FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Kamboja

Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a Hindu country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. The country is listed as one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas or great nations in ancient Buddhist texts, and was located in the Uttarapatha in extreme north-west of the Indian sub-continent, contiguous to the kingdom of Gandhara. It initially included the Pamirs, Badakshan, and territories as far as the Zeravshan valley in the doab of Oxus/Jaxartes. It comprised eastern part of Bactria, modern Badakshan and what is known today as the Galcha speaking region of Central Asia. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x655, 35 KB) Summary This map of the Mahajanapadas was made by me. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ... http://www. ... Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical texts reveal that Uttarapatha was the name of northern division of Jambudvipa of ancient Indian traditions. ... A subcontinent is a large part of a continent. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... A photograph of Ismail Samani Peak (then known as Peak Communism) taken in 1989. ... Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... The Zeravshan or Zarafshan river, whilst smaller and less well-known than the two great rivers of Central Asia, the Oxus or Amu-Darya and the Jaxartes or Syr-Darya, is if anything more valuable as a source of irrigation in the region. ... A Doab, meaning two waters in Persian, is a term used in India and Pakistan for a tract of land between two confluent rivers. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


Later, some sections of the trans-Hindu Kush Kambojas moved to southern side of the Hindukush and planted colonies in Kunar, Swat and as far as Rajauri in Kashmir. The Kambojas are attested to have had Indian as well as Iranian affinities.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]. The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... Kunar province is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northeastern part of the country and on the border with Pakistan. ... PTDC Motel at Malam Jabba Ski Resort, Swat, NWFP, Pakistan. ... Rajauri is a town and a notified area committee in Rajauri district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...


Related Uses

  • Kamboja is also the Indonesian name for Cambodia.
  • Kamboja also refers to:
  1. The prince of the Kamboja Nation or Tribe [10].
  2. A descendant of the Kamboja Kshatriyas [11].
  3. A horse raised and bred in ancient Kamboja (also Kambojaka, Kamboji) [12].
  4. An elephant native to, or coming from, Kamboja (also Kambu) [13].
  5. Silver or gold native to, or coming from Kamboja (also Kambu).
  6. Name of a conch or shell native to Kamboja (also Kambu).
  7. Name of Supari or Punnag (Rottleria tinctoria) native to or coming from Kamboja [14].
  8. Name of Somavalak or Karanj native to or coming from Kamboja [15].
  9. Name of Ayurvedic herbal medicine Mashaparni and Hingparni, imported from Kamboja (also called Kamboji) [16].
  10. Name of an ancient Raaga/Raagini (musical mode) originated in Kamboja country (also called Kamboji, Kambhoji or Kambodi & Kambhodi). See Kambhoji
  11. A gold or silver bracelet, or bracelet in general (also Kambu).
  12. Name of a mountain located in ancient Kamboja (Afghanistan), famous for its Kambu or Kambuka silver[17][18][19][20][21][22]. Silver mines of Anderab, Wakhan and other locations in Badakshan were noted during Arabic rule [23]. Therefore, Kambu appears to be the name of a range of the Hindukush mountains in south-east Badakshan.
  13. Kamboji: the language of the ancient Kambojas.

The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... http://www. ... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ... Ayurveda (आयुर्वेद Sanskrit: ayu—life; veda—knowledge of) or ayurvedic medicine is a more than 2,000 year old comprehensive system of medicine based on a holistic approach rooted in Vedic culture. ... Evidence exists that the ancient Kambojas were lovers of music. ... Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: , arabi) is a member of a complexly defined ethnic group who identifies as such on the basis of one or more of either genealogical, political, or linguistic grounds. ...

Some Space/Time Variants of "Kamboja"

  • Kaampoja (as in Mahabharata).
  • Kaamboja (as in the Ramayana, Mahabharata and Vedic literature etc., hence Kaamboj). For few more variations of Kaamboja, see [5]
  • Kambhoja (Southern Indian texts, as in Kautiliya's Arthashastra, hence Kambhoj).
  • Kaambhoja (in Southern Indian versions of ancient Sanskrit texts, hence Kaambhoj).
  • Kumbhoja (same as Kambhoja; name of an ancient town in Maharashtra; also, the name of an ancient Kamboja sage referenced in some recensions of the Ramayana).
  • Camboja (common variant spellings).
