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Encyclopedia > Kalmyk ASSR

The Republic of Kalmykia (Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч; Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). The direct transliteration of the republic's Russian name is Respublika Kalmykiya, and of the Kalmyk name it is Khal'mg Tanghch. Kalmyk (Kalmuck, Calmouk, Oirat) is the language of the Kalmyks, spoken in Kalmykia (Russian Federation), Western China and Western Mongolia. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 88 subjects (Russian: ; English transliteration: subyekty, sing. ... The Russian Federation is divided into 88 federal subjects (constituent units), 21 of which are republics. ... There exist many possible systems for transliterating the Cyrillic alphabet of the Russian language to English or the Latin alphabet. ...

Republic of Kalmykia
Республика Калмыкия
Хальмг Таңһч
   
Flag of Kalmykia Coat of arms of Kalmykia
Flag of Kalmykia Coat of arms of Kalmykia
Image:RussiaKalmykia2005.png
Capital Elista
Area

- total
- % water Image File history File links Flag_of_Kalmykia. ... This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links RussiaKalmykia2005. ... Elista (Russian: ; Kalmyk: Элст, Elst) is the capital of the Republic of Kalmykia, an autonomous republic of Russia. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ...

Ranked 44th

- 76,100 km²
- negligible Here is a list of the 88 federal subjects of Russia in order of size. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ...

Population

- Total
- Density World map of the population density in 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ...

Ranked 78th

- est. 292,410 (2002)
- est. 3.8/km² Here is a list of the 89 federal subjects of Russia in order of population according to the 2002 census. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...

Political status Republic
Federal district Southern Federal District
Economic Region Povolzhye
Cadaster # 08
Official languages Russian, Kalmyk
President Kirsan Nikolayevich Ilyumzhinov
Vice-President Valery Petrovich Bogdanov
Legislature {{{LegiNm}}}
Anthem

Contents

The Russian Federation is divided into 88 federal subjects (constituent units), 21 of which are republics. ... All of the federal subjects of Russia are grouped into seven federal districts (Russian: , sing. ... Southern Federal District (Russian: Ю́жный федера́льный о́круг; tr. ... Russia is divided into eleven economic regions (Russian: экономические районы, sing. ... Kalmyk (Kalmuck, Calmouk, Oirat) is the language of the Kalmyks, spoken in Kalmykia (Russian Federation), Western China and Western Mongolia. ... Kirsan Nikolayevich Ilyumzhinov (Russian: Кирса́н Никола́евич Илюмжи́нов) (b. ...


Geography

Volgograd Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast. ... Flag of Astrakhan Oblast Astrakhan Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... The Republic of Dagestan (Russian: ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Stavropol Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai). ... Rostov Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in Southern Federal District. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a landlocked endorheic sea of Eurasia between Asia and Europe. ...

Time zone

Kalmykia is located in the Moscow Time Zone (MSK/MSD). UTC offset is +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD). Image File history File links RTZ2. ... Time zones of Europe: Moscow Time (MSK) is the time zone 3 hours ahead of UTC (UTC+3). ... It has been suggested that leap second be merged into this article or section. ...

Rivers

Major rivers include:

The Volga river in Western Russia, Europes longest river, with a length of 3,690 km (2,293 miles), provides the core of the largest river system in Europe. ... Kuma is a river in Russia. ... Manych (Маныч) is a river in southern Russia, tributary to the river Don. ...

Lakes

Kalmykia is located on the shores of the Caspian Sea. In general, there are very few lakes on the territory of the republic. The biggest lakes include: Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a landlocked endorheic sea of Eurasia between Asia and Europe. ...

  • Manych-Gudilo Lake
  • Sarpinskoye Lake
  • Sostinskiye Lakes
  • Tsagan-Khak Lake

Tsagan-Khak Lake (Russian: о́зеро Цага́н-Хак) is located in the Russian Republic of Kalmykia. ...

Natural Resources

Kalmykia's natural resources include coal, oil, and natural gas. Coal (previously referred to as pitcoal or seacoal) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a black, dark brown or greenish liquid found in porous rock formations in the earth. ... Many stoves use natural gas. ...


Climate

Kalmykia has a continental climate, with very hot and dry summers and cold winters with little snow.

