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Encyclopedia > Kamakura period

History of Japan ImageMetadata File history File links Satsuma-samurai-during-boshin-war-period. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ...

Glossary The Japanese Paleolithic ) covers a period from around 100,000 [citation needed] to 30,000 BCE, when the earliest stone tool implements have been found, to around 12,000 BCE, at the end of the last Ice-age, which corresponds to the beginning of the Mesolithic Jomon Period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Jomon Period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yayoi Period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... The Kemmu Restoration (建武の新政; Kemmu no shinsei) was a period of Japanese history that occurred from 1333 to 1336 AD. It marks the three year period between the fall of the Kamakura shogunate and the rise of the Ashikaga shogunate, when Emperor Go-Daigo attempted to re-established Imperial control (but... The Muromachi period (Japanese: 室町時代, Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era, the Ashikaga period, or the Ashikaga bakufu) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. ... The Nanboku-cho period (Japanese: 南北朝時代, nanbokuchō-jidai, South and North courts period), also known as the Northern and Southern Courts period, spanning from 1336 to 1392, was a period that occurred during the early years of the Muromachi period of Japans history. ... The Sengoku period (Japanese: 戦国時代, Sengoku-jidai) or Warring States period, was a period of civil war in the history of Japan that spans from the middle 15th to the early 17th centuries. ... The Azuchi-Momoyama period (Japanese: 安土桃山時代, Azuchi-Momoyama-jidai) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1568 to 1600. ... The Namban trade(Japanese: 南蛮貿易, nanban-bōeki, southern barbarian trade) or The Nanban trade period (Japanese: 南蛮貿易時代, nanban-bōeki-jidai, southern barbarian trade period) in Japanese history extends from the arrival of the first Europeans to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1650, under... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Edo Period. ... The Late Tokugawa Shogunate (Japanese: Bakumatsu) is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. ... The Meiji period ) denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running from 8 September 1868 (in the Gregorian calendar, 23 October 1868) to 30 July 1912. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... The Taishō period (Japanese: 大正時代, Taishō-jidai, period of great righteousness) is a period in the history of Japan dating from 30 July 1912 to 25 December 1926. ... Japan participated in World War I ) from 1914-1917, as one of the major Entente Powers, played an important role in securing the sea lanes in South Pacific and Indian Oceans against the Kaiserliche Marine. ... The Shōwa period (Japanese: 昭和時代, Shōwa-jidai, period of enlightened peace) was the time in Japanese history when Emperor Hirohito reigned over the country, from December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989. ... Japanese nationalism, also known as Japanese imperialism or Japanese nationalist ideology is a generic title, referring to a complex series of patriotic and nationalist ideas held in Japan. ... Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor of Japan  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 10, 1945  - San Francisco Peace Treaty September 8, 1951 At the end of the Second World War... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei Following the end of the Allied occupation in 1952... It has been suggested that Updated Japan News be merged into this article or section. ... The Eco history of Japan is one of the most studied for its spectacular growth, first in the period from the late twentieth century that saw Japan become a world power and then again after the devastation of the Second World War when the island nation rose to become the... The history of education in Japan dates back at least to the sixth century, when Chinese learning was introduced at the Yamato court. ... The military history of Japan is characterized by a long period of feudal wars, followed by domestic stability, and then foreign conquest. ... The naval history of Japan traces back to early interactions with states on the Asian continent at the beginning of the medieval period, and reached a peak of activity during the 16th and 17th century at a time of cultural exchange with European powers during the Nanban trade period. ... This is the glossary of Japanese history including historical figures, events, places, policies and others. ...