  • Kambuja (as in dakshinatah Kambujaa.naam Vasisthaa.naam: See Paraskara Grhya-Sutram 2.1.23).
  • Kamvoja same as Kamboja.
  • Kamvuja same as Kambuja.
  • Kambuj (from Kambuja, like a Kamboj is from Kamboja).
  • Kaanboja (a variant of Kamboja; See Triya Chritra 217/verse 14 of Chritropakhyana of Dasam Granth; Hence Kaanboj. See also pages 21-23 of [6]).
  • Kanboj (variant of Kamboj).
  • Kanbuj (as in a coin: Kharal-putras Kanbuj Raspag: See Bharat ke Prachin Mudrank, by Swami Om Nand ji Sarasvati, 1973, Rohtak. Apparently Kanbuj is a variant of Kambuj/Kambuja, since m easily becomes n in Indo-Aryan languages, e.g Kambujiya = 'Kanbujiya).
  • Cambuja (Variant spellings of Kambuja).
  • Kamboza (As in the name of the Kamboza-thadi Palace of Bayintnaung, Myanmar).
  • Kamodza, (as in Kamodza-radza referenced in the tenth century Sanskrit-Tibetan Formulary )[24].
  • Kamoz, Caumoje, Camoje (Pushtu names for a clan of the Siah-Posh Kafirs of the Hindukush).
  • Kamtoz (also Kamtoj; Another Pushtu name for a Katir clan of the Siah-Posh Kafirs of the Hindukush). Said to be a variant of Kamboz).
  • Kambu, as the name of an Asura, said to be a descendant of Hiranyakasipu. He falls in the fifth line of his generation [25]
  • Kambu, as in the name of an Asura clan, in conflict with Vedic Aryans, as referenced in Markendeya Purana [26], Devi Mahatam [27].
  • Kambu, as in the name of a learned prince who ventured into Mekong valley, married a local maiden Mera and laid the foundation of Kambuja (Kamboja) empire in Indo China.
  • Kaaboja [28].
  • Kabojha or Kabojhiya or Kabhojika (In ancient Sinhalese cave inscriptions) [7].
  • Khamboja or Khaamboja (Sometimes) erroneous spellings of Kamboja or Kaamboja.
  • Khambhoja or Khaambhoja (erroneous spellings of Kambhoja or Kaambhoja, southern Indian version).
  • Khamboj (from Khamboja).
  • Kamboda, Kambhoda (alternative name for Kamboja or Kambhoja Raga; also Kambodi or Kambhodi).
  • Kambhoji (Southern Indian form of Kamboji).
  • Kambojaka or Kambojika (Buddhist texts). Native of or loyal to Kamboja. A Kamboja daughter or maiden [29].
  • Kambhojaka or Kambhojika (Southern Indian spellings of Kambojika or Kambojaka).
  • Kamboika, (from Kambojika== > Kamboyika== >Kamboika), Kamboi is the name of a "landlocked port" town in Gujarat. Tenth century Grant records of Chalukya rulers show it as Kamboika [30]. The name is said to be a corruption of Pali Kambojika or Kambojaka (see above).
  • Kapishi of Panini's Ashtadhyayi [31] (equivalent to Kamboja, as in the Ramayanamanjri by Pt Kshmendra of Kashmir.)
  • Kau-fu (equivalent to Kambu, the Kamboja of Hiun Tsang) [32].
  • Kieu-feou (name of Kamboja in the Chinese recension of Tathagata Grhya-Sutra (Ratnakutsangraha)).
  • Kipin, ancient Chinese name for Kapisa (Kai-pi-shi(h)) of Hiuen Tsang [33], Kapishi (q.v.) of Panini [34] which according to scholars, is an alternative name for Kamboja [35].
  • Kophene = Kamboja...the name of Kabol valley [36].
  • Kam-po-ce or Kam-po-ji (name of Kamboja in the Tibetan recension of Tathagata Grhya-Sutra (Ratnakutsangraha).
  • Kan-po-chih as in the writings of Chinese traveller Chou Ta-kuan (1296 A.D.)
  • Kampu-chih (ancient Burmese name for Kamboja.)
  • Kamuia, Kamuio [37]. See also: [8].
  • Kambocha or Kamboca[38].
  • Kambosh (as in the Chidambram inscriptions of Tamil-Nadu.)
  • Kaboa (a Kamboja) [39].