  • Average January temperature: -7°C
  • Average July temperature: +24°C
  • Average annual precipitation: 170 mm (eastern parts) to 400 mm (western parts)

Administrative divisions

Main article: Administrative divisions of Kalmykia

Cities and towns under republics jurisdiction Elista (Элиста) (capital) Districts: Chernozemelsky (Черноземе́льский) with 8 rural municipalities under the districts jurisdiction. ...

Demographics

According to the 2002 Census, Kalmyks at 155,938 make up 53.3% of the republic's population. Other groups include Russians (98,115, or 33.6%), Dargins (7,295, or 2.5%), Chechens (5,979, or 2.0%), Kazakhs (5,011, or 1.7%), Turks (3,124, or 1.1%), Ukrainians (2,505, or 0.9%), Avars (2,305, or 0.8%), Ethnic Germans (1,643, or 0.6%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population. For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Dargin people are an ethnic group of the Caucasus who live mainly in the Russian republic of Dagestan. ... This article covers the Chechen people as an ethnic group, not Chechen meaning citizens of Chechnya. ... The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazak or Qazaq), (in Kazakh: Қазақ []; in Russian: Казах; English term is the transliteration from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Russia and China). ... Avars or Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan, in which they are the predominant group. ... Ethnic Germans—usually simply called Germans are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German, but do not live within the present-day Federal Republic of Germany or hold its citizenship. ...

  • Population: 292,410 (2002)
    • Urban: 129,539 (44.3%)
    • Rural: 162,871 (55.7%)
    • Male: 140,097 (47.9%)
    • Female: 152,313 (52.1%)
  • Females per 1000 males: 1,087
  • Average age: 33.0 years
    • Urban: 32.0 years
    • Rural: 33.8 years
    • Male: 31.2 years
    • Female: 34.7 years
  • Number of households: 90,464 (with 289,816 people)
    • Urban: 40,885 (with 128,564 people)
    • Rural: 49,579 (with 161,252 people)
  • Average life expectancy:
    • Male: 59.6 years (exceeding Russia's average of 59.0 years)
    • Female: 72.4 years (exceeding Russia's average of 72.2 years)

History

Kalmykia map
Enlarge
Kalmykia map

Kalmyk Autonomy

The ancestors of the Kalmyks, the Oirats, migrated from the steppes of southern Siberia on the banks of the Irtysh River to the Lower Volga region. Various reasons have been given for the move, but the generally accepted answer is that the Kalmyks sought abundant pastures for their herds. They reached the lower Volga region in or about 1630. That land, however, was not uncontested pastures but was rather the homeland of the Nogai Horde, a confederation of Turkic-speaking nomadic tribes. The Kalmyks expelled the Nogais who fled to the Caucasian plains and to the Crimean Khanate, areas under the control of the Ottoman Empire. Some Nogai groups sought the protection of the Russian garrison at Astrakhan. The remaining nomadic Turkic tribes became vassals of Kalmyk Khan. The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Oirats (also spelled Oyrats or Oyirads; Mongolian: Ойрадын Ojradyn) refers to both a Western Mongol people of Europe and Asia and, historically, to a Turkic people now known as the Altays. ... Irtysh River (also Ertis) a river in Asia, the chief tributary of the river Ob. ... The Nogai Horde was the Tatar horde that controlled the Caucasus Mountain region after the Mongol invasion. ... The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: Кримське ханство - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl...


The Kalmyks settled in the wide open steppes from Saratov in the north to Astrakhan on the Volga delta in the south and to the Terek River in the southwest. They also encamped on both sides of the Volga River, from the Don River in the west to the Ural River in the east. Although these territories were recently annexed by Russia, it was in no position to settle the area with Russian colonists. This area under Kalmyk control would eventually be called the Kalmyk Khanate. Saratov flag Saratov (Russian: ) is a major city in southern European Russia. ... The Terek (Те́рек) is a major river in the Northern Caucasus, flowing through Georgia and Russia into the Caspian Sea. ... There are at several rivers named Don: Don River, Russia Don River, Toronto River Don, England River Don, Aberdeenshire This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Ural River (Russian: Урал, Urál [formerly: Яик, Yaik River], Kazakh: Жайық, Zhayyq) flows through Russia and Kazakhstan. ...


Within 25 years of settling in the lower Volga region, the Kalmyks became subjects of the Tsar. In exchange for protecting Russia’s southern border, the Kalmyks were promised an annual allowance and access to the markets of Russian border settlements. The open access to Russian markets was supposed to discourage mutual raiding on the part of the Kalmyks and of the Russians and Bashkirs, a Russian-dominated Turkic tribe, but this was not often the practice. In addition, Kalmyk allegiance was often nominal, as the Kalmyk Khans practiced self-government, based on a set of laws they called the Great Code of the Nomads (Iki Tsaadzhin Bichig). The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ...


The Kalmyk Khanate reached its peak of military and political power under Ayuka Khan (1669 -1724). During his era, the Kalmyk Khanate fulfilled its responsibility to protect the southern borders of Russia and conducted many military expeditions against its Turkic-speaking neighbors. Successful military expeditions were also conducted in the Caucasus. The Khanate experienced economic prosperity from free trade with Russian border towns, China, Tibet and with their Muslim neighbors. During this era, the Kalmyks also kept close contacts with their Oirat kinsmen in Dzungaria as well as the Dalai Lama in Tibet. Dzungaria (also Jungaria, Sungaria, Zungaria; Mongolian: Зүүнгар Züüngar, Chinese: 準噶爾, Russian: Džungarija) is a geographical region covering approximately 777,000 km², within the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwestern China. ... The 14th and current Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (born 1935) The 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933) In Tibetan Buddhism, the successive Dalai Lamas (Tibetan: ཏ་ཱལའི་བླ་མ་ taa-la’i bla-ma; Simplified Chinese: 达赖喇嘛; Traditional Chinese: 達賴喇嘛; pinyin: Dálài LÇŽmā) form a tulku lineage of Gelugpa leaders which trace... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་; Wylie: Bod; pronounced in the Lhasa dialect; Chinese: ; pinyin: XÄ«zàng or Simplified Chinese: 藏区; Traditional Chinese: 藏區; pinyin: ZàngqÅ« [the two names are used with different connotations; see Name section below]) is a region in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ...


Imposition of Russian Rule

Towards the end of the Ayuka Khan era, the Tsarist government implemented policies that gradually chipped away at the autonomy of the Kalmyk Khanate. These policies, for instance, encouraged the establishment of Russian and German settlements on pastures the Kalmyks roamed in the lower Volga region. The settlers took over land used by Kalmyks to feed their livestock and, in some cases, forced Kalmyks into servitude. The Russian Orthodox church, by contrast, pressured many Kalmyks to adopt Orthodoxy. The Tsarist government imposed a council on the Kalmyk Khan, diluting his authority, while continuing to expect the Kalmyk Khan to provide cavalry units to fight on behalf of Russia. By the mid-17th century, Kalmyks were increasingly disillusioned with Russian encroachment and interference in its internal affairs.


Ubashi Khan, the great-grandson Ayuka Khan and the last Kalmyk Khan, decided to return his people to their ancestral homeland, Dzungaria. Under his leadership, approximately 200,000 Kalmyks migrated directly across the Central Asian desert. Along the way, many Kalmyks were killed in ambushes or captured and enslaved by their Kazakh and Kyrgyz enemies. Many also died of starvation or thirst. After several grueling months of travel, only 96,000 Kalmyks reached the Manchu Empire's western outposts Xinjiang near the Balkhash Lake. Categories: Lakes of Kazakhstan | Rift lakes | Stub ...


After failing to stop the flight, Catherine the Great abolished the Kalmyk Khanate, transferring all governmental powers to the Governor of Astrakhan. The Kalmyks who remained in Russian territory continued to fight in Russian wars, e.g., the Napoleonic Wars (1812 - 1815), the Crimean War (1853-1856) and Ottoman wars. They gradually created fixed settlements with houses and temples, instead of their transportable round felt yurts. In 1865, Elista, the future capital of the Kalmyk SSR was built. This process lasted until well after the Russian Revolution. Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from June 28, 1762, to her death on November 6, 1796. ... Combatants Allies: • Great Britain/United Kingdom, • Prussia, • Austria, • Sweden, • Russia, • and Others • France • Denmark-Norway • Poland Casualties Full list The Napoleonic Wars consisted of a series of wars fought during Napoleon Bonapartes rule over France. ... Combatants United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Strength 250,000 British 400,000 French 10,000 Sardinian 2,200,000 Russian Casualties 17,500 British 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease 110,000 killed, wounded and died... A Yurt is a portable felt dwelling structure used traditionally by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. ... Elista (Russian: ; Kalmyk: Элст, Elst) is the capital of the Republic of Kalmykia, an autonomous republic of Russia. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, which, after the elimination of the Russian autocracy system, and the Provisional Government (Duma), resulted in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ...


Russian Revolution and Collectivisation

After the Communist October Revolution in 1917, many Kalmyks joined the White Russian army during the Russian Civil War, especially under Generals Wrangel and Denikin. The Soviet authorities severely punished the Kalmyks who remained, executing 10,000. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution or November Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... The term White Russian may refer to: A member of the White movement, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution and fought against the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. ... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922, after the collapse of the Russian Empire, and immediately after and because of Lenins dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly, between Communist forces known as the Red Army and loosely allied anti-Communist forces known as the White Army. ... Baron Wrangel At a prayer vigil upon accepting command. ... Anton Denikin on the day of his resignation in 1920 Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин) (December 16, 1872 - August 8, 1947) was one of the foremost leaders of the counter-revolutionary White Russian forces in the civil war. ...


On November 4, 1920 Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast was created. The Bolshevik regime executed about 10,000 Kalmyks at this time. In 1931, Stalin ordered the collectivization, closed the Buddhist monasteries, and burned the Kalmyks' religious texts. He deported all monks and all herdsmen owning more than 500 sheep to Siberia. The forced collectivization was unsuited to the Kalmyk temperament and the dry, treeless landscape and was a social, economic and cultural disaster. About 60,000 Kalmyks died during the great famine of 1932 to 1933. On October 22, 1935 the region was elevated to republic status Kalmyk Autonomous Republic within the RSFSR. November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast was created 1920-11-04. ... Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Siberia (Russian: , Sibir’; Tatar: Seber) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Kalmyk Autonomous Republic was created 1935-10-22. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the former...


Kalmyk Diaspora I

Before the Red Army broke through to the Crimean Peninsula towards the end of 1920, a large group of Kalmyks fled from Russia with the remnants of General Denikin's White Army to Turkey. The majority chose to resettle in Belgrade, Serbia. Smaller groups resettled in Sofia, Bulgaria, Prague, Czechoslovakia and Paris and Lyon, France. The Kalmyk political refugees in Belgrade built a Buddhist temple there in 1929. The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... The Crimea (officially Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukrainian transliteration: Avtonomna Respublika Krym, Ukrainian: Автономна Республіка Крим, Russian: Автономная Республика Крым, pronounced cry-MEE-ah in English) is a peninsula and an autonomous republic of Ukraine on the northern coast of the Black Sea. ... Belgrade (Serbian: Београд/Beograd ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Serbia. ... Motto: none Anthem: Bože Pravde Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Official language(s) Serbian1 Government Republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Formation and independence    - Formation of Serbia 814   - Formation of the Serbian Empire 1345   - Independence from the Ottoman Empire July 13, 1878   - Serbia and Montenegro union... Flag Seal Location Position of Sofia in Bulgaria Government Country  Province Bulgaria  Sofia-City Mayor Boyko Borisov Geographical characteristics Area    - City 1,310 km²    - Land   (?) km²    - Water   (?) km² Population    - City (2006) 1,376,742    - Density   907/km² Coordinates , Elevation 550 m Time zone - Summer (DST) EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC... Prague (Czech: Praha (IPA: ), see also other names) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur Tossed by the waves, she does not founder Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Département Paris (75) Région ÃŽle-de-France Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (PS) City (commune) Characteristics Land Area 86. ... Three of the main sights in Lyon, the Cathedral St-Jean, the Basilica Notre Dame de Fourvière, and the Tour métallique de Fourvière City flag City coat of arms Motto: (Franco-Provençal: Forward, forward, Lyon the best) Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 9... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Second World War

Following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941 - Operation Barbarossa - Goebbels invited several prominent Kalmyks from Belgrade, Paris, and Prague to Berlin. He wanted them to help with a propaganda campaign. The Nazis wished to win the Kalmyks to the German side against the Russians. No Kalmyks were sent to concentration camps. Goebbels turned this nucleus into a committee to free the Kalmyks from the Communist regime, by helping them print a Kalmyk language newspaper and broadcast radio news in Kalmyk directly toward Kalmykia. Joseph Goebbels Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was Adolf Hitlers Propaganda Minister (see Propagandaministerium) in Nazi Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


When the Nazi 16th Motorized Infantry Division under Field Marshal Manstein took Kalmykia early in 1942, three members of this committee were with them. Some of the Belgrade Kalmyks also participated in this invasion. They had joined the German army after the Nazi occupation of Yugoslavia in April 1941. The German army was greeted with butter and milk, the traditional Kalmykian offering to welcome guests. They were seen as liberators from Stalin’s oppressive rule. The Germans offered to dismantle the collectives and divide and privatize the land. They allowed the Kalmyks to practice Buddhism again. In response, the Kalmyks dug up the religious texts they had buried for safekeeping and built a makeshift temporary temple. In November and December 1942, however, the Red Army retook Kalmykia and destroyed everything the people had rebuilt. 16th Infantry Division 16th Motorized Infantry Division Windhund 16th Panzergrenadier Division Windhund 16th Panzer Division 116th Panzer Division Windhund Created as 16th Infantry Division in 1935. ... Generalfeldmarschall Erich von Manstein Erich von Manstein (November 24, 1887-June 10, 1973) was a lifelong professional soldier who rose to become one of the most prominent commanders of Nazi Germanys Armed Forces (Wehrmacht) during World War II; he attained the rank of Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall), although he was... German cavalry and motorized units entering Poland from East Prussia during the Polish Campaign of 1939 Wehrmacht (Defence force) was the name of the armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all South Slavic languages, Југославија in Serbian and Macedonian Cyrillic) is a term used for the three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ...


Meanwhile about 5,000 men accepted an offer to join the Nazi military, forming the Kalmykian Voluntary Cavalry Corps. Only a few women and children accompanied them. The Kalmyk troops fought with the Nazi army behind the lines, especially around the Azov Sea. The Kalmykian Voluntary Cavalry Corps was a unit of about 5,000 Kalmykian volunteers who choose to join the Wehrmacht in 1942 rather than remain in Kalmykia as the German Army retretaed before the Red Army. ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ...


Kalmyk Diaspora II

See also Kalmyk Deportations of 1944

In December 1943, the Kalmyk SSR was abolished and its territory was divided and transferred to the adjacent regions, viz., the Astrakhan and Stalingrad Oblasts and Stavropol Krai. To completely obliterate any traces of the Kalmyk people, the Soviet authorities changed the names of towns and villages from Kalmyk names to Russian names. For example, Elista became Stepnoi. Categories: Russia-related stubs | Acts of Soviet repression | Forced migration ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ...


In punishment for the disloyalty of part of the Kalmyks, Josef Stalin oredered the deportation of the whole remaining Kalmyk population. The population transfer occurred at night during winter without notice to various locations in Central Asia and in Siberia. Kalmyk Red Army soldiers were recalled. They all were transported in unheated cattle cars. Approximately one-third of the Kalmyks perished during the journey and in the following years of exile. Deprived of their civil rights, the Kalmyk community ceased to exist, thus completing the ethnic cleansing of the Kalmyk people. (Russian, in full: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин [Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin]; December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922-1953... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Siberia (Russian: , Sibir’; Tatar: Seber) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ...


Post War Kalmykia

Due to their widespread dispersal in Siberia their language and culture suffered possibly irreversible decline. Khrushchev finally allowed their return in 1957, when they found their homes, jobs and land occupied by imported Russians and Ukrainians, who remained. On January 9, 1957, Kalmykia again became an autonomous oblast, and on July 29, 1958—an autonomous republic within RSFSR. (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Hruščëv; surname commonly romanized as Khrushchev, IPA: ; April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the former...


In the following years bad planning of agricultural and irrigation projects resulted in widespead desertification, and economically unviable industrial plants were constructed. With the collapse of the Soviet regime the economy also disintegrated, causing widespread social hardship and increasing depopulation of rural areas lacking in resources and facilities. Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors including climatic variations and human activities. ...


After dissolution of the USSR, Kalmykia kept the status of an autonomous republic within the newly formed Russian Federation (March 31, 1992). March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


Politics

The head of the government in Kalmykia is called "The Head of the Republic". The President of the Russian Federation selects a candidate for the Head of the Republic position and presents it to the Parliament of Kalmyk Republic for approval. If a candidate is not approved, the President of the Russian Federation can dissolve the Parliament and set up new elections.


As of 2006, the Head of the Republic is Kirsan Nikolayevich Ilyumzhinov, who is also the president of the world chess organization FIDE. 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kirsan Nikolayevich Ilyumzhinov (Russian: Кирса́н Никола́евич Илюмжи́нов) (b. ... The Fédération Internationale des Échecs or World Chess Federation is an international organization that connects the various national chess federations around the world. ...


Economy

Kalmykia has a developed agricultural sector. Other developed industries include food processing and oil and gas industries. Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food for consumption by humans. ...


Annual Budget: revenues and expenditures: about $100 million


Annual Oil Production: about 200,000 metric tonn


Education

Kalmyk State University is the largest higher education facility in the republic.


Miscellaneous

There is a small Kalmyk minority living within eastern Kyrgyzstan, especially in villages in the Karakol region. Probably, these Kalmyks are those who remained when the bulk of the nation moved westwards in the early 16th century. The Kalmyk language and their traditions are dying out rapidly due to small numbers and majority pressures. Although some of these Kyrgyzstanian Kalmyks are Muslims, other Kalmyks throughout the world remain Tibetan/Vajrayana Buddhists. The Kalmyk culture has seen a resurgence of interest in the last 20 years, and most Kalmyks regard His Holiness the Dalai Lama as their spiritual leader. Telo Rinpoche is the head of Kalmyk Buddhist Union, which most Buddhists in Kalmykia belong to. Karakol (black wrist in Kyrgyz) is a city of about 75,000, located near the eastern tip of lake Issyk-Kul in Kyrgyzstan and about 150 km from the Kyrgyz-Chinese border. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Motto: none Anthem: National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic Capital Bishkek Largest city Osh Official language(s) Kyrgyz, Russian Government Republic  - President Kurmanbek Bakiyev  - Prime Minister Feliks Kulov Independence From the Soviet Union   - Declared 31 August 1991   - Recognized December 1991   - Formerly Kyrgyz SSR  Area    - Total 198,500 km² (85th)   76... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... Buddhism (also known as Buddha Dharma, meaning approximately Law of the Awakening) is a religion, a practical philosophy, and arguably a psychology, focusing on the teachings of the Buddha Śākyamuni (Siddhārtha Gautama), who lived in ancient India most likely from the mid-6th to the early 5th century BCE... The 14th and current Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (born 1935) The 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933) In Tibetan Buddhism, the successive Dalai Lamas (Tibetan: ཏ་ཱལའི་བླ་མ་ taa-la’i bla-ma; Simplified Chinese: 达赖喇嘛; Traditional Chinese: 達賴喇嘛; pinyin: Dálài LÇŽmā) form a tulku lineage of Gelugpa leaders which trace...


The Kalmyks have also established communities in the United States, primarily in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The majority are descended from those Kalmyks who fled from Russia in late 1920 to France, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and, later, Germany. Many of those Kalmyks living in Germany at the end of World War II were eventually granted passage to the United States. Official language(s) None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 160 miles (255 km)  - Length 280 miles (455 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all South Slavic languages, Југославија in Serbian and Macedonian Cyrillic) is a term used for the three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ...


As a consequence of their decades-long migration through Europe, many older Kalmyks are fluent in German, French and Serbo-Croatian, in addition to their native Russian and Kalmyk language. There is a Kalmyk Buddhist temple in Belgrade, Serbia, and several Kalmyk Buddhist temples in Monmouth County, New Jersey, where the vast majority of American Kalmyks reside, as well as a Tibetan Buddhist Learning Center and monastery in Washington County, NJ. World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... Serbo-Croatian (srpskohrvatski or hrvatskosrpski) is a name for a language of the Western group of the South Slavic languages. ... Kalmyk (Kalmuck, Calmouk, Oirat) is the language of the Kalmyks, spoken in Kalmykia (Russian Federation), Western China and Western Mongolia. ... Belgrade (Serbian: Београд/Beograd ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Serbia. ... Motto: none Anthem: Bože Pravde Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Official language(s) Serbian1 Government Republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Formation and independence    - Formation of Serbia 814   - Formation of the Serbian Empire 1345   - Independence from the Ottoman Empire July 13, 1878   - Serbia and Montenegro union... