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Encyclopedia > Kamakura, Kanagawa
Kamakura
鎌倉市

Kamakura's location in Kanagawa, Japan.
Location
Country Japan
Region Kantō
Prefecture Kanagawa
Physical characteristics
Area 39.60 km² (15.29 sq mi)
Population (as of January 2008)
     Total 173,588
     Density 4,380 /km² (11,344 /sq mi)
Location 35°19′N, 139°33′E
Symbols
Tree Yamazakura (Prunus jamasakura)
Flower Gentian

Flag
Kamakura Government Office
Mayor Tokukazu Ishiwata
Address 〒248-8686
18-10 Onarimachi, Kamakura-shi, Kanagawa-ken
Phone number 0467-23-3000
Official website: Kamakura City

Kamakura (鎌倉市 Kamakura-shi?) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan, about 50 km south-south-west of Tokyo. It used to be also called Renpu (鎌府?)[1]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Kanagawa Prefecture ) is a prefecture located in the southern Kantō region of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Map of the regions of Japan. ... Kantō region, Japan. ... The prefectures of Japan are the countrys 47 sub-national jurisdictions: one metropolis (都 to), Tokyo; one circuit (道 dō), Hokkaidō; two urban prefectures (府 fu), Osaka and Kyoto; and 43 other prefectures (県 ken). ... Kanagawa Prefecture ) is a prefecture located in the southern Kantō region of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Species Old World: Prunus africana Prunus apetala Prunus armeniaca Prunus avium Prunus buergeriana Prunus campanulata Prunus canescens Prunus cerasifera Prunus cerasoides Prunus cerasus Prunus cocomilia Prunus cornuta Prunus crassifolia Prunus davidiana Prunus domestica Prunus dulcis Prunus fruticosa Prunus geniculata Prunus glandulosa Prunus gracilis Prunus grayana Prunus incana Prunus incisa Prunus... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... An address is a code and abstract concept expressing the fixed location of a home, business or other building on the earths surface. ... A telephone number or phone number is a sequence of numbers used to call from one telephone line to another in a telephone network. ... A city ) is a local administrative unit in Japan. ... Kanagawa Prefecture ) is a prefecture located in the southern Kantō region of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...


Although Kamakura proper is today rather small, it is sometimes considered a former de facto capital of Japan as the seat of the Shogunate and of the Regency during the Kamakura Period. According to The Institute for Research on World-Systems,[2] Kamakura was the 4th largest city in the world in 1250 A.D., with 200,000 people, and Japan's largest, eclipsing Kyoto by 1200 A.D. This page is about the Japanese ruler and military rank. ... Shikken (執権) was the regent of the shogun in the Kamakura shogunate in Japan. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Kamakura Period. ... For other uses, see Kyoto (disambiguation). ...


As of January 1, 2008, the city has an estimated population of 173,588 and a density of 4,380 persons per km². The total area is 39.60 km². 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ...


Kamakura was designated as a city on November 3, 1939. is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Kamakura has a beach which, in combination with the temples and the proximity to Tokyo, makes it a popular tourist destination. For other uses, see Beach (disambiguation). ... A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ...


Kamakura is also noted for its senbei, which are crisp rice cakes grilled and sold fresh along the main shopping street. These are very popular with tourists, especially Japanese tourists. Senbei is a Japanese cracker inserted with a note. ...

Contents

Geography

Surrounded to the north, east and west by mountains and to the south by the open water of Sagami Bay, Kamakura is a natural fortress[3]. Before the construction of several tunnels and modern roads that now connect it to Fujisawa, Ofuna and Zushi, on land it could be entered only through seven artificial passes called Kamakura's Seven Entrances (鎌倉七口?) -- sometimes translated as the seven "mouths." The natural fortification made Kamakura an easily defensible stronghold[3]. The Azuma Kagami reports for example that Hōjō Masako came back to Kamakura from a visit the Sōtōzan temple in Izu bypassing by boat the impassable Inamuragasaki Cape and arriving in Yuigahama[3]. Again according to the Azuma Kagami, the first of the Kamakura shoguns, Minamoto no Yoritomo, chose it as a base partly because it was his ancestors' land, partly because of these physical characteristics[3]. For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Sagami Bay (相模湾, Sagami-wan), also known as the Sagami Gulf or Sagami Sea, lies south of Kanagawa Prefecture in HonshÅ«, central Japan, with the Miura Peninsula to its east and the Izu Peninsula to its west. ... Fujisawa (藤沢市 Fujisawa-shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. ... Zushi (逗子市 Zushi-shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. ... The Azuma kagami (吾妻鏡, also 東鑑) is a chronicle of the Kamakura Shogunate from 1180 to 1266. ... This wooden Kongorikishi statue was created during the Kamakura shogunate during 14th century Japan. ... Portrait of Yoritomo (copy) Minamoto no Yoritomo May 9, 1147—February 9, 1199) was the founder and the first shogun of the Kamakura Shogunate of Japan, who ruled from 1192 until 1199. ...

Great Buddha at Kōtoku-in

To the north of the city stands Mt. Genji (源氏山?) (92 m), which then passes behind the Daibutsu and reaches Inamuragasaki and the sea[4]. Amida Buddha, Kotokuin Kōtoku-in ) is a Buddhist temple of the Pure Land sect in the city of Kamakura in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. ...


From the north to the east, Kamakura is closed off by Mt. Rokkokuken (六国見?) (147 m), Mt. Ōhira (大平山?) (159 m), Mt. Jubu (鷲峰山?) (127 m), Mt. Tendai (天台山?)(141), and Mt. Kinubari (衣張山?)(120 m), which extend all the way to Iijimagasaki and Wakae Island, on the border with Kotsubo and Zushi[4]. These hills all have low elevations between between 100 and 150m but, because of their steepness, in the north of the city are sometimes nicknamed Kamakura Alps[1].


In administrative terms, the municipality of Kamakura borders with Yokohama to the north, with Zushi to the east, and with Fujisawa to the west[4]. The city of Kamakura is the result of its fusion with the cities of Koshigoe (腰越?), absorbed in 1939, and Ofuna, absorbed in 1948, and with the village of Fukasawa, absorbed in 1948. For the town of Yokohama in Aomori Prefecture, see Yokohama, Aomori. ...


