, Second Edition 1984 [11]).
  95. ^ MBH 6/90/3-4
  96. ^
    Tatah Kambojamukhyanam nadijana.n cha vasjinam |
    Arattanam mahijana.n sindhujana.n cha sarvashah || 3 ||
    vanayujana.n shubhrana.n tatha parvatavasinam |
    ye chapare tittiraja javana vatara.nhasah || 4 ||
    (MBH 6/90/3-4)
  97. ^ verse 1/6/22
  98. ^ Arthashastra 2.30.32-34
  99. ^ Brahmanda Purana II,2.16.16
  100. ^ Manasollasa 4.4.715-30
  101. ^ Raguvamsha 4/70
  102. ^ Ancient India, p 236, Dr S. K. Aiyangar; cf: ”The world being trodden to dust with the troops of his Kambhoja horses having filled the space with the groups of his victorious standards an unequalled thunderbolt weapon in splitting the great rock, the Рапdуа king " (Mysore Inscriptions, 1983, p 263, B. Lewis (Benjamin Lewis) Rice).
  103. ^ Verse twelve of the third Asama-patra (1185 AD) reads:
    Kambojavajivrajavahnendryantabhavad vallabha deva aye |
    (Kielhorn, F. (ed) Epigraphia Indica, Vol V, 1898-99, pp 184, 187)
  104. ^ Mahabharata, 12/101/5
  105. ^ Vishnudharmotra Purana attests: "The soldiers of Deccan (Daksinatya) are knowledgeable or efficient in Khadga fight, the people of Vankala are expert in archery, the hill people are at-ease in stone or sling fight (pasana-yudha), the people of Anga, Vanga and Kalinga are expert in fighting from elephants, the Kambojans, Gandharans are expert in fighting from horse (or as cavalrymen)...” (Vishnudharmotri Purana, Kh. II, Chapter 118).
  106. ^ Military Wisdom in the Puranas, 1969, p 64, Prof Sen Sarma; See also: Post-Gupta Polity (A.D. 500-750): A Study of the Growth of Feudal Elements and Rural Administration - 1972, p 136, Ganesh Prasad Sinha.
  107. ^ Post-Gupta Polity (A.D. 500-750): A Study of the Growth of Feudal Elements and Rural Administration, 1972, p 136, Ganesh Prasad Sinha.
  108. ^ MBH, 7/7/14
  109. ^ Hindu Polity, Part I & II, 1978, pp 121, 140; Dr K. P. Jayswal.
  110. ^ Historie du Bouddhisme Indien, p 110, E. Lamotte; See also: History of Indian Buddhism: From the Origins to the Saka Era, 1988, p 100 - History -.
  111. ^ See also: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 133, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee; History of Panjab, Vol I, Publication Bureau, Panjabi University, Patiala, (Editors) Dr Fauja Singh, Dr L. M. Joshi; History of Poros, 1967, p 89, Dr Buddha Prakash.
  112. ^ The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 105-06, 129-30, Kirpal Singh.
  113. ^ History of Porus, pp 12, 38, Dr Buddha Parkash; Raja Poros, 1990, Publication Buareau, Punjabi University, Patiala; History of Panjab, Vol I, (Editors): Dr Fauja Singh, Dr L. M. Josh, Publication Bureau, Panjabi University, Patiala.
  114. ^ Ancient Kamboja, People and country, 1981, pp 271-72, 278, Dr J. L. Kamboj; These Kamboj People, 1979, pp 119, 192, K. S. Dardi.
  115. ^ East and West, 1950, pp 28, 149/158, Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo, Editor, Prof Giuseppe Tucci, Co-editors Prof Mario Bussagli, Prof Lionello Lanciotti. Dr J. W. McCrindle, Dr Romila Thapar, Dr R. C. Majumdar etc also think that Ashvakas were Kamboja people.