  • Kaboja (as in ancient Sinhalese and Malwa inscriptions) [40]
  • Kabusha (as in the Buddhist text Mahamayuri) [41]
  • Kabuj [42][43].
  • Kalbhoj (as in the name of prince Kalbhoj, eighth ruler of the Guhilot Dynasty and founder of the Mewar Dynasty of Rajasthan. Probably a variant of Kambhoj, since in Indo-Aryan languages, the consonant M can easily interchange with N and then L)[44].
  • Komdei (a Ptolemian name for Komuda dvipa (?) or Komed or Komdesh or Kamdesh (?); from Kambodesh (?), probably "Kambojdesh" [45]. Ptolemian Komdei is Kiumito or Kumito of Hiun Tsang and Kumed or Kumadh of the Muslim writers, Kiumiche of Wu'kong, Kumi of T'ang and Cambothi, Kambuson and Komedon of Greek writers. Al-Maqidisi in his book Al-Muqhni calls the people of this territory as Kumiji which apparently is equivalent to Sanskrit Kamboj. The root Kam of the Sanskrit name Kamboja is also reflected in the Kama valley, a region lying between the Khyber Pass and Jalalabad; in the place names like Kama-daka, Kamma-Shilman, Kama-bela of Kabol; in the Kamdesh or Kambrom, Kamich, Kama and Kamu & Kamatol of the Kunar and Bashgul valleys; and also in the vast expanses of region called Kazal-Kam and Kara-Kam lying on either side of the Oxus, north of Hindukush. The Ptolemian terms Kamoi and Komdei exactly also refer to the Trans-Hindukush territories which region is what Mahabharata [46] refers to as Parama Kamboja i.e a Kamboja lying beyond the Kamboja of Kabol valley )[47].
  • Kamma A medieval warrior community located in South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh with possible links to Kamboja-Pallava migration. See Kamma (caste).
  • Kamboya or Kamboy i.e Kambo (modern Kamboh; Shahbazgarhi Edicts of king Ashoka; also in Jain canon Uttaradhyana-Sutra 11/16.)
  • Kambay (or Cambay; Kambaet; Khambat; Khambayat; Khambavat; Khambavati--- the Kambaya/Kanbaya of the Arab geographers). According to many scholars, the name Cambay/Kambay (Khambat/Kambat) is also connected with the Kambojas and it is an Apbhransh of Sanskrit Kamboja [48].
  • Kamboi & Kamoi (as in some ancient Sikh writings, like those of Giani Gian Singh. cf Kamboy of Ashoka's Shabaazgarhi Edicts).
  • Kamboh or Kanboh (as in medieval Muslim writings)
  • Kambuh or Kanbuh (variants of Kamboh/Kanboh. In medieval Muslim writings).
  • Kambho (obviously from Kambhoj).
  • Kaubenj (in Arab Geography) [49]
  • Kumbho (same as Kambho, obviously from Kumbhoj).
  • Kumboh [50].
  • Kamo ("Ultra-prakrit/vulgate" form of Kamboj, used in the illiterate circles of Panjab).
  • Komoi (a Ptolemian name for a tribe north of Bactria/Badakshan in Central Asia. Perhaps from Kamboi, which may be an alternative of Kamboika / Kamboyika /Kambojika).
  • Tambyzoi: a Ptolemian name for a region and people on Oxus, in Bactria, north of Hindukush, said to be a poor transliteration of Sanskrit Kamboja (Dr. S Levi) [51]
  • Ambautai (from Kambautai), a Ptolemian transliteration for Kamboja, a people/region in Paropamisadae, south of Hindukush (Dr. M. Witzel) [52].
  • Kambojan (an adjectival use of Kamboja)
  • Sanskrit Kamboja appears as K.b.u.ji.i.y, Kabujiya or perhaps Kabaujiya/Kaboujiya and Kambujiya or perhaps Kambaujiya ( OR with -n- in place of -m- as Kanbujiya or Kanbaujiya) of Old Persian inscriptions, and Cambyses of Greek writings. The same name appears as C-n-b-n-z-y in Aramaic, Kambuzia in Assyrian, Kambythet in Egyptian, Kam-bu-zi-ya or Ka-am-bu-zi-ya in Akkadian, Kan-bu-zi-ia or Kan-bu-si-ya in Elamite, and Kanpuziya in Susian language [53]. It appears to have been quite a popular name among the ancient Iranians, of whom the ancient Kambojas are said to have formed a clan [54] [55].