The old city and its six avenues

Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū and the dankazura during the Edo period

Kamakura's defining feature is, today as in the past, the presence of the great Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū Shinto shrine at its center. An unusual feature of the shrine is its 1.8 km sandō (参道?) (approach), which runs all the way to the the ocean in Yuigahama and doubles as Wakamiya Ōji Avenue, the city's main street. Built by Minamoto no Yoritomo as an imitation of Kyoto's Suzaku Ōji (朱雀大路?), Wakamiya Ōji used to be much wider, delimited on both sides by a 3 m deep canal and flanked by pine trees (see the Edo period print)[5]. Portrait of Yoritomo (copy) Minamoto no Yoritomo May 9, 1147—February 9, 1199) was the founder and the first shogun of the Kamakura Shogunate of Japan, who ruled from 1192 until 1199. ...


Walking from the beach toward the shrine one passes through three torii, or Shinto gates, called respectively Ichi no Torii (first gate), Ni no Torii (second gate) and San no Torii (third gate). Between the first and the second one finds Geba (下馬?) which, as the name indicates, was the place where riders had to get off their horses in deference to the temple[5]. A famous floating torii at Itsukushima Shrine Multiple torii at Fushimi Inari-taisha, Kyoto Torii are widespread in Japan, to the extent that modern architecture sometimes emulates their form, such as at Kanazawa Station. ...


Some hundred meters further, after the second torii, begins the dankazura (段葛?), a raised pathway flanked by cherry trees that marks the center of Kamakura. The dankazura becomes gradually wider so that, seen from the shrine, it will look longer than it really is[5]. Its entire length is under the direct administration of the shrine. The danzakura used to go all the way to Geba, but it was drastically shortened during the 19th century to make way for the Yokosuka railroad line, then under construction[5].


In Kamakura, wide streets are called Ōji (大路?)、narrower ones Kōji (小路?), the small streets that connect the two are called zushi (辻子?), and intersections tsuji (?)[5]. On Wakamiya Ōji’s east runs Komachi Ōji Avenue, on its west Ima Ōji Avenue, that like it go from north to south[5]. Yoko Ōji Avenue, the road that passes right under San no Torii, and Ōmachi Ōji Avenue, which goes from Kotsubo to Geba and Hase, run in the east - west direction[5]. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Geba - the hill, (2 Kings 23:8; Neh. ... The Hase is a 193 km long river in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...

The remains of the Hama no Ōtorii are about 200 m north of Ichi no Torii. Kuruma Ōji is visible o the right

Near the remains of Hama no Ōtorii there is Kuruma Ōji Avenue (also called Biwa Koji) (see photo).


These six streets (three going from north to south and three going from east to west) were built at the time of the shogunate and are all still under heavy use[5]. The only one to have been modified is Kuruma Ōji, a segment of which has disappeared.


Early history

The earliest traces of human settlements go back to at least 10 thousand years ago[6], as obsidian and stone tools found at excavation sites near Jōrakuji Temple (常楽寺?) near Ofuna were dated to the Old Stone Age (between 100 thousand and 10 thousand years ago)[6]. During the Jomon period the sea level was higher than now and all the flat land in Kamakura up to Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū and, further east, up to Yokohama's Totsuka-ku and Sakae-ku was under water[6]. Thus, the oldest pottery fragments found come from hillside settlements of the period between 7500 BCE and 5000 BCE[6]. In the late Jomon period the sea receded and civilization progressed[6]. This article is about a type of volcanic glass. ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (Greek παλαιός paleos=old and λίθος lithos=stone or the Old Stone Age) was the first period in the development of human technology of the Stone Age. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Jomon Period. ... BCE is a TLA that may stand for: Before the Common Era, date notation equivalent to BC (e. ...


During the Yayoi period (300 BCE - 300 CE) the sea receded further almost to today's coastline, and the economy shifted radically from hunting and fishing to farming[6]. The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yayoi Period. ... BCE redirects here. ...


Kamakura had been thought to have been a rather small place in its early days, but we know now that by the Nara Period (about 700 CE) there were both temples and shrines, so it can be assumed that it was already a center of a certain size[6]. Sugimoto-dera was built during this period and is therefore one of the city's oldest temples[6].


Etymology of the name Kamakura and its first use

There are various hypotheses about the origin of its name[7]. According to the most likely one Kamakura, surrounded as it is on three sides by mountains, was likened both to a cooking stove, or kamado (?), and to a warehouse, or kura (?), because both only have one side open[7]. It seems therefore that it was called at first Kamadokura, and that the syllable do was then gradually dropped[7].


Another, and more picturesque, explanation is a legend according to which Fujiwara no Kamatari stopped at Yuigahama on his way to today's Ibaraki Prefecture where he wanted to pray for peace at the Kashima Jingu Shrine[7]. He dreamed of an old man who promised his support, and the day after he found next to his bed a type of sword called kamayari[7]. Kamatari enshrined it in a place called Okura[7]. Kamayari plus Okura turned into Kamakura[7]. Fujiwara no Kamatari (藤原鎌足, 614–669 A.D.) was the founder of the Fujiwara clan in Japan. ... For the city, see Ibaraki, Osaka. ... The kamayari (鎌槍, sickle spear) is similar to the jumonji yari. ...


The name appears in the Kojiki of 712[7][8]. Kamakura is also mentioned in the c. 8th century Man'yōshū[9][10] as well as the Wamyō Ruijushō[11] of 938. However, the city clearly appears in the historical record only with Minamoto no Yoritomo and his shogunate of 1192[1]. Kojiki or Furukotofumi (古事記), also known in English as the Records of Ancient Matters, is the oldest surviving historical book recounting events of ancient earth in the Japanese language. ... Events Ansprand succeeds Aripert as king of the Lombards. ... ManyōshÅ« , Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) is the oldest existing, and most highly revered, collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods. ... The Wamyō ruijushō or Wamyō ruijÅ«shō Japanese names [for things], classified and annotated) is a 938 CE Japanese dictionary of Chinese characters. ... Events Lioa Dynasty took over Peking naming it as their South Palace [Nanjing] Births Hugh Capet, King of France (d. ... Portrait of Yoritomo (copy) Minamoto no Yoritomo May 9, 1147—February 9, 1199) was the founder and the first shogun of the Kamakura Shogunate of Japan, who ruled from 1192 until 1199. ... This page is about the Japanese ruler and military rank. ...


Kamakura's heyday

Shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo

The extraordinary events, the historical characters, and the culture of the century that goes from Minamoto no Yoritomo's birth to the assassination of the last of his sons have been throughout Japanese history the background and the inspiration for countless poems, books, jidaigeki TV dramas, Kabuki plays, songs, mangas and even videogames, and are necessary to make sense of much of what one sees in today's Kamakura. Image File history File links Minamoto_no_Yoritomo. ... Image File history File links Minamoto_no_Yoritomo. ... Jidaigeki (時代劇) is a genre of film and television in Japan. ... The oldest Kabuki theatre in Japan: the Minamiza in Kyoto The Kabukiza in Ginza is one of Tokyos leading kabuki theaters. ... This article is about the comics created in Japan. ...


Minamoto no Yoritomo, after the defeat and almost complete extermination of his family at the hands of the Taira clan, managed in the space of a few years to go from being a fugitive hiding from his enemies inside a log to being the most powerful man in the land. Defeating the Taira clan, Yoritomo became de facto ruler of Japan and founder of the Kamakura shogunate, an institution destined to last until 1333 and to have immense repercussions over the country's history. Though Yoritomo was not the first to ever hold the title of Shogun, he was the first to wield it over the whole nation[12]. The beginning of the Kamakura shogunate marked the rise of military (samurai) power and the suppression of the power of the emperor, who was compelled to preside without effective political or military power, until the Meiji Restoration over 650 years later[12]. In addition, this war and its aftermath established red and white, the colors of the Taira and Minamoto standards, as Japan's national colors. Today, these colors can be seen on the flag of Japan, and also in banners and flags in sumo and other traditional activities[12]. In 1179 he married Hōjō Masako, an event of far-reaching consequences for Japan. Portrait of Yoritomo (copy) Minamoto no Yoritomo May 9, 1147—February 9, 1199) was the founder and the first shogun of the Kamakura Shogunate of Japan, who ruled from 1192 until 1199. ... Taira (å¹³) is a Japanese surname. ... Taira (å¹³) is a Japanese surname. ... Hōjō Masako by Kikuchi Yōsai (菊池 容斎) Hōjō Masako (,1156-1225) was the eldest child and eldest daughter of Hōjō Tokimasa by his wife Hōjō no Maki, the first shikken, or regent, of the Kamakura shogunate. ...


In 1180 Yoritomo entered Kamakura, in 1185 his forces, commanded by legendary hero Minamoto no Yoshitsune, vanquished the Taira and in 1192 he received from Emperor Go-Toba the title of seii-tai shogun (征夷大将軍?)[13]. The Minamoto dynasty and its power however ended as quickly and unexpectedly as they had started. Yoshitsune by Kikuchi Yosai Yoshitsune and Benkei Viewing Cherry Blossoms, by Yoshitoshi Tsukioka Minamoto no Yoshitsune () (1159 – June 15, 1189) was a general of the Minamoto clan of Japan in the late Heian and early Kamakura period. ... Emperor Go-Toba (後鳥羽天皇) (August 6, 1180 - March 28, 1239) was the 82nd imperial ruler of Japan. ...

The Hōjō family crest, ubiquitous in Kamakura

In 1199 Yoritomo died falling from his horse when he was only 51, succeeded by his 17-year-old son and second shogun, Minamoto no Yoriie[14]. Yoriie became head of the Minamoto clan and was appointed Seii Taishogun in 1202 but, by that time, real power had already fallen into the hands of his grandfather Hōjō Tokimasa and his mother Hōjō Masako[13]. Yoriie plotted to take power back from the Hōjō clan, but failed and was assassinated on July 17, 1204[13]. From then on all power would belong to the Hōjō, and the shogun would be just a figurehead. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Minamoto no Yoriie 源頼家 (September 11, 1182 – August 14, 1204) was the second shogun (1202 – 1203) of the Kamakura shogunate of Japan. ... Minamoto (源) was an honorary surname bestowed by the Emperors of Japan of the Heian Period to their sons and grandsons after accepting them as royal subjects. ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... // Events August 1 - Arthur of Brittany captured in Mirebeau, north of Poitiers Beginning of the Fourth Crusade. ... Hōjō Tokimasa (北條 時政, 1138-1215) was the first Hōjō shikken (regent) of the Kamakura bakufu and head of the Hōjō clan. ... Hōjō Masako by Kikuchi Yōsai (菊池 容斎) Hōjō Masako (,1156-1225) was the eldest child and eldest daughter of Hōjō Tokimasa by his wife Hōjō no Maki, the first shikken, or regent, of the Kamakura shogunate. ... Hojo family crest, the Mitsuroko The feared Rokuhara Tandai, the Hojo secret police force Mongol invasions during Hojo Tokimunes rule Hōjō Takatoki fighting with a group of tengu, near the end of the Hojo era. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ...


Yoritomo's second son and third shogun Minamoto no Sanetomo spent most of his life staying out of politics and writing good poetry, but was nonetheless famously assassinated in January 1219 under the giant ginkgo tree that still stands at Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū under suspicious circumstances[13]. Barely 30 years into the shogunate, the Minamoto dynasty had ended[13]. Tree at Hachiman Shrine. ... Species G. biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba; 銀杏 in Chinese), frequently misspelled as Gingko, and also known as the Maidenhair Tree, is a unique tree with no close living relatives. ...


The Hōjō Regency, a unique episode in Japanese history, however continued until Nitta Yoshisada defeated it in 1333. Nitta Yoshisada (新田義貞)(1301-1338) was the head of the Nitta clan in the early 14th century, and supported the Southern Court of Emperor Go-Daigo in the Nanboku-cho period, capturing Kamakura from the Hōjō clan in 1333. ...


The fall, renaissance and final decline of the city

A major change took place in the Kamakura Shogunate when the Hōjō, acting as regents for the shogun, usurped power[14]. It was under their regency that Kamakura built many of its best and most prestigious temples and shrines, for example Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū, Kenchō-ji, Engaku-ji, Jufuku-ji, Jōchi-ji, and Zeniarai Benten Shrine. The Hōjō family crest in the city is therefore still ubiquitous. This wooden Kongorikishi statue was created during the Kamakura shogunate during 14th century Japan. ... Kencho-ji Temple from main gate Kenchō-ji (建長寺) is one of the five great Zen temples in the city of Kamakura in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, and the oldest Zen training monastery in Japan. ... The great bell ÅŒgune at Engaku-ji A stone carving at Engaku-ji An armory at Engaku-ji Engaku-ji is one of the most important Zen Buddhist temple complexes in Japan. ...


Finally, on July 5, 1333 warlord Nitta Yoshisada, who was an Emperor loyalist, attacked Kamakura and took it.[15]. Nitta Yoshisada (新田義貞)(1301-1338) was the head of the Nitta clan in the early 14th century, and supported the Southern Court of Emperor Go-Daigo in the Nanboku-cho period, capturing Kamakura from the Hōjō clan in 1333. ...