The Kamakura period (鎌倉時代 Kamakura-jidai?, 11851333) is a period of Japanese history that marks the governance of the Kamakura Shogunate (鎌倉幕府 Kamakura bakufu); officially established in 1192 by the first Kamakura shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo (源 頼朝). Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... Events End of the Kamakura period and beginning of the Kemmu restoration in Japan. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ... This wooden Kongorikishi statue was created during the Kamakura shogunate during 14th century Japan. ... // Events The Third Crusade ends in disaster. ... Crowds of visitors in Kamakura (Tsurugaoka Hachiman Shrine) Kamakura (Japanese: 鎌倉市; -shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan, about 50 km south-south-west of Tokyo (to which it is linked by the railway line to Yokosuka). ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shogun )   is a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... Portrait of Yoritomo (copy) Minamoto no Yoritomo May 9, 1147—February 9, 1199) was the founder and the first shogun of the Kamakura Shogunate of Japan, who ruled from 1192 until 1199. ...


The Kamakura period ended in 1333 with the destruction of the shogunate and the short reestablishment of imperial rule under Emperor Go-Daigo (後醍醐天皇 Go-Daigo Tennō) by Ashikaga Takauji (足利 尊氏), Nitta Yoshisada (新田 義貞), and Kusunoki Masashige (楠木 正成). Emperor Go-Daigo (後醍醐天皇 Go-Daigo Tennō) (November 26, 1288 – September 19, 1339) was the 96th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Ashikaga Takauji 1305—June 7, 1358) was the founder and first shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate. ... Nitta Yoshisada (新田義貞)(1301-1338) was the head of the Nitta clan in the early 14th century, and supported the Southern Court of Emperor Go-Daigo in the Nanboku-cho period, capturing Kamakura from the Hōjō clan in 1333. ... Kusunoki Masashige (楠木 正成, 1294-1336, also Nankō or Dai-Nankō) was a 14th century samurai who fought for Emperor Go-Daigo in his attempt to wrest rulership of Japan away from the Kamakura shogunate, then under the leadership of the Hojo clan. ...

Contents

Bakufu and the Hōjō Regency

The Kamakura period (11851333) marks the transition to the Japanese "medieval" era, a nearly 700-year period in which the emperor (天皇 tennō), the court, and the traditional central government were left intact but were largely relegated to ceremonial functions. Civil, military, and judicial matters were controlled by the bushi (武士) class, the most powerful of whom was the de facto national ruler. The term feudalism is generally used to describe this period, being accepted by scholars as applicable to medieval Japan as well as to medieval Europe. Both had land-based economies, vestiges of a previously centralized state, and a concentration of advanced military technologies in the hands of a specialized fighting class. Lords required the loyal services of vassals, who were rewarded with fiefs of their own. The fief holders exercised local military rule and public power related to the holding of land. This period in Japan differed from the old shōen system in its pervasive military emphasis. Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... Events End of the Kamakura period and beginning of the Kemmu restoration in Japan. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... Japanese samurai in armour, 1860 photograph. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service (usually fealty, military service, and security). ... A shōen ) was a field or manor in Japan. ...


Once Minamoto Yoritomo had consolidated his power, he established a new government at his family home in Kamakura. He called his government a bakufu (幕府, tent government), but because he was given the title Seii Tai-shōgun (征夷大将軍) by the Emperor, the government is often referred to in Western literature as the shogunate. Yoritomo followed the Fujiwara form of house government and had an administrative board, a board of retainers, and a board of inquiry. After confiscating Taira estates in central and western Japan, he had the imperial court appoint stewards for the estates and constables for the provinces. As shogun, Yoritomo was both the steward and the constable general. The Kamakura bakufu was not a national regime, however, and although it controlled large tracts of land, there was strong resistance to the stewards. The regime continued warfare against the Fujiwara in the north, but never brought either the north or the west under complete military control. The old court resided in Kyoto, continuing to hold the land over which it had jurisdiction, while newly organized military families were attracted to Kamakura. For the James Clavell novel, see Shogun or for the TV Miniseries. ... This page is about the Japanese ruler and military rank. ... The Fujiwara clan (藤原氏 Fujiwara-shi) was a clan of regents who had sort of monopoly to the Sekkan positions, Sesshō and Kampaku. ... Taira (平) is a Japanese surname. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ...