For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ... The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kautilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... Siah-Posh Kafirs (or dark robed Kafirs) constitute the major division of the Kafirs of Hindukush. ... This article is about an Islamic term. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... Katir at Naqs-e rajab. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... Indochina, or French Indochina, was a federation of French colonies and protectorates in south-east Asia, part of the French colonial empire. ... Sinhalese or Sinhala (සිංහල, ISO 15919: , IPA: [], earlier referred to as Singhalese) is the mother tongue of the Sinhalese, the largest ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Pali (IAST: ) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (IPA ) was an ancient Gandharan grammarian (approximately 5th century BC, but estimates range from the 7th to the 3rd centuries) who is most famous for formulating the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology known as the . ... The Ashtadhyayi (Ạṣtādhyāyī, meaning eight chapters) is the earliest known grammar of Sanskrit, and one of the first works on descriptive linguistics, generative linguistics, or linguistics altogether. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Xuanzang, Dunhuang cave, 9th century. ... ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (IPA ) was an ancient Gandharan grammarian (approximately 5th century BC, but estimates range from the 7th to the 3rd centuries) who is most famous for formulating the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology known as the . ... Kabul (Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... , Tamil Nadu (Tamil: தமிழ்நாடு   English: , IPA: ) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Sinhalese or Sinhala (සිංහල, ISO 15919: , IPA: [], earlier referred to as Singhalese) is the mother tongue of the Sinhalese, the largest ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Mewar is a region of south-central Rajasthan state in western India. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... Xuanzang, Dunhuang cave, 9th century. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ... Mountain passes of Afghanistan The Khyber Pass, also referred to as The Khyber (also spelt the Khaiber Pass or Khaybar Pass) (Urdu: درہ خیبر) (el. ... For the city in Kyrgyzstan, see Jalal-Abad. ... Kabul (Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ... Kunar province is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northeastern part of the country and on the border with Pakistan. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ... Kamma (Telugu:కమ్మ) is a caste or social group found largely in the Southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu and Karnataka. ... Look up Kamboh in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An edict is an announcement of a law, often associated with monarchism. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: , arabi) is a member of a complexly defined ethnic group who identifies as such on the basis of one or more of either genealogical, political, or linguistic grounds. ... Cambay, also known as Khambhat, is a town in Gujarat state, India. ... Cambay, also known as Khambhat, is a town in Gujarat state, India. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... An edict is an announcement of a law, often associated with monarchism. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: , arabi) is a member of a complexly defined ethnic group who identifies as such on the basis of one or more of either genealogical, political, or linguistic grounds. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... http://www. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... The Paropamisadae is an ancient area of the Hindu-Kush, in the Eastern part of Afghanistan. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Cambyses (or Cambese) is the Greek version of the name of several monarchs of Achaemenid line of ancient Persia. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken in the ancient Elamite Empire. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ...

References

  1. ^ Vedic Index I, p 138, Dr Macdonnel, Dr Keith.
  2. ^ Ethnology of Ancient Bhārata – 1970, p 107, Dr Ram Chandra Jain.
  3. ^ The Journal of Asian Studies – 1956, p 384, Association for Asian Studies, Far Eastern Association (U.S.).
  4. ^ Balocistān: siyāsī kashmakash, muz̤mirāt va rujḥānāt – 1989, p 2, Munīr Aḥmad Marrī.
  5. ^ India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī – 1953, p 49, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala.
  6. ^ Afghanistan, p 58, W. K. Fraser, M. C. Gillet.
  7. ^ Afghanistan, its People, its Society, its Culture, Donal N. Wilber, 1962, p 80, 311 etc.
  8. ^ Iran, 1956, p 53, Herbert Harold Vreeland, Clifford R. Barnett.
  9. ^ Geogramatical Dictionary of Sanskrit (Vedic): 700 Complete Revisions of the Best Books..., 1953, p 49, Dr Peggy Melcher, Dr A. A. McDonnel, Dr Surya Kanta, Dr Jacob Wackmangel, Dr V. S. Agarwala.
  10. ^ Panini, IV.1.168-175.
  11. ^ Panini, IV.1.168-175.
  12. ^ See: Halayudh Kosha.
  13. ^ See: Nanaratha.manjari-421.
  14. ^ see: Shabd.rattan.samanyavakosha.
  15. ^ See: Shabd.rattan.samanyavakosha
  16. ^ See: Shabd.rattan.samanyavakosha
  17. ^ Kautiliya Arthashastra, 02.13.10.
  18. ^ Sixty years of the Numismatic Society of India, 1910-1971, History and Presidential Address, Numismatic Society of India, 1973.
  19. ^ Tribes Coins & Study, 1972, p 274, Dr Mahesh Kumar Sharma, University of Magadha.
  20. ^ The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 76, K. S. Dardi.
  21. ^ Kushāna Silver Coinage, 1982, p 61, Bratindra Nath Mukherjee.
  22. ^ Technology of Indian Coinage, 1988, p 72, P. K. D. Lee, Bratindra Nath Mukherjee, Indian Museum.
  23. ^ Geographical and Economical Studies in the Mahabharata, Upayana Parava, Journal of U.P. Historical Research Society, Vol XVI, Part II, p 46, Dr. Moti Chandra.
  24. ^ Editor J. Hacklin, Formulair sanskrit-tibetain du xe siecle, 59, 1.16; See also Ancient Kamboja in Iran and Islam, p 66, Dr H. W. Bailey.
  25. ^ The Geographical Information in the Skanda-purāṇa: Based on the Tīrtha-yātrā Portion, 1979, p 184, Umakant Thakur, Umesh Jha.
  26. ^ Markendeya Purana 8.1-6.
  27. ^ Devi Mahatama 5.28.1-12.
  28. ^ (See Luders' Inscriptions No 176, 472. It references one Kamboja Buddhist Bhikshu from Nandinagar making presents for a Buddhist Stupa).
  29. ^ E.g: "A lovely girl in the flower of youth, robed in yellow, 'Kambhojika' (=Kambojika) of the beautiful hair, searching everywhere in the forest with her maids, the thought of her lover makes her weep with tenderness" (ref: Siva.tattva.ratnakara v. 6.8.99). See link: [1].
  30. ^ See Indian Antiquary VI, 1877, pp 191-92
  31. ^ Sutra iv-2-99 of Ashtadhyayi
  32. ^ According to Dr J. W. McCrindle, Dr. R. K. Mukerjee, Dr. B. C. Law and others
  33. ^ Si-yu-ki
  34. ^ Sutra iv-2-99 of Ashtadhyayi
  35. ^ See: Epigraphia Indica, Vol XIX-1, p 11, Indian Antiquary, 203, 1923, p 52; Indian historical quarterly, Vol XXV-3, 1949, pp 190-92; The Indian Historical Quarterly - Page 291 1963; Pre Aryan and Pre Dravidian in India, 1993, p 120, Sylvain Lévi, Jean Przyluski, Jules Bloch, Asian Educational Services; Kathakasankalanam: amskrtagranthebhyah sangrahītani Kathhakabrahmana, 1981, P xii, Surya Kanta etc. According to History and Culture of Indian People Vol II (p 122), Vol III (p 617) also, Kapisha is equivalent to Kamboja. Other scholars like Dr W. W. Taran, Dr Moti Chandra, Dr S. Chattopadhyaya, W. K. Fraser Tytler, M. C. Gillett, Donald N. Wilber, Bombay Gazetteer and others also hold that Kapisa and Kamboja are identical (See also: Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country,1981, pp 44-46, Dr J. L. Kamboj).
  36. ^ Gazetteer of Bombay Presidency, Bombay, India, 1904, p 500, fn 6; Journal Asiatique, II, 1883, 3, n 3, Specht.
  37. ^ (See Inscriptions A2, A3, E1/E' of Mathura Lion Capital).
  38. ^ (as in Ashoka's Rock Edicts of Bhubneshwar, Orissa).
  39. ^ Chilas: The City of Nanga Parvat (Dyamar), 1983, pp 120,247, Ahmad Hasan Dan.i
  40. ^ See: Reports, 1880, p 58, Archaeological Survey of India, India Archaeological Survey; Buddhism in Malwa, 1976, p 68, S. M. Pahadiya; also in Luders Inscriptions. See: The Indian Historical Quarterly , 1963, p 127; Sinhalayo, 1970, p 14, S. (Senarat) Paranavitana); Ships and the Development of Maritime Technology in the Indian Ocean, 2002, p 108, David Parkin, Ruth Barnes
  41. ^ See also Indian Antiquaries, 52, part 2, 1923, S Levi.
  42. ^ The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 1831, p 500, Royal Geographical Society (Great Britain), Norton Shaw, Hume Greenfield, Henry Walter Bates.
  43. ^ Also See Triya Chritra 217/verse 14 of the Charitropakhyana of Dasam Granth Sahib. Dasam Granth attests the term Kabuj as well as Kaanboj.
  44. ^ Kalbhoj vs Kambhoj (or Kamboj). The name Kalbhoj appears to be a corruption/variant of Sanskrit Kambhoj.
    • (i) In Indo-Aryan languages, in certain forms, the consonant "M" can change to consonant "N". Some instances:
    GaMdhara = GaNdhara; SaMskrit = SaNskrit; KaMbujiya = KaNbujiya; SaMgha = SaNgha; AMdhra = Andhra; ApabhraMsha = ApabhraNsha; SaMskara = SaNskara Thus, KaMboj becomes KaNboj (as in Dasam Granth) [2]. OR KaNbuj (as in the coins: Kharal-putras KaNbuj Raspag: See Bharat ke Prachin Mudrank, by Swami Om Nand ji Sarasvati, 1973, Rohtak. Apparently, the terms KaNboj/KaNbuj are variants of KaMboj/KaMbuj, since "M" can become "N" in Indo-Aryan languages. Also compare KaMbujiya = KaNbujiya of ancient Persian/Susian inscriptions).
    • (ii) There are numerous instances where consonant "L" can replace or interchange with consonant "M". Some Instances:
    PuNinda = PuLinda; KuNinda = KuLinda; PahLava = PahNava (Puranas); ANimadra = ALimadra (Puranas); SthaNa = SthaLa; SthuNa = SthuLa (Pali text Mahavagga, 8.12.2); MeNandra = MiLinda; MarusthaNa = MarusthaLa; KalibaNa = KalivaLa; KoNiserpa = KoLiserpa; Kaphina = Kaphila (also Kapphina, Kapphilla, Kaphila, Kamphilla; name of a disciple of the Buddha); Nil = Lil (Indigo); GardabhiN = GardabhiL (a dynasty of Saurashtra); PuNika =PuLika (Father of king Pradyota of Avanti, contemporary of Buddha. See Ancient India, 2003, p 247, Dr V. D. Mahajan); HariaLa =HariaNa (Ancient name of Haryana); SihasivaNi= sihasivaLi (queen of king Sihabahu of Latadesa, Capital Sinhapura); MauNa = MauLa (Mauna is the name of tribe in Puranic literature. See Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol I, 2002, p 189-90. The same name is found as MauLa in Bhagvata Purana). Thus, it is very probable that term Kalbhoj is a time/space variant of Sanskrit Kamboj or Kambhoj.
  45. '^ See: Studies in Indian History and Civilization, Agra, p 351; India and the World, 1964, p 71, Dr Buddha Prakash; India and Central Asia, p 25, Dr P. C. Bagchi; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, pp 46-47, 300 Dr J. L. Kamboj; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 159, 59, S Kirpal Singh.
  46. ^ Mahabharata 2.27.25.
  47. ^ The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 159, 92, 59, S Kirpal Singh; These Kamboj People, 1979, 67, K. S. Dardi; cf: History of Punjab, Vol I, p 182, Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh.
  48. ^ Epigraphia Indica, Vol XXIV, pp 45-46; Vangar Jatya Itihaas, Rajanya Kanda (in Bengali,), Nagendra Nath Vasu; The Spirit of Islam Or the Life and Teachings of Mohammad: or the life and teachings of Mohammed, 2002, p 359, Ameer Ali Syed; Asiatick Researches: Or, Transactions of the Society Instituted in Bengal, for Inquiring Into the..., 1801, p 129, Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India); Encyclopedia of Religions Or Faiths of Man 1906, 2003 Edition, p 282, J. G. R. Forlong; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1990, p 232, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Published 1990, Cambridge University, Press for the Royal, Asiatic Society [etc.]; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 305, 332; Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 161, 216; Kim (by Rudyard Kipling - 1901), Chapter XI, Page 266, line 23, Notes on the text by Sharad Keskar; cf: Ancient India, 1956, p 383, Dr R. K. Mukerjee.
  49. ^ The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 1831, p 500, Royal Geographical Society (Great Britain), Norton Shaw, Hume Greenfield, Henry Walter Bates.
  50. ^ As in The Martial Races of India, p 251, Sir George Fletcher MacMunn. Same as Kamboh.
  51. ^ Indian Antiquary, 1923, p 54; Pre Aryan and Pre Dravidian in India, 1993, p 122, Dr Sylvain Lévi, Dr Jean Przyluski, Jules Bloch, Asian Educational Services; Cities and Civilization, 1962, p 172, Govind Sadashiv Ghurye; Problems of Ancient India, 2000, p 1, K. D. Sethna; Asiatic Society, Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1956, p 37; Purana, Vol VI, No 2, Jan 1964, pp 207-208; Journal of the Asiatic Society , 1956, p 88, Asiatic Society (Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal); Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p 165, Dr M. R. Singh; Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, 2000, p 99, edited by Richard J.A. Talbert - History; Neuro-ophthalmology, 2005, p 99 Leonard A. Levin, Anthony C. Arnold; Purana-vimar'sucika -: Bibliography of Articles on Puranas, 1985, p 133, P. G. Lalye.
  52. ^ See Refs: Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies, Vol. 5,1999, issue 1 (September), Dr. M. Witzel; Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History, 2005, p 257, Laurie L. Patton, Edwin Bryant; The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: : Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity, 1995, p 326, George Erdosy; Linguistic Aspects of the Aryan non-invasion theory, Part I, Dr. Koenraad Elst, See Link: [3]; The official pro-invasionist argument at last, A review of the Aryan invasion arguments in J. Bronkhorst and M.M. Deshpande: Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia, Dr. Koenraad Elst, See link: [4].
  53. ^ cf: Ancient Kamboja in Iran and Islam, p 69, Dr H. W. Bailey
  54. ^ While discussing Kambujiya of old Persian Inscriptions (Cambyses/Kambyses of the Greeks, Kamboja of Sanskrit or Kamoja of Kafferistan/Nuresitan), J.R.A.S. 1990 observes as under: "Kambujiya, Kambujiyam, Kabujiya, Cambyse: This is the true vernacular orthography of name which was written Kambyses by the Greeks and Kauvays in Zend ……From the name of a king Kambyses was derived the geographical title of Kamboja (Sanskrit), which is retained to present days in the Kamoj of Cafferstan……The Persian historians do not seem to be aware of the name Kabus, which was born by the Dilemite sovereigns, is the same with the Kaus of Romance; yet the more ancient form of Kaubus or kabuj for latter name, renders the identification also most certain. The Georgians, even to the present day, name the hero of romance Kapus still retaining the labial which has merged in the Persian…." (See: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Published 1990, p 97, Cambridge University, Press for the Royal Asiatic Society [etc.], By Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland).
  55. ^ Cf: Reisen im indischen Archipel, Singapore, Batavia, Manilla und Japan, 1869, p 216; Die Voelker des Oestlichen Asien: Studien und Reisen, 1869, p 216, Dr Philip Wilhelm Adolf Bastian.
Look up Kamboja in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Migration of Kambojas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4330 words)
The culture of Kambojas was modified as a result of their contacts, first with the Yavanas and later, it went further modification as a result of their contacts with the Sakas and Pahlavas etc (Dr D. Sircar, Dr J. Kamboj).
The Kambojas in/around west, south-west India are also attested from inscriptions of king Sahasiva Raya of Sangama Dynasty (1336-1478), kings Harihara and Deva Raya of Narasinga Dynasty (1496-1567), and from the references of king Vishnuvardhana of Hoiyasala Dynasty/Mysore (of 12th c CE).
King Kambu (Sanskrit Kamboj), the legendary patriarch of Kambuja (Kamboja) ruling family of Cambodia was, to all probability, a warrior/scholar Kamboja chieftain from Sinhala or else from Gujarat.
Kambojas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4776 words)
Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda.
The Kambojas still live as Kamboj and Kamboh in the greater Panjab, and as Kams/Kamoz and Katirs/Kamtoz of the Siyaposh tribe in the Nuristan province of Afghanistan.
There were Kamboja steeds in the cavalry of Pandya king Valabhadeva who is referred to as the proud possessor/rider of the Kamboja horses and elephants.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m