The site in Kamakura where Tōshō-ji, the Hōjō family temple once stood, and where the Hōjō committed mass suicide in 1333

In accounts of that disastrous defeat, it is recorded that nearly 900 Hōjō samurai, including the last three Regents, committed suicide at their family temple, Tōshō-ji, whose ruins have been found in today's Ōmachi[14]. The city was then sacked and many temples were burned[16]. Many regular citizens imitated the Hōjō, and an estimated total of over six thousand died on that day of their own hand[15]. In 1953 556 skeletons of that period were found during excavations near Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū Ichi no Torii in Yuigahama, all of people who had died of a violent death, probably at the hand Nitta's forces[14]. The Kamakura period was over, and Kamakura would never be the same again.


When Ashikaga Takauji became shogun in 1335, he at first established his residence at the same site where Yoritomo's mansion had been, but in 1336 he left Kamakura in charge of a deputy and moved to Kyoto[15]. Kamakura slowly recovered from the blow it had received and became a kind of secondary administrative center where laws and regulations were made[15]. As the city of residence of the governor, it regained part of its former affluence and prestige, but not only was it nonetheless a shadow of its former self, but this period of renaissance lasted barely a century[15]. Ashikaga Takauji 1305—June 7, 1358) was the founder and first shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate. ...


Kamakura was heavily damaged during a siege in 1454 and almost completely burned during the Siege of Kamakura (1526)[15]. Many of its citizens moved to Odawara when it came to prominence as the seat of the Hōjō family, with which they had had such a long relationship[15]. The final blow to the city was the decision taken in 1603 by the Tokugawa shoguns to move the capital to nearby Edo, now called Tokyo[15]. The city gradually returned to be the poor fishing village it used to be before Yoritomo's arrival[15]. Combatants Uesugi clan Hōjō clan Commanders Strength Casualties The Siege of Kamakura was fought in 1526 between the Hojo clan and the Uesugi clan. ... Tokugawa (徳川) is a surname in Japan. ... This article is about the history of the city now known as Tokyo. ...


The Meiji era and the 20th century

After the Meiji restoration Kamakura's great cultural assets, its beach and the mystique that surrounded its name made it as popular as it is now, and for pretty much the same reasons[15]. The destruction of its heritage nonetheless didn't stop: during the anti-buddhist violence of 1868 (haibutsu kishaku) that followed the official policy of separation of Shinto and Buddhism (shinbutsu bunri) many of the city temples were damaged[17]. In other cases, because mixing the two religions was now forbidden, shrines or temples had to give away some of their treasures, thus damaging their cultural heritage and decreasing the value of their properties[17]. Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū's giant Niō (仁王?)] (the two wooden wardens gods usually found at the sides of a temple's entrance), for example, being objects of Buddhist worship and therefore illegal where they were, were brought to Jufuku-ji, where they still are[18][15]. The shrine also had to destroy Buddhism-related buildings, for example its tahōtō (多宝塔?) tower, its midō (御堂?), and its garan (伽藍?)[17]. Some Buddhist temples were simply closed, like Zenkō-ji, to which the now-independent Meigetsu-in used to belong[19]. The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... Shinbutsu bunri (神仏分離, lit. ... This wooden Kongōrikishi statue originally guarded the gate to Ebaradera, a temple in Sakai, Osaka. ... This wooden Kongōrikishi statue originally guarded the gate to Ebaradera, a temple in Sakai, Osaka. ...


In 1890 the railroad, which until then had arrived just to Ofuna, reached Kamakura, bringing in tourists and new residents, and with them a new prosperity[15].

View of Mt. Fuji from the beaches along Kamakura

The epicenter of the Great Kantō earthquake in 1923 was deep beneath Izu Ōshima Island in Sagami Bay. It devastated Tokyo, the port city of Yokohama, surrounding prefectures of Chiba, Kanagawa, and Shizuoka, and caused widespread damage throughout the Kantō region.[20] It was reported that the sea receded at an unprecedented velocity, and then its wave rushed back towards the shore in a great wall of water over twenty feet high, drowning some and crushing others beneath an avalanche of water-born debris. The total death toll from earthquake, tsunami, and fire exceeded 2,000 victims.[21] Large sections of the shore simply slid into the sea; and the beach area near Kamakura was raised up about six-feet; or in other words, where there had only been a narrow strip of sand along the the sea, a wide expanse of sand was fully exposed above the waterline.[22] Image File history File linksMetadata Fujiview. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Fujiview. ... The 1923 Great Kanto earthquake ) struck the Kanto plain on the Japanese main island of Honshu at 11:58 on the morning of September 1, 1923. ... Izu ÅŒshima ) is a volcanic island in the Izu Islands (伊豆諸島) and administered by the Tokyo (東京都) Metropolitan government, Japan, lies south of Tokyo and east of the Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka prefecture. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... For the town of Yokohama in Aomori Prefecture, see Yokohama, Aomori. ... Chiba Prefecture ) is located in the Greater Tokyo Area of Honshu Island, Japan. ... Kanagawa Prefecture (神奈川県; Kanagawa-ken) is a geographic and political area located in the Kanto region on Honshu island, Japan. ... Shizuoka Prefecture ) is located in the ChÅ«bu region on HonshÅ« island, Japan. ...


Many temples founded centuries ago are therefore carefully re-created replicas, and it's for this reason that Kamakura has just one National Treasure (the Shariden at Engaku-ji)[1]. Much of Kamakura's heritage was destroyed and later rebuilt.[23]. The great bell ÅŒgune at Engaku-ji A stone carving at Engaku-ji An armory at Engaku-ji Engaku-ji is one of the most important Zen Buddhist temple complexes in Japan. ...


Nichiren in Kamakura

The monument on the spot at Ryūkō-ji where Nichiren was miraculously saved from execution

Kamakura is known among Buddhists for having been during the 13th century the cradle of Nichiren Buddhism. Founder Nichiren wasn't a native: he was born in Awa Province, in today's Chiba Prefecture, but it was only natural to a preacher to come here because at the time the city was the political center of the country[24]. He settled down in a straw hut in the Matsubagayatsu[25] district, where three temples (Ankokuron-ji, Myōhō–ji, and Chōshō-ji), have been fighting for centuries for the honor of being the true heir of the master[24]. During his turbulent life Nichiren came and went, but Kamakura always remained at the heart of his religious activities. Once in Katase he was about to be executed by the Hōjō regency for being a troublemaker and was saved literally by a miracle, it's in Kamakura that he wrote his famous Risshō Ankoku Ron (立正安国論?), or "Treatise on Peace and Righteousness", and it's here that he preached[24]. Nichiren Buddhism (日蓮系諸宗派: Nichiren-kei sho shÅ«ha) is a branch of Buddhism based on the teachings of the 13th century Japanese monk Nichiren (1222–1282). ... Nichiren (日蓮) (February 16, 1222 – October 13, 1282), born Zennichimaro (善日麿), later Zeshō-bō Renchō (是生房蓮長), and finally Nichiren (日蓮), was a Buddhist monk of 13th century Japan. ... Awa Province can be: Awa Province (Chiba) (安房国) in modern-day Chiba Prefecture. ... Chiba Prefecture ) is located in the Greater Tokyo Area of Honshu Island, Japan. ...


The locations most important to Nichiren Buddhism are:

  • The three temples in Matsubagayatsu

Ankokuron-ji claims to have on its grounds the cave where the master, with the help of a white monkey, hid from his persecutors[24]. (It must be noted however that Hosshō-ji in Zushi's Hisagi district makes the same claim, and with a better historical basis [26][27].) Within Ankokuron-ji lie also the spot where Nichiren used to meditate while admiring Mount Fuji, the place where his most faithful disciple Nichiro was cremated, and the cave where he is supposed to have written his Risshō Ankoku Ron[24]. Zushi (逗子市 Zushi-shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. ...


Nearby Myōhō–ji (also called "Koke-dera" or "Temple of Moss"), a much smaller temple, was erected in an area where Nichiren had his home for 19 years[24].


The third Nichiren temple in Nagoe, Chōshō-ji, also claims to lie on the very spot where it all started.

  • The Nichiren Tsujiseppō Ato (日蓮聖人辻説法跡?) on Komachi Ōji in the Komachi district contains the very stone from which he used to harangue the crowds, claiming that the various calamities that were afflicting the city at the moment were due to the moral failings of its citizens[24].
  • The former execution ground at Katase's Ryūkō-ji where Nichiren was about to be beheaded (an event known to Nichiren's followers as the Tatsunokuchi Persecution (龍ノ口法難?)), and where he was miraculously saved when thunder struck the executioner[24]. Nichiren had been condemned to death for having written the Risshō Ankoku Ron[28]. Every year, on September 12, Nichiren devotees gather to celebrate the anniversary of the miracle [29].
  • The Kesagake no Matsu (袈裟掛けるの松?), the pine tree on the road to Inamuragasaki from which Nichiren hanged his kesa (a Buddhist stole) so that it wouldn't get soaked in his blood during his execution[28]. The original pine tree however died and has been replaced many times[28].

The stole (a liturgical vestment of various Christian denominations) is an embroidered band of cloth, formerly usually of silk, about two and one-half to three metres long and seven to ten centimetres wide, whose ends are usually broadened out. ...

Famous locations

Crowds of visitors in Kamakura
(Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū)

Kamakura has many historically significant Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines, some of them, like Sugimoto-dera, over 1200 years old. Kōtoku-in, with its monumental outdoor bronze statue of Amida Buddha, is the most famous. A 15th century tsunami destroyed the temple that once housed the Great Buddha, but the statue survived and has remained outdoors ever since. This iconic Daibutsu is arguably amongst the few images which have come to represent Japan in the world's collective imagination. Kamakura also hosts the so-called Five Great Zen Temples (the Kamakura Gozan). Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy[1] with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... Amida Buddha, Kotokuin Kotokuin (高徳院) is a Buddhist temple of the Pure Land sect in the city of Kamakura in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. ... For other uses, see Amitabha (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... Amida Buddha, Kotokuin The Great Buddha (大仏, daibutsu) is a monumental outdoor bronze statue of Amida Buddha in the Kotokuin Temple in Kamakura, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. ...


The architectural heritage of Kamakura is almost unmatched, and the city has proposed 23 of its historic sites for inclusion in Unesco's World Heritage Sites list. It must be remembered, however, that much of the city was devastated in the Great Kantō Earthquake of 1923 and that many temples and shrines, however founded centuries ago, are physically just careful replicas. Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


Some of Kamakura's highlights are:

  • The Asaina Pass and its Kumano Jinja
  • Ankokuron-ji
  • An'yō-in
  • Chōshō-ji
  • Engaku-ji, ranked Number Two among Kamakura's Great Zen Temples
  • Hatakeyama Shigeyasu's grave
  • Jōchi-ji, ranked Number Four among Kamakura's Great Zen Temples
  • Jōmyō-ji temple, ranked Number Five among Kamakura's Great Zen Temples
  • Jufuku-ji, ranked Number Three among Kamakura's Great Zen Temples
  • Hase-dera
  • Kanagawa Prefectural Ofuna Botanical Garden
  • Kenchō-ji, ranked Number One among Kamakura's Great Zen Temples and, together with Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū, the pride of the city
  • Kōmyō-ji
  • Kōtoku-in and its Great Buddha
  • The Kamakura Museum of Literature, the former villa of Marquises Maeda
  • Meigetsu-in
  • Minamoto no Yoritomo's grave
  • Moto Hachiman
  • Myōhō-ji
  • Ōfuna Kannon [1]
  • Tatsunokuchi, where Mongol emissaries were beheaded and buried.
  • Katase's Ryūkō-ji
  • Sugimoto-dera
  • The Shakadō Pass (see description below)
  • Tōkei-ji, famous in the past as a refuge for battered women
  • Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū, symbol of the city
  • Wakamiya Ōji Avenue, with its three beautiful torii and cherry trees
  • Yuigahama, a popular beach
  • Zaimokuza Beach
  • Zeniarai Benzaiten Shrine, where visitors go to wash their coins
  • Zuisen-ji, famous for its garden

The great bell Ōgune at Engaku-ji A stone carving at Engaku-ji An armory at Engaku-ji Engaku-ji is one of the most important Zen Buddhist temple complexes in Japan. ... Statues of Jizo at Hase-dera Kaikōzan Hase-dera (海光山長谷寺) is one of the great Buddhist temples in the city of Kamakura in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, famous for housing a massive wooden statue of Kannon. ... The Kanagawa Prefectural Ofuna Botanical Garden (神奈川県立フラワーセンター 大船植物園) is a botanical garden located at 1018 Okamoto, Kamakura, Kanagawa, Japan. ... Kencho-ji Temple from main gate Kenchō-ji (建長寺) is one of the five great Zen temples in the city of Kamakura in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, and the oldest Zen training monastery in Japan. ... Amida Buddha, Kotokuin Kōtoku-in ) is a Buddhist temple of the Pure Land sect in the city of Kamakura in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Japan Commanders Kublai Khan Hōjō Tokimune Strength 35,000 Mongol & Chinese soldiers and 18,000 Korean warriors 10,000 Casualties 16,000 killed before landed minimal Defensive wall at Hakata. ... Tōkei-ji (東慶寺) is a Buddhist temple in the city of Kamakura in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. ... A famous floating torii at Itsukushima Shrine Multiple torii at Fushimi Inari-taisha, Kyoto Torii are widespread in Japan, to the extent that modern architecture sometimes emulates their form, such as at Kanazawa Station. ...

Festivals and other events

The Parade during the Kamakura Festival
Main article: Kamakura's festivals and events

Kamakura has many festivals (matsuri (祭り?)) and other events in each of the seasons, usually based on its rich historical heritage. They are often sponsored by private businesses and, unlike those in Kyoto, they are relatively small-scale events attended mostly by locals and a few tourists[30]. January in particular has many because it's the first month of the year, so authorities, fishermen, businesses and artisans organize events to pray for their own health and safety, and for a good and prosperous working year. Kamakura's numerous temples and shrines, first among them city symbols Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū]] and Kenchō-ji, organize many events too, bringing the total to over a hundred[30]. Stalls selling food or toys are a familiar sight at festivals throughout Japan. ... Stalls selling food or toys are a familiar sight at festivals throughout Japan. ... For other uses, see Kyoto (disambiguation). ...


January

4th - Chōna-hajimeshiki (手斧初式?) at Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū: This event marks the beginning of the working year for local construction workers who, for the ceremony, use traditional working tools[30]. The festival also commemorates Minamoto no Yoritomo, who ordered the reconstruction of the main building of the shrine after it was destroyed by fire in 1191[30]. The ceremony takes place at 1:00 PM at Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū[31].


February

Day before the first day of spring (usually Feb. 3) - Setsubun Matsuri (節分祭?) at Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū, Kenchō-ji, Hase-dera, Kamakura-gū, etc. : Celebration of the end of winter[30]. Beans are scattered in the air to ensure good luck[30]. Kencho-ji Temple from main gate Kenchō-ji (建長寺) is one of the five great Zen temples in the city of Kamakura in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, and the oldest Zen training monastery in Japan. ... Statues of Jizo at Hase-dera Kaikōzan Hase-dera (海光山長谷寺) is one of the great Buddhist temples in the city of Kamakura in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, famous for housing a massive wooden statue of Kannon. ...


April

2nd to 3rd Sunday: Kamakura Matsuri at Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū and other locations: A whole week of events that celebrate the city and its history[30].


May

5th - Kusajishi (草鹿?) at the Kamakura Shrine: Archers in samurai gear shoot arrows at a straw deer while reciting old poems[30].


July

1st - 31st - Little Thailand Beach Event: A group of Thai restaurants and shops stays open all month on Yuigahama's beach.


August

10th (or following Monday if it falls on a Saturday): A full hour of fireworks on the beach in Yuigahama[31].


September

14th, 15th and 16th - Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū Reitaisai (鶴岡八幡宮例大祭?): Famous festival with many attractions, the most famous of which is the Yabusame (流鏑馬?), or Japanese horseback archery, which takes place on the 16th[31]. Yabusame Archer Yabusame (流鏑馬) is a type of Japanese archery, one that is performed while riding a horse. ... Yabusame Archer Yabusame (流鏑馬) is a type of Japanese archery, one that is performed while riding a horse. ...


The Shakadō Pass

The Ōmachi side of the majestic Shakadō Pass

Besides the Seven Entrances there is another great pass in the city, the huge Shakadō Pass (釈迦堂切通?) which connects Shakadōgayatsu[25] to the Ōmachi and Nagoe districts.


According to the plaque near the pass itself, the name derives from the fact that third Shikken Hōjō Yasutoki built here a Shakadō (a Buddhist temple devoted to Shakyamuni) dedicated to his father Yoshitoki's memory. The original location of the temple is unclear, but it was closed some time in the middle Muromachi Period[32]. The Shaka Nyorai statue that is supposed to have been its main object of cult has been declared an important cultural property and is conserved at Daien-ji in Meguro, Tokyo[32]. Shikken (執権) was the regent of the shogun in the Kamakura shogunate in Japan. ... Hōjō Yasutoki (北条 泰時; 1183-1242, r. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... Hōjō Yoshitoki )(1163 - 1224) was the second Hōjō shikken (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate and head of the Hōjō clan. ... The Muromachi period (Japanese: 室町時代, Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era, the Ashikaga period, or the Ashikaga bakufu) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. ... Buddharupa (literally, Image of the Awakened One/The Buddha) is the Sanskrit term used in Buddhism for images of the Buddha. ... Categories: Wards of Tokyo | Japan geography stubs ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...


Although important, the pass was not considered one of the Entrances because it connected two areas both fully within Kamakura[5]. Its date of creation is unclear, as it's not explicitly mentioned in any historical record, and it could be therefore recent[5]. It seems likely however that a pass mentioned in the Genpei Jōsuiki (源平盛哀記?) in relation to a war in Kotsubo in 1180 between the Miura clan and the Hatakeyama clan is indeed the Shakadō Pass[32]. In any case, the presence of two yagura tombs (see the following section) within it means that it can be dated to at least the Kamakura period. It was then an important way of transit, but it was also much narrower than today and harder to pass[32]. The Genpei Jōsuiki, also known as the Genpei Seisuiki ), is a 48-book extended version of the Heike Monogatari. ... The Genpei Jōsuiki, also known as the Genpei Seisuiki ), is a 48-book extended version of the Heike Monogatari. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Miura(三浦) clan was one of the branch families descended from the Taira clan. ... The Hatakeyama (畠山) clan was a branch family descended from the Taira. ...


Inside the pass there are two small yagura tombs containing some gorintō. On the Shakadōgayatsu side of the pass, just before the first houses a small street on the left takes to a large group of yagura called Shakadōgayatsu Yagura-gun[32]. There rest the bones of some of the hundreds of Hōjō family members who committed seppuku at Tōshō-ji after the fall of Kamakura in 1333[32]. a large wooden structure at the center of the bon odori on which the musicians perform <http://www. ... Hara-kiri redirects here. ...


The pass is presently closed to all traffic because of the danger posed by falling rocks.


The yagura tombs

Hōjō Masako's yagura at Jufuku-ji. The ashes of the deceased are not actually there, as they were lost centuries ago.

An important and characteristic feature of Kamakura is a type of grave called yagura (やぐら?)[33] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (960x720, 120 KB) Hojo Masakos Tomb. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (960x720, 120 KB) Hojo Masakos Tomb. ... Hōjō Masako by Kikuchi Yōsai (菊池 容斎) Hōjō Masako (,1156-1225) was the eldest child and eldest daughter of Hōjō Tokimasa by his wife Hōjō no Maki, the first shikken, or regent, of the Kamakura shogunate. ...


Yagura are caves dug on the side of hills during the Middle Ages to serve as tombs for high-ranking personalities and priests[33]. Two famous examples are Hōjō Masako's and Minamoto no Sanetomo's cenotaphs in Jufuku-ji's cemetery, about 1 km from Kamakura Station. The Cenotaph, London. ... Kamakura Station ) is a station located in Kamakura, Kanagawa, Japan. ...


Usually present in the cemetery of most Buddhist temples, they are extremely numerous also in the hills surrounding the town, and estimates put them in the thousands[33]. Yagura can be found either isolated or in groups of even 180 graves, as in the Hyakuhachi Yagura (百八やぐら?)[33]. Many are now abandoned and in a bad state of preservation[33]. The Buddhist temple Wat Chiang Man, in Chiang Mai, Thailand, which dates from the late 13th century Buddhist temples and monasteries, sorted by location. ...


The reason why they were dug is not known, but it is thought likely that the tradition started because of the lack of flat land within the narrow limits of Kamakura's territory. Started during the Kamakura period (1185–1333), the tradition seems to have declined during the following Muromachi period, when storehouses and cemeteries came to be preferred. The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Kamakura Period. ... The Muromachi period (Japanese: 室町時代, Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era, the Ashikaga period, or the Ashikaga bakufu) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. ...


True yagura can be found also in the Miura Peninsula, in the Izu Peninsula, and even in distant Awa Province (Chiba)[33]. Categories: Stub ... Location. ... Hiroshige ukiyo-e showing harbor in Awa--specifically, the then-village of Kominato Awa (安房国; -no kuni) was an old province of Japan which is today a part of Chiba Prefecture. ...


Tombs in caves can also be found in the Tohoku region, near Hiroshima and Kyoto, and in Ishikawa Prefecture, however they are not called yagura and their relationship with those in Kanagawa Prefecture is unknown. This article is about a region of Japan. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kyoto (disambiguation). ... Ishikawa Prefecture ) is located in the Chubu region on Honshu island, Japan. ...


Transportation

Rail

The East Japan Railway Company's Yokosuka Line has three stations within the city. Ōfuna Station is the northernmost. Next is Kita-Kamakura Station. In the center of the city is Kamakura Station, the central railway station in the city. Yamanote Line, Tokyo JR Yamanote Line train in Tokyo, Japan Above Yurakucho in Tokyo East Japan Railway Company (東日本旅客鉄道 Higashi-Nihon Ryokyaku Tetsudo or JR東日本; JR Higashi-Nihon) (TYO: 9020) is a Japanese private railroad company, the largest passenger railway company in the world and one of the seven JR companies. ... A northbound Yokosuka Line train bound for Narita Airport passes a grade crossing outside of the Kita-Kamakura station. ... ÅŒfuna Station (大船駅 ÅŒfuna Eki) is a train station in Kamakura, Kanagawa, Japan. ... Kita-Kamakura Station ) is a station located in Kamakura, Kanagawa, Japan. ... Kamakura Station ) is a station located in Kamakura, Kanagawa, Japan. ...


Kamakura Station is the terminal for the Enoshima Electric Railway. This narrow-gauge railway runs westward to Fujisawa, and part of its route runs parallel to the seashore. After leaving Kamakura Station, trains make eight more station stops in the city. One of them is Hase Station, closest to Hase-dera and Kōtoku-in. This train at Kamakura Station is bound for Fujisawa Enoden operates buses from stations like Kamakura Enoden Kamakura Station is adjacent to JR Kamakura Station. ... , Fujisawa (藤沢市 Fujisawa-shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. ... Statues of Jizo at Hase-dera Kaikōzan Hase-dera (海光山長谷寺) is one of the great Buddhist temples in the city of Kamakura in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, famous for housing a massive wooden statue of Kannon. ... Amida Buddha, Kotokuin Kōtoku-in ) is a Buddhist temple of the Pure Land sect in the city of Kamakura in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. ...


Education

Kamakura has many educational facilities. The city operates sixteen public elementary schools and nine middle schools. The national government has one elementary and one middle school, and there are two private elementary and six private middle schools. At the next level are four prefectural and six private high schools. Also in Kamakura is a prefectural special school.


Kamakura Women's University is the city's sole university.


Government and administration

Kamakura has a mayor and a city council, all publicly elected. The mayor is Tokukazu Ishiwata[34]. The City Council consists of 28 members.


Sister cities

Kamakura has five sister cities. Three are domestic and two are overseas. The sisters within Japan are Hagi, Ashikaga and Ueda. Kamakura's international sisters are Nice in France and Dunhuang in the People's Republic of China[35]. Hagi (萩市; -shi) is a city located in Yamaguchi, Japan and was founded on July 1, 1932. ... Ashikaga (Japanese: 足利市, Ashikaga-shi) is a city located in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. ... Ueda (上田市; -shi) is a city located in Nagano, Japan. ... This article is about the French city. ... Location of Dunhuang Dunhuang (Chinese: , also written as 燉煌 till early Qing Dynasty; Pinyin: ) is a city in Jiuquan, Gansu province, China. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Japanese Wikipedia, Kamakura article, retrieved on April 24, 2008
  2. ^ Cities, Empires and Global State Formation. Institute for Research on World-Systems
  3. ^ a b c d Hiking to Kamakura's Seven Entrances and Seven Passes, The Kamakura Citizen Net (Japanese)
  4. ^ a b c Kamakura Shōkō Kaigijo (2008: 64)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kamakura Shōkō Kaigijo (2008: 56-57)
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Kamakura: History and the Historic Sites - Through the Heian Period, the Kamakura Citizen Net, retrieved on April 27, 2008
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Kamakura: History & Historic Sites - Origin of the Name Kamakura, the Kamakura Citizen Net, retrieved on April 27, 2008
  8. ^ Kurano (1958: 224-225)
  9. ^ Satake (2002: 315, 337)
  10. ^ Satake (2003: 393)
  11. ^ Minamoto (1966, 203-204)
  12. ^ a b c See article Genpei War
  13. ^ a b c d e Kamakura: History & Historic Sites - The Kamakura Period, the Kamakura Citizen Net, retrieved on April 27, 2008
  14. ^ a b c d A Guide to Kamakura - History, retrieved on April 28, 2008]
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Mutsu (1995/06: 19 - 40)
  16. ^ See for example article An'yō-in
  17. ^ a b c Kamakura Shōkō Kaigijo (2008: 28)
  18. ^ See article Jufuku-ji
  19. ^ See article Meigetsu-in
  20. ^ Hammer (2006: 278]
  21. ^ Hammer (2006: 115 - 116).
  22. ^ Hammer (2006:116)
  23. ^ Kamakura: History and the Historic Sites - Kamakura in the Modern era (the Meiji period) and following sections, The Kamakura Citizen net, retrieved on April 5, 2008]
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h Mutsu (1995/06: 258 - 271)
  25. ^ a b The ending "ヶ谷", common in place names and usually read "-gaya", in Kamakura is normally pronounced "-gayatsu", as in Shakadōgayatsu, Ōgigayatsu, and Matsubagayatsu.
  26. ^ Shakyamuni Buddha and His Supporters, Nichirenshu.org, retrieved on May 25, 2008
  27. ^ Photo of Hosshō-ji's gate with its sculpted white monkeys
  28. ^ a b c Kamakura Shōkō Kaigijo (2008: 46)
  29. ^ Kamakura Shōkō Kaigijo (2008: 186)
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h Kamakura Shōkō Kaigijo (2008: 170 - 188)
  31. ^ a b c Kamakura City's List of Festivals and Events
  32. ^ a b c d e f Kamiya Vol. 1 (2006/08: 71 - 72)
  33. ^ a b c d e f Kamakura Shōkō Kaigijo (2008: 35 - 36)
  34. ^ 鎌倉市長のページ / 鎌倉市
  35. ^ Introduction to Kamakura かまくら GreenNet