Despite a strong beginning, Yoritomo failed to consolidate the leadership of his family on a lasting basis. Intrafamily contention had long existed within the Minamoto, although Yoritomo had eliminated most serious challengers to his authority. When he died suddenly in 1199, his son Minamoto no Yoriie (源 頼家) became shogun and nominal head of the Minamoto, but Yoriie was unable to control the other eastern bushi families. By the early thirteenth century, a regency had been established for the shogun by his maternal grandparents or grandson(Yoriie) of Hōjō Tokimasa (北条 時政) —members of the Hōjō family (北条氏), a branch of the Taira that had allied itself with the Minamoto in 1180. The regent for the shogun is called Shikken (執権) in the period. Under the Hōjō, the bakufu became powerless, and the shogun, often a member of the Fujiwara family or even an imperial prince, was merely a figurehead. Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... Minamoto no Yoriie 源頼家 (September 11, 1182 – August 14, 1204) was the second shogun (1202 – 1203) of the Kamakura shogunate of Japan. ... Hōjō Tokimasa (北條 時政, 1138-1215) was the first Hōjō shikken (regent) of the Kamakura bakufu and head of the Hōjō clan. ... The Hōjō clan (北条氏) in the history of Japan was a family of regents of the Kamakura Shogunate. ...


With the protector of the Emperor a figurehead himself, strains emerged between Kyoto and Kamakura, and in 1221 a war—the Jōkyū War (承久の乱 jōkyū no ran) —broke out between the Cloistered Emperor Go-Toba (後鳥羽上皇 Go-Toba Jōkō) and the second regent Hōjō Yoshitoki (北条 義時). The Hōjō forces easily won the war, and the imperial court was brought under direct bakufu control. The shogun's constables gained greater civil powers, and the court was obliged to seek Kamakura's approval for all of its actions. Although deprived of political power, the court was allowed to retain extensive estates with which to sustain the imperial splendor the bakufu needed to help sanction its rule. // Events May 13 - End of the reign of Emperor Juntoku, emperor of Japan Emperor ChÅ«kyō briefly reigns over Japan Former Emperor Go-Toba leads an unsuccessful rebellion against the Kamakura Shogunate Emperor Go-Horikawa ascends to the throne of Japan January - Mongol Army under Jochi captures the city of... Combatants Kamakura shogunate and allies warrior families loyal to Go-Toba Commanders Hōjō Yoshitoki Go-Toba JōkyÅ« War ), also known as the JōkyÅ« Disturbance, was fought in Japan between the forces of Retired Emperor Go-Toba and those of the regents of Kamakura Shogunate, the Hōj... Emperor Go-Toba ) (August 6, 1180 – March 28, 1239) was the 82nd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Hōjō Yoshitoki )(1163 - 1224) was the second Hōjō shikken (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate and head of the Hōjō clan. ...


Several significant administrative achievements were made during the Hōjō regency. In 1225 the third regent Hōjō Yasutoki (北条 泰時) established the Council of State (評定衆 HyoJo-Shu), providing opportunities for other military lords to exercise judicial and legislative authority at Kamakura. The Hōjō regent presided over the council, which was a successful form of collective leadership. The adoption of Japan's first military code of law--the Goseibai Shikimoku (御成敗式目) or the Joei Code (貞永式目) --in 1232 reflected the profound transition from court to militarized society. While legal practices in Kyoto were still based on 500-year-old Confucian principles, the Joei Code was a highly legalistic document that stressed the duties of stewards and constables, provided means for settling land disputes, and established rules governing inheritances. It was clear and concise, stipulated punishments for violators of its conditions, and remained in effect for the next 635 years. // The Teutonic Order is expelled from Transylvania. ... Hōjō Yasutoki (北条 泰時; 1183-1242, r. ... The Goseibai Shikimoku (御成敗式目) or the Formulary of Adjudications was the legal law of the Kamakura shogunate in Japan, promulgated by third shikken Hojo Yasutoki in 1232. ... // Events Canonization of Saint Anthony of Padua, patron of lost items Pope Gregory IX driven from Rome by a revolt, taking refuge at Anagni First edition of Tripitaka Koreana destroyed by Mongol invaders Battle of Agridi 15 June 1232 Births Arnolfo di Cambio, Florentine architect (died 1310) Manfred of Sicily... Confucian temple in Jiading district, Shanghai. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


As might be expected, the literature of the time reflected the unsettled nature of the period. The Hōjōki (方丈記, An Account of My Hut) describes the turmoil of the period in terms of the Buddhist concepts of impermanence and the vanity of human projects. The Heike monogatari (平家物語, The Tale of the Heike) narrated the rise and fall of the Taira (平, also known as the Heike, 平家), replete with tales of wars and samurai deeds. A second literary mainstream was the continuation of anthologies of poetry in the Shin Kokin Wakashū (新古今和歌集, New Collection of Ancient and Modern Waka), of which twenty volumes were produced between 1201 and 1205. Hōjōki (方丈記 Hōjō-ki) (sometimes translated as An Account of My Hut) is a short work written in 1212 by by Kamo no Chōmei. ... The Tale of the Heike (Japanese: 平家物語, Heike monogatari) is an epic account of the struggle between the Minamoto and Taira clans for control of Japan at the end of the 12th century. ... The Shin KokinshÅ« ), also known by its longer name of Shin Kokin WakashÅ« ), is a collection of Japanese waka poetry published around 1205 or 1206 CE. Its full name means literally New Collection of Ancient and Modern Waka, and it was meant to be seen as a successor to the... // Events The town of Riga was chartered as a city. ... Events January 6 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans April 14 - Battle of Adrianople (1205) between Bulgars and Latins August 20 - Following certain news of Baldwin Is death, Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire Births Walter IV of Brienne Wenceslaus I, King of...


The Flourishing of Buddhism

In the time of disunity and violence, deepening pessimism increased the appeal of the search for salvation. Kamakura was the age of the great popularization of Buddhism. Two new sects, Jodo-shu (Pure Land Buddhism 浄土宗) and Zen (禅, Meditation), dominated the period. The old Heian sects had been quite esoteric and appealed more to the intellectuals than to the masses. The Mount Hiei (比叡山, Hiei-zan) monasteries had become politically powerful but appealed primarily to those capable of systematic study of the sect's teachings. This situation gave rise to the Jodo sect, based on unconditional faith and devotion and prayer to Amida Buddha. Zen rejected all temporal and scriptural authority, stressing moral character rather than intellectual attainments, an emphasis that appealed to the military class. Growing numbers of the military class turned to Zen masters, regarded as embodiments of truth. Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, which is also a philosophy and a system of psychology. ... The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ... Zen is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that places great importance on moment-by-moment awareness and seeing deeply into the nature of things by direct experience. ... Mount Hiei (Jp. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Big Buddha in Kamakura, an image of Amitabha Amitābha (阿彌陀佛 Ch. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ...


The following are brief encapsulated introductions to some of the kinds of Buddhism begun in the Kamakura era.

Jōdoshū (浄土宗): All we need do is to keep praying.
Jōdo-shinshū (浄土真宗): All we need do is to believe and trust because Buddha saves everyone who believes.
Jishū (時宗): We are relieved only by praying, including a most remarkable dancing prayer to Buddha.
Rinzaishū (臨済宗): We must adhere to Indian Buddhism, respecting Buddhist law and Zen meditation.
Sotoshū (曹洞宗): We must sit in meditation single-mindedly.
Nichiren Buddhism (日蓮宗): We must follow the Lotus Sutra; all other forms of Buddhism are heretical.

The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ... Jōdo Shinshū (浄土真宗 True Pure Land School), also known as Shin Buddhism, was founded by the once Tendai Japanese monk Shinran Shonin. ... The dry garden at Ryōan-ji, a Rinzai Zen temple in Kyoto. ... A fresco from the Ajanta caves in Maharashtra, India, once a gathering places for Buddhist monks. ... For the vegetable, see Celosia. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Nichiren Buddhism (日蓮系諸宗派: Nichiren-kei sho shūha) is a branch of Buddhism based on the teachings of the 13th century Japanese monk Nichiren (1222–1282). ... The Lotus Sutra or Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma (Sanskrit: Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra; 妙法蓮華經 Chinese: Miàofǎ Liánhuā Jīng; Japanese: Myōhō Renge Kyō; Korean: Myobeomnyeonhwagyeong) is one of the most popular and influential Mahāyāna sutras in East Asia and...

Mongol Invasions

The repulsions of two Mongol invasions were momentous events in Japanese history. Japanese relations with China had been terminated in the mid-ninth century after the deterioration of late Tang Dynasty China and the turning inward of the Heian court. Some commercial contacts were maintained with southern China (南宋, Southern Song Dynasty) in later centuries, but Japanese pirates made the open seas dangerous. At a time when the bakufu had little interest in foreign affairs and ignored communications from China and Goryeo (高麗, as Korea was then known), news arrived in 1268 of a new Mongol regime in Beijing. Its leader, Khubilai Khan, demanded that the Japanese pay tribute to the new Yuan Dynasty (元, 12791368) and threatened reprisals if they failed to do so. Unused to such threats, Kyoto raised the diplomatic counter of Japan's divine origin, rejected the Mongol demands, dismissed the Korean messengers, and started defensive preparations. The Samurai Suenaga facing Mongol arrows and bombs. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (18 June 618 – 4 June 907), lasting about three centuries, preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Song Dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian... Korea (Korean: 한국 or ì¡°ì„ , see below) is a geographic area, civilization[], and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Conradin (right) is executed by Charles I of Sicily, thus extinguishing the Hohenstaufen dynasty, in 1268. ...   (Chinese:  ; Pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Kublai Khan or Khubilai Khan (1215 - 1294), Mongol military leader, was Khan (1260-1294) of the Mongol Empire and founder and first Emperor (1279-1294) of the Yuan Dynasty. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus), lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, followed the Song Dynasty and preceded the Ming... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ...

Japanese samurai boarding Mongol ships in 1281.
Japanese samurai boarding Mongol ships in 1281.

After further unsuccessful entreaties, the first Mongol invasion took place in 1274. More than 600 ships carried a combined Mongol, Chinese, and Korean force of 23,000 troops armed with catapults, combustible missiles, and bows and arrows. In fighting, these soldiers grouped in close cavalry formations against samurai, who were accustomed to one-on-one combat. Local Japanese forces at Hakata, on northern Kyūshū, defended against the superior mainland force, which, after one day of fighting was decimated by the onslaught of a sudden typhoon. Khubilai realized that nature, not military incompetence, had been the cause of his forces' failure so, in 1281, he launched a second invasion. Seven weeks of fighting took place in northwestern Kyūshū before another typhoon struck, again destroying the Mongol fleet. Image File history File links Japanese samurai attacking a Mongol ship. ... Image File history File links Japanese samurai attacking a Mongol ship. ... Japanese samurai in armour, 1860s. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Events May 7 - In France the Second Council of Lyons opens to consider the condition of the Holy Land and to agree to a union with the Byzantine church. ... Replica catapult at Château des Baux, France For the handheld Y-shaped weapon, see slingshot. ... Hakata (博多区; -ku) is a ward in Fukuoka, Japan with a population of 176,585. ... KyÅ«shÅ« region of Japan and the current prefectures on KyÅ«shÅ« island KyÅ«shÅ« ), literally Nine Provinces, is the third largest island of Japan and most southerly and westerly of the four main islands. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ...


Although Shinto priests attributed the two defeats of the Mongols to a "divine wind" (kamikaze), a sign of heaven's special protection of Japan, the invasion left a deep impression on the bakufu leaders. Long-standing fears of the Chinese threat to Japan were reinforced. The Japanese victory, however, gave the bushi a sense of fighting superiority that remained with Japan's soldiers until 1945. The victory also convinced the bushi of the value of the bakufu form of government. Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... It has been suggested that Personnel involved in the development of World War II suicide attacks be merged into this article or section. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ...


The Mongol war had been a drain on the economy, and new taxes had to be levied to maintain defensive preparations for the future. The invasions also caused disaffection among those who expected recompense for their help in defeating the Mongols. There were no lands or other rewards to be given, however, and such disaffection, combined with overextension and the increasing defense costs, led to a decline of the Kamakura bakufu. Additionally, inheritances had divided family properties, and landowners increasingly had to turn to moneylenders for support. Roving bands of ronin further threatened the stability of the bakufu. Graves of 47 Ronin at Sengakuji For other uses, see Ronin (disambiguation). ...


Civil War

The Hōjō reacted to the ensuing chaos by trying to place more power among the various great family clans. To further weaken the Kyoto court, the bakufu decided to allow two contending imperial lines—known as the Southern Court (南朝) or junior line and the Northern Court (北朝) or senior line—to alternate on the throne. The method worked for several successions until a member of the Southern Court ascended to the throne as Emperor Go-Daigo (後醍醐天皇 Go-Daigo Tennō, r. 13181339). Go-Daigo wanted to overthrow the bakufu, and he openly defied Kamakura by naming his own son his heir. In 1331 the bakufu exiled Go-Daigo, but loyalist forces, including Kusunoki Masashige (楠木 正成), rebelled. They were aided by Ashikaga Takauji (足利 尊氏, 13051358), a constable who turned against Kamakura when dispatched to put down Go-Daigo's rebellion. At the same time, Nitta Yoshisada (新田 義貞), another eastern chieftain rebelled against the bakufu, which quickly disintegrated, and the Hōjō were defeated. The Hōjō clan (北条氏) in the history of Japan was a family of regents of the Kamakura Shogunate. ... The Nanboku-cho (南北朝, lit. ... Emperor Go-Daigo (後醍醐天皇 Go-Daigo Tennō) (November 26, 1288 – September 19, 1339) was the 96th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events 1 April: Berwick-upon-Tweed is captured by the Scottish from the English Emperor Go-Daigo ascends to the throne of Japan End of the reign of Emperor Hanazono, emperor of Japan Pope John XXII declares the doctrines of the Franciscans advocating ecclesiastical poverty erroneous Qalaun Mosque, Cairo... Events Emperor Go-Murakami ascends to the throne of Japan Kashmir is conquered by the muslims Births July 23 - King Louis I of Naples (d. ... Events September 8 - Stefan Dusan declares himself king of Serbia Start of the reign of Emperor Kogon of Japan, first of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Births Coluccio Salutati, Florentine political leader (died 1406) Deaths January 14 - Odoric, Italian explorer October 27 - Abulfeda, Arab historian and geographer (born 1273) Categories: 1331... Kusunoki Masashige (楠木 正成, 1294-1336, also Nankō or Dai-Nankō) was a 14th century samurai who fought for Emperor Go-Daigo in his attempt to wrest rulership of Japan away from the Kamakura shogunate, then under the leadership of the Hojo clan. ... Ashikaga Takauji 1305—June 7, 1358) was the founder and first shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate. ... Events August 5 - English troops capture William Wallace Wenceslas III becomes king of Bohemia Archbishop of Bordeaux, Bertrand de Got, was elected as Pope Clement V. Philip IV of France accused the Knights Templar of heresy. ... Events Jacquerie. ... Nitta Yoshisada (新田義貞)(1301-1338) was the head of the Nitta clan in the early 14th century, and supported the Southern Court of Emperor Go-Daigo in the Nanboku-cho period, capturing Kamakura from the Hōjō clan in 1333. ...


In the swell of victory, Go-Daigo endeavored to restore imperial authority and tenth-century Confucian practices. This period of reform, known as the Kemmu restoration (建武の新政 Kemmu no shinsei, 13331336), aimed at strengthening the position of the Emperor and reasserting the primacy of the court nobles over the bushi. The reality, however, was that the forces who had arisen against Kamakura had been set on defeating the Hōjō, not on supporting the Emperor. Ashikaga Takauji finally sided with the Northern Court in a civil war against the Southern Court represented by Go-Daigo. The long War Between the Courts lasted from 1336 to 1392. Early in the conflict, Go-Daigo was driven from Kyōto, and the Northern Court contender was installed by Ashikaga, who became the new shogun. The Kemmu Restoration (建武の新政; Kemmu no shinsei) was a period of Japanese history that occurred from 1333 to 1336 AD. It marks the three year period between the fall of the Kamakura shogunate and the rise of the Ashikaga shogunate, when Emperor Go-Daigo attempted to re-established Imperial control (but... Events End of the Kamakura period and beginning of the Kemmu restoration in Japan. ... Events End of the Kemmu restoration and beginning of the Muromachi period in Japan. ... Events End of the Kemmu restoration and beginning of the Muromachi period in Japan. ... Events December 16 - Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan abdicates in favor of rival claimant Go-Komatsu, ending the nanboku-cho period of competing imperial courts James of Jülich is boiled alive for pretending to be a bishop and ordaining his own priests Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General...


Events

Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shogun )   is a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... Crowds of visitors in Kamakura (Tsurugaoka Hachiman Shrine) Kamakura (Japanese: 鎌倉市; -shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan, about 50 km south-south-west of Tokyo (to which it is linked by the railway line to Yokosuka). ... For the James Clavell novel, see Shogun or for the TV Miniseries. ... Minamoto no Yoritomo 源頼朝 (1147 - February 9, 1199) was the founder and first shogun of the Kamakura Shogunate of Japan, from 1192 to 1199. ... Combatants Kamakura shogunate and allies warrior families loyal to Go-Toba Commanders Hōjō Yoshitoki Go-Toba JōkyÅ« War ), also known as the JōkyÅ« Disturbance, was fought in Japan between the forces of Retired Emperor Go-Toba and those of the regents of Kamakura Shogunate, the Hōj... This wooden Kongorikishi statue was created during the Kamakura shogunate during 14th century Japan. ... The Hōjō clan (北条氏) in the history of Japan was a family of regents of the Kamakura Shogunate. ... For the vegetable, see Celosia. ... A woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, (Japan, 1887) depicting Bodhidharma the founder of Chinese Zen. ... Dōgen Zenji Dōgen Zenji (道元禅師; January 19, 1200 - September 22, 1253) was a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher and founder of the Soto school of Zen in Japan. ... The Goseibai Shikimoku (御成敗式目) or the Formulary of Adjudications was the legal law of the Kamakura shogunate in Japan, promulgated by third shikken Hojo Yasutoki in 1232. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... Kublai Khan, Khubilai Khan or the last of the Great Khans (September 23, 1215 - February 18, 1294) (Mongolian: Хубилай хаан, Chinese: ; pinyin: ), was a Mongol military leader. ... Anthem: Kimi ga Yo(君が代) Imperial Reign Capital (and largest conurbation (population))  Tokyo1 Official languages Japanese Government Constitutional monarchy  - Emperor HIM Emperor Akihito  - Prime Minister Shinzo Abe (LDP) Formation  - National Foundation Day Feb 11, 660 BC2   - Meiji Constitution November 29, 1890   - Current constitution May 3, 1947   - Treaty of San Francisco April...

References


< Heian period | History of Japan | Kemmu restoration > The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge&#8212;writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others&#8212;in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ... The Kemmu Restoration (建武の新政; Kemmu no shinsei) was a period of Japanese history that occurred from 1333 to 1336 AD. It marks the three year period between the fall of the Kamakura shogunate and the rise of the Ashikaga shogunate, when Emperor Go-Daigo attempted to re-established Imperial control (but...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kamakura period - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1860 words)
The Kamakura period ended in 1333 with the destruction of the shogunate and the short reestablishment of imperial rule under Emperor Go-Daigo by Ashikaga Takauji, Nitta Yoshisada, and Kusunoki Masashige.
The Kamakura period is also said to be the beginning of the Japanese Middle Ages which also includes the Muromachi period and the beginning of the Japanese Feudal Period which lasted until the Meiji Restoration.
The Kamakura period (1185–1333) marks the transition to the Japanese "medieval" era, a nearly 700-year period in which the emperor, the court, and the traditional central government were left intact but were largely relegated to ceremonial functions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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