  116. ^ Megasthenes and Arrian, p 180; Alexander's Invasion of India, p 38; J. W. McCrindle; Geographical Data in Early Puranas, A Critical Study, 1972, p 179 Dr M. R. Singh; Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, Vol-I, 1966, p 243, William Smith, Phillip Smith; Geographical Dictionary of ancient and Medieval India, Dr Nundo Lal Dey; Itihaas Parvesh, 1948, Dr Jaychandra Vidyalankar; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 118, Dr Kamboj etc.
  117. ^ Panjab Past and Present, pp 9-10.
  118. ^ Balocistān: siyāsī kashmakash, muz̤mirāt va rujḥānāt, 1989, Munīr Aḥmad Marrī.
  119. ^ Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, 271-72, 278, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī.
  120. ^ تاريخ قوم كمبوه: جديد تحقيق كى روشنى ميں by چوهدرى محمد يوسف حسن, Chauhdrī Muḥammad Yūsuf Ḥasan, 1996 .
  121. ^ Diodorus in McCrindle, p 270
  122. ^ Writes Diodorus: "Undismayed by the greatness of their danger, the Ashvakayanas drew their ranks together in the form of a ring within which they placed their women and children to guard them on all sides against their assailants. As they had now become desperate, and by their audacity and feats of valour, made the conflict in which they closed, hot work for the enemy--great was the astonishment and alarm which the peril of the crisis had created. For, as the combatants were locked together fighting hand-to-hand, death and wounds were dealt round in every variety of form. While many were thus wounded, and not a few killed, the women, taking the arms of the fallen, fought side by side with their men. Accordingly, some of them who had supplied themselves with arms, did their best to cover their husbands with their shields, while the others, who were without arms, did much to impede the enemy by flinging themselves upon them and catching hold of their shields. The defenders, however, after fighting desperately along with their wives, were at last overpowered by superior numbers, and thus met a glorious death which they would have disdained to exchange for the life of dishonour" (See: Diodorus in McCrindle, p 269/270; History of Punjab, 1997, p 229, Editors: Dr Fauja Singh, Dr L. M. Joshi; Classical Accounts of India, p 112-113; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 283-286, Dr J. L. Kamboj; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 134, Kirpal Singh).
  123. ^ History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p 229.
  124. ^ History of Panjab, Vol I, p 226, Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, 247, Dr J. L. Kamboj; تاريخ قوم كمبوه: جديد تحقيق كى روشنى ميں , 1996, p 170, چوهدرى محمد يوسف حسن, Cauhdrī Muhammad Yusuf Hasan; Balocistān: Siyāsī Kashmakash, Muz̤mirāt va Rujḥānāt, 1980, Munīr Aḥmad Marrī; cf: A Historical Dictionary of Indian Food (Oxford India Paperbacks), p 91, K. T. Acharya February 2001.
  125. ^
    Sanskrit:
    asti tava Shaka-Yavana-Kirata-Kamboja-Parsika-Bahlika parbhutibhih
    Chankyamatipragrahittaishcha Chandergupta Parvateshvara
    balairudidhibhiriva parchalitsalilaih samantaad uprudham Kusumpurama
    (See: Mudrarakshasa II)
  126. ^ Hindu Polity, A Constitutional History of India in Hindu Times, 1978, p 117-121, Dr K. P. Jayswal; Ancient India, 2003, pp 839-40, Dr V. D. Mahajan; Northern India, p 42, Dr Mehta Vasisitha Dev Mohan etc
  127. ^ Sasanavamsa (P.T.S.), p. 49
  128. ^ For overlap of Kamboj/Kshatriya clan names, see Glossary of Tribes, II, p 444, fn. iii.
  129. ^ Jatt Tribes of Zira, p 138; Glossary of Tribes, II, p 444
  130. ^ This Kambhoja country of southern India as hinted at by Syed Siraj ul Hassanis, in all probability, is the colonial settlement of the migrating Kambojas, who in alliance with the Sakas, Pahlavas had entered into and spread into south-western and southern India prior to/around the beginning of Christian era.