The Genpei or Gempei War (源平合戦、寿永・治承の乱) (1180-1185) was a war of ancient Japan, fought between the Taira and Minamoto clans. ...

References

  • Mutsu, Iso (1995/06). Kamakura. Fact and Legend (in English). Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0804819688. 
  • Kamiya, Michinori (2000/08). Fukaku Aruku - Kamakura Shiseki Sansaku Vol. 1 (in Japanese). Kamakura: Kamakura Shunshūsha. ISBN 4774003409. 
  • Kamakura Shōkō Kaigijo (2008). Kamakura Kankō Bunka Kentei Kōshiki Tekisutobukku (in Japanese). Kamakura: Kamakura Shunshūsha. ISBN 978-4-7740-0386-3. 
  • Hammer, Joshua. (2006). Yokohama Burning: The Deadly 1923 Earthquake and Fire that Helped Forge the Path to World War II. New York: Simon & Schuster. 10-ISBN 0-743-26465-7; 13-ISBN 978-0-743-26465-5 (cloth)
  • Kamakura Today: Annual Events (English)
  • Kamakura City's List of Festivals and Events (Japanese)
  • Kurano, Kenji; Yūkichi Takeda (1958). Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 1: Kojiki. Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten. ISBN 4-000-60001-X. 
  • Minamoto, Shitagō; Kyōto Daigaku Bungakubu Kokugogaku Kokubungaku Kenkyūshitu (1966). Shohon Shūsei Wamyō Ruijushō: Gaihen. Kyōto: Rinsen. ISBN 4-653-00508-7. 
  • Satake, Akihiro; Hideo Yamada, Rikio Kudō, Masao Ōtani, Yoshiyuki Yamazaki (2002). Shin Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei: Man'yōshū 3 (in Japanese). Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten. ISBN 4-00-240003-4. 
  • Satake, Akihiro; Hideo Yamada, Rikio Kudō, Masao Ōtani, Yoshiyuki Yamazaki (2003). Shin Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei: Man'yōshū 4 (in Japanese). Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten. ISBN 4-00-240004-4. 

Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Iwanami Shoten Publishing Ltd is a Japanese publishing company inTokyo. ... For other uses, see Kyoto (disambiguation). ... The modern skyline of Tokyo is highly decentralized. ... Iwanami Shoten Publishing Ltd is a Japanese publishing company inTokyo. ... The modern skyline of Tokyo is highly decentralized. ... Iwanami Shoten Publishing Ltd is a Japanese publishing company inTokyo. ...

External links

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Aiko | Ashigarakami | Ashigarashimo | Koza | Miura | Naka
  See also: Towns and villages by district edit
Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Kanagawa Prefecture ) is a prefecture located in the southern Kantō region of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... Atsugi (Japanese: 厚木市; -shi) is a city located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. ... Ayase (Japanese: 綾瀬市; -shi) is a city located in Japan. ... Chigasaki (茅ヶ崎市 Chigasaki-shi) is a city located in central Kanagawa Prefecture. ... Ebina (Japanese: 海老名市; -shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. ... , Fujisawa (藤沢市 Fujisawa-shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. ... Hadano (Japanese: 秦野市; -shi) is a city in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. ... Hiratsuka (平塚市 Hiratsuka-shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. ... Isehara (Japanese: 伊勢原市; -shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. ... This article is about the Japanese city. ... Minamiashigara (南足柄市 Minamiashigara-shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. ... Miura (Japanese: 三浦市; -shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. ... Odawara Castle Odawara ) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. ... Sagamihara City Hall Sagamihara (Japanese: 相模原市 -shi) is a bedroom city located in north central Kanagawa, bordering Tokyo. ... Yamato (Japanese: 大和市; -shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. ... For the town of Yokohama in Aomori Prefecture, see Yokohama, Aomori. ... Yokosuka (Japanese: 横須賀市; -shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. ... Zama (Japanese: 座間市; -shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. ... Zushi (逗子市 Zushi-shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. ... Aikō (愛甲郡; -gun) is a district located in Kanagawa, Japan. ... Ashigarakami (足柄上郡; -gun) is a district located in Kanagawa, Japan. ... Ashigarashimo (足柄下郡; -gun) is a district located in Kanagawa, Japan. ... Kōza (高座郡; -gun) is a district located in Kanagawa, Japan. ... Miura (三浦郡; -gun) is a district located in Kanagawa, Japan. ... Naka (中郡; -gun) is a district located in Kanagawa, Japan. ... Kanagawa Prefecture ) is a prefecture located in the southern Kantō region of HonshÅ«, Japan. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kamakura, Kanagawa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (230 words)
Kamakura (Japanese: 鎌倉市; -shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan, about 50 km south-south-west of Tokyo (to which it is linked by the railway line to Yokosuka).
Kamakura was designated as a city on November 3, 1939.
Kamakura has a beach which, in combination with the temples and the proximity to Tokyo, makes it a popular tourist destination.
Kanagawa Prefecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (489 words)
In medieval Japan, Kanagawa was part of the provinces of Sagami and Musashi.
Kamakura in central Sagami was the capital of Japan during the Kamakura period (1185-1333).
Kanagawa is a relatively small prefecture wedged between Tokyo on the north, the foothills of Mount Fuji on the northwest, and the Pacific Ocean and Tokyo Bay on the south and east.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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