  131. ^ See various refs like: Ancient Kamboja, people and the Country, 1981, Dr Kamboj, p 165, 248; Comprehensive History India, Vol II, p 118, Dr N. K. Shastri; Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Ounjab, Dr Buddha Parkash; Bharatbhumi aur unke Nivasi, Dr Jaychandra Vidyalankar, p 313-14; Political History of Ancient India, Dr Raychaudhury, 1996, p 133 etc.
  132. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1904, p 14, Bombay (India: State); Also see: Indo Aryans: Contribution Towards the Elucidation of their Ancient and Medieval History, 1881, p 186-188, Rajendra Lal Mitra
  133. ^ Panjab Castes, Denzil Ibbetson, p 148; Glossary of Tribes, H. A. Rose, p 443; Jatt Tribes of Zira, 1992, p 137, S. S. Gill; Tarikh-i-Kambohan, p 302, Chouhdri Wahhab ud-Din
  134. ^ Glossary of Tribes, p 443, H. A. Rose; Panjab Castes, p 148, Denzil Ibbetson; Sidhaant Kaumudi, 1966, p 22, Acharya R. R. Pandey
  135. ^ The Sikh, A. H. Bingley, p 57; Encyclopedia of Sikh Religion & Culture, 1997, p 24, Dr Gobind Singh Mansukhani, Romesh Chander Dogra
  136. ^ Glossary of Tribes, Vol II, p 443 fn, H. A. Rose.
  137. ^ The Tribes and Castes of the north-western Provinces and Oudh, Vol III, p 119, William Crooke.
  138. ^ See: Tribes of Ancient India, 1977, p 99, Dr Mamata Choudhury.
  139. ^ Encyclopedia of Indian Tribes 1995, p 89, Padamashri S. S. Sashi, S. S. Shahi.
  140. ^ The authors of both Tribes of Ancient India as well as The Encyclopedia of Indian Tribes also comment that in the Manu Samhita (10.43-44) as well in Mahabharata (13.33.20-21), the Kambojas, the ancestors of modern Kambohs, along with other tribes like the Yavanas, Sakas, Dravadas and Daradas etc have also been described as Kshatriyas, but were degraded to the state of sudras because of their non-observance of sacred rites and of their disrespect to the Brahmanas (p 90).
  141. ^ Rajasthan [district Gazetteers], Edition 2001, p 83, by Rajasthan (India).
  142. ^ Glossary of Castes, H. A. Rose, p 444; See entry at Kamboh, Punjabi Mahankosh, Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha etc
  143. ^ See: Glossary of Tribes and Castes of Punjab and North-west Frontier Province, Vol II, p 444, H. A. Rose.
  144. ^ The Tribes and Castes of the North-western Provinces and Oudh 1906, Page 119-120 William Crooke.
  145. ^ Völkerstämme am Brahmaputra und verwandtschaftliche Nachbarn, Reise-Ergebnisse und Studien – 1883, P 80, Philipp Wilhelm Adolf Bastian.
  146. ^ The Sikhs, p 57, A. H. Bingley.
  147. ^ Balocistān: siyāsī kashmakash, muzmirāt va rujhānāt 1989, p 1, Munīr Ahmad Marrī.
  148. ^ Supplementary Glossary, p 304, Sir H. M. Eliot.
  149. ^ In their writings Dr G. S. Mansukhani, R. C. Dogra, Dr J. L. Kamboj, K. S. Dardi etc. also refers to this tradition among the Muslim Kambojs claiming relationship with Royal lineage of Persia.
  150. ^ Also cf: The Indo-Aryans: Contribution Towards the Elucidation of their Ancient & Mediaeval History, 1881, p 188-89, Rajendra Lal Mitra.
  151. ^ Kai = Kaiyani = Kawi. Kawi means glory (Median: Farnah, Khotanese: Pharra)..."In Avesta, the xwarenah is called 'Kawyan', that is belonging to the Kawis or Kais. The Kais or Kawis were a partially a legendary dynasty of Eastern Iranian rulers. Xwarenah can be a creative power used by the gods or it can be a religious power. But generally it embodies the concept of good fortune. As a kind of fiery radiance, it would relate to the word for Sun (Xwar) (Old Iranian: Suvar) (hwar=to shine, xwar=to grasp)". (Malandra: 1983, p 88).
  152. ^ Kai or Kawi was a princely title in eastern Iran, or at least in the house of Zarathushtra's eventual patron, Vishtaspa. Zarathushtra attaches no pejorative connection to the title Kawi when it is applied to him. Zarathushtra eventually found a patron, the Kai/Kawi Vishtaspa, who not only espoused the new faith but protected it and helped propagate it by force of arms [12]
  153. ^ As the name Vishtaspa itself suggests, the Kai dynasty was apparently connected with the horses since Aspa in Iranian means horse. And so are the Kambojas---the Ashvakas or Aspasioi/Assakenoi of Arrian. Hence, the Kai ruler Vishtaspa might have been from the Ashvaka clan of the Kambojas
  154. ^ The Sikhs, p 57, A. H. Bingley.
  155. ^ Glossary of Tribes, Vol I, H. A. Rose
  156. ^ See: The composition of the Mughal nobility, Concise Encyclopedia Britannica, Online.
  157. ^ Some Aspects of Afghan Despotism in India, 1969, pp 23, 59, Iqtidar Husain Siddiqui.
  158. ^ The Mughal Nobility Under Aurangzeb, 2002, p 21, M. Athar Ali.
  159. ^ cf: Cultural History of India, 1975, p 261, A. L. Basham.
  160. ^ Ain-i-Akbari, Abu-al-Fazal, English Trans by H. Blochmann, Part I, p 614.
  161. ^ The Tribes and Castes of the north-western Provinces and Oudh, Vol III, p 120, William Crooke.
  162. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1899, p 14, Sir James MacNabb Campbell, Reginald Edward Enthoven [13].
  163. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, p 180, William Wilson Hunter.
  164. ^ Punjab gazetteers, 1883, bound in 10 vols., without title-leaves, 1883, p 159, Punjab.
  165. ^ Glossary of Tribes, p 443, H. A. Rose; Panjab Castes, p 148, Denzil Ibbetson
  166. ^ Arthashastra(11/1/04)
  167. ^ Brhat Samhita(5/35)
  168. ^ Report on the revision of settlement of the Pánipat tahsil & Karnál parganah of the Karnál..., 1883, pp 1, 89; India and World War 1, 1978, p 218, DeWitt C. Ellinwood, S. D. Pradhan; The Transformation of Sikh Society, 1974, p 132, Ethne K. Marenco; Gazetteer of the Montgomery District (Sahiwal), 1883-84, 1990, p 67, Punjab (Pakistan); Report on the Revised Land Revenue Settlement of the Montgomery District in the Mooltan Division, p 49, C. A. Roe and W. E. Purser; Green Revolution, 1974, p 35, Business & Economics etc.
  169. ^ Panjab Castes, 1974, p 149, D. Ibbetson; Glossary, II, pp 6 & 442, H. A. Rose.
  170. ^ Origin of names of Castes and Clans, 2004,Principal Sewa Singh.
  171. ^ Out of Ashes, p60, Dr M. S. Randhawa.
  172. ^ A. H. Bingley, H. A. Rose, William Crooke etc.
  173. ^ The Tribes and Castes of the north-western Provinces and Oudh, Vol III, 1896, p 119, William Crooke.
  174. ^ Cf: Babu Sambhuchandra Mukerjee remarks: "Generally, they are independent of Brahmin and Kshatriya influence, and do not pay deference to the leading castes" (See ref: Indo-Aryans: contributions towards the elucidation of their ancient and mediæval history, 1881, p 187, Rājendralāla Mitra, Mitra).
  175. ^ See: Indo Aryans: Contribution Towards the Elucidation of their Ancient and Mediaeval History, 1881, p 187, Rajendra Lal Mitra .
  176. ^ See also: Tribes and Castes of North-western Province and Oudh, p 118, William Crooke.
  177. ^ cf also: The Sikhs, p 57, A. H. Bingley; These Kamboj People, 1979, p 192, S Kirpal Singh Dardi; See also The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 219.
  178. ^ .
    Agar kahat ul rijal uftad, azeshan uns kamgiri
    Eke Afghan, doyam Kamboh soyam badzat Kashmiri |
    Ze Afghan hila bhi ayad, ze Kamboh kina bhi ayad,
    Ze Kashmiri nami ayad bajuz andoho dilgiri ||
    — (Roebuck’s Oriental Proverbs, Part I. p. 99).
  179. ^ However, Richard F. Burton (Arabian Nights, Vol. 10, pp. 178-219) presents this proverb in the following form:
    Agar kaht-i-mardurn uftad, az ín sih jins kam gírí;
    Eki Afghán, dovvum Sindí,
    {NOTE: For "Sindí" Roebuck (Oriental Proverbs Part i. p. 99) has Kunbu (Kumboh) a Panjábi peasant and others vary the saying ad libitum.}
    siyyum badjins-i-Kashmírí:
    Trans: Though of men there be famine yet shun these three — Afghan, Sindi and rascally Kashmiri. [14]. See also [FN#404] of [15]
  180. ^ In one version of it, the three rogues stated are the Sindis, the Jats and the Kashmiris......See: Lady Burton, Arabian Nights, Vol IV, p 92; Tribes and Castes of North-western Province and Oudh, p 120, William Crooke.
  181. ^ Ain-i-Akbari, Abu-al-Fazal, English Trans by H. Blochmann, Part I, p 614.
  182. ^ The Tribes and Castes of the north-western Provinces and Oudh, Vol III, p 120, William Crooke.
  183. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1899, p 14, Sir James MacNabb Campbell, Reginald Edward Enthoven .
  184. ^ Rajasthan [district Gazetteers], 2001, p 77, Rajasthan (India).
  185. ^ Glossaray of Tribes of Punjab and North-west Printier Province, H. A. Rose, p 444-445; Punjab Castes, Sir Denzil Charles Ibbetson, Language Deptt., Punjab, Edition 1976, p 201-202.
  186. ^ Rajasthan [district Gazetteers], 2001, p 77, by Rajasthan (India); These Kamboj People (Historical & Cultural Study), 1979, p 345; Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 358, Kirpal Singh.
  187. ^ cf also: Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 129, Dr J.L. Kamboj.
  188. ^ See also: Kamboj Itihaas, 1972, p 87-88, H. S. Thind.
  189. ^ See: Ref: The Ain-i-Akbari of Abul Fazl, Vol I, p 399, translated by Blochmann and Jarrett, Read under Shahbaz Khan.
  190. ^ Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals Part - II - P 126, Satish Chandra.
  191. ^ The Sikhs and the Wars by Reginald Holder From Panjab: Past & Present Vol IV, Part I, 1970, S. No 7, Edited by Dr Ganda Singh.
  192. ^ Cf: The Kamboh Sikhs are numerous in Kapurthala and they make very good soldiers, being of fine physique and very courageous (See Ref: The Handbook of the Fighting Races of India, 1899, p 82, P. D. Banerjee).
  193. ^ History of Origin of Some Clans in India, with Special Reference to Jats, 1992, p 149, Mangal Sen Jindal; Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 359, Kirpal Singh.
  194. ^ "They (Kambojas) were not only famous for their furs and skins embroidered with threads of gold, their woolen blankets, 'their wonderful horses and their beautiful women', but by the epic period, they became especially renowned as Vedic teachers and their homeland as a seat of Brahmanical learning" (See: Hindu World, Vol I, p 520, Prof Benjamin Walker).
  195. ^ See also: Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 228, Dr J. L. Kamboj; And also: Mahabharata 11.25.1-5.
  196. ^ Cf also: Kamboja was one of the sixteen countries in ancient India, noted for its beautiful women (See: A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms: With Sanskrit and English Equivalents and a Sanskrit-Pali...1987, p 195, author William Edward Soothill, Lewis Hodous); (See also: A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms: With Sanskrit and English Equivalents and a Sanskrit-Pali, 1995, p 195, Lewis Hodous - Reference); (and also: Entry Cam Bồ Quốc ( =Kamboja) in Buddhist Dictionary of Vietnamese-English[16]).
  197. ^ cf also: “One hundred (charming) Kamboj maidens, wearing jeweled earrings with circlets of gold upon their arms and adorned with rings and necklaces of the finest gold; one hundred elephants, snowy white, robust and broad-backed, adorned with gold and jewels, carrying their great trunks curved over their heads like plowshares, could not even begin to equal one sixteenth part of the value of one step of one circumambulation” (See: Buddhist Sanskrit Vinaya Text, Caitya-pradaksina-gatha
  198. ^ Stupa, Sacred Symbol of Enlightenment: See link: [17].
  199. ^ Mahabharata 7.23.43
  200. ^ See: Mahabharata 8.56.113-114; Mahabharata; MBH 7.92.72-76
  201. ^ Mahabharata 8/56/111
  202. ^ Mahabharata 8/56/110-114
  203. ^ Mahabharata 1/67/31
  204. ^ Ramayana 1/55/2
  205. ^ Markendeya Purana verse 57.35.
  206. ^ Markendeya 58.30-32
  207. ^ .
    nairrtyam dizi dezah Pahlava Kamboja Sindhu Sauvirah/
    hemagiri Sindhu Kalaka Raivataka surastra Badara Dravidah/
    — (Brhatsamhita 14/17-19).
    See also: India as Seen in the Brhatsamhita of Varahamihira, 1969, Dr A. M. Shastri, Reader in Ancient Indian History & Culture, Nagpur University
  208. ^ Ed. F. W. Thomas, pp 20-22.
  209. ^ Indian Historical Quarterly, XXVI-2, 1950, p 127
  210. ^ V. D. I.9.6.
  211. ^ Geographical. Data in Early Puranas, 1972, p 163, 206
  212. ^ .
    sorata gurjara kachcha-kamboja-gauda rukha:
    (Raajbilaas 1/122)
  213. ^ Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 127; Ancient Kamboja, People and Country, 1981, p 305.
  214. ^ Pulinda Ashmaka Jimuta Narrashtara nivasinah/ Carnata Kamboja Ghata dakshinapathvasinah// (Garuda Purana 1/15/13).
  215. ^ e.g: "The people of Pulinda, Ashmaka and Jimutanya, as well Kambhojas, Karnatas and Ghatas are Dakshinapathvasi (i.e live in southern quarter); the people of Amvasthas, Dravidias, Lattas, Kambojas, Strimukhas, Sakas and Anarthas (Anartas) are Nairritis (i.e live in south-west quarter)"...See Garuda Purana, Trans: Manmatha Nath Dutt, 1908, p 148.
  216. ^ Indian Historically Quarterly, 1963, p 127.
  217. ^ Ancient India, p 7, S. K. Aiyangar; Public Administration in Ancient India, p 56, P. N. Banerjee
  218. ^ Ancient India, III, pp 94, 125, Dr T. L. Shah
  219. ^ Sind, p 44, M. R. Lamrick.
  220. ^ This Kambhoja country of southern India as hinted at by Syed Siraj ul Hassanis, in all probability, is the colonial settlement of the migrating Kambojas, who in alliance with the Sakas, Pahlavas had entered into and spread into south-western and southern India prior to/around the beginning of Christian era.

Henry Walter Bellew MRCP (1834-1892) was an Indian-born British medical man and author. ... Mountstuart Elphinstone (1779 - November 20, 1859) was a Scottish statesman and historian, associated with the British government of India. ... Friedrich (von) Spiegel (July 11, 1820, Kitzingen - December 15, 1905, München) was a German orientalist. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (&#1607;&#1606;&#1583;&#1608;&#1705;&#1588; in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... The Medes were an Iranian people of Aryan origin who lived in the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran. ... Look up Kamboh in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... http://www. ... Croesus Croesus (IPA pronunciation: , CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/561 BC until his defeat by the Persians in about 547 BC. The English name Croesus come from the Latin transliteration of the Greek , in Arabic and Persian قارون, Qârun. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of İzmir and Manisa. ... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... http://www. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Aryan (/eərjən/ or /ɑːrjən/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (IPA ) was an ancient Gandharan grammarian (approximately 5th century BC, but estimates range from the 7th to the 3rd centuries) who is most famous for formulating the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology known as the . ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Kuru or Kurus may be: Kuru (kingdom), a powerful Indian kingdom during the Vedic period and later a republic during the Mahajanapada period Kuru Kingdom, a kingdom based on the historic Kuru kingdom in Indian epic literature Kuru (disease), neurological, and associated with New Guinea, the Fore, and cannibalism Kuru... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... . The new kuru&#351; coin Kuru&#351; are a Turkish currency subunit. ... Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical texts reveal that Uttarapatha was the name of northern division of Jambudvipa of ancient Indian traditions. ... Deccan College, Pune Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute is a post-graduate institute of Archeology and Linguistics in Pune, India. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... Map of the Mahajanapadas Earliest reference to Angas (अंग) occurs in Atharava Veda (V.22. ... Genera Calicalicus Schetba Vanga Falculea Artamella Leptopterus Cyanolanius Oriolia Euryceros Tylas Hypositta Xenopirostris The vangas are a group of little-known small to medium sized passerine birds restricted to Madagascar. ... Kalinga is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Manu Smriti or Laws of Manu, is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous conduct), written c. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ... Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ... Daradas were a people who lived north and north-east to the Kashmir valley. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... For other uses, see Clan (disambiguation). ...

See also

Kamboja or Kamvoja is a kingdom grouped among the western kingdoms in the epic Mahabharata. ... Kamboja (or Kambuja) is the name of an ancient Indo-Iranian tribe of Indo-European family, believed to be located originally in Pamirs and Badakshan in Central Asia. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Migration of Kambojas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4330 words)
The culture of Kambojas was modified as a result of their contacts, first with the Yavanas and later, it went further modification as a result of their contacts with the Sakas and Pahlavas etc (Dr D. Sircar, Dr J. Kamboj).
The Kambojas in/around west, south-west India are also attested from inscriptions of king Sahasiva Raya of Sangama Dynasty (1336-1478), kings Harihara and Deva Raya of Narasinga Dynasty (1496-1567), and from the references of king Vishnuvardhana of Hoiyasala Dynasty/Mysore (of 12th c CE).
King Kambu (Sanskrit Kamboj), the legendary patriarch of Kambuja (Kamboja) ruling family of Cambodia was, to all probability, a warrior/scholar Kamboja chieftain from Sinhala or else from Gujarat.
Kambojas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4776 words)
Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda.
The Kambojas still live as Kamboj and Kamboh in the greater Panjab, and as Kams/Kamoz and Katirs/Kamtoz of the Siyaposh tribe in the Nuristan province of Afghanistan.
There were Kamboja steeds in the cavalry of Pandya king Valabhadeva who is referred to as the proud possessor/rider of the Kamboja horses and elephants.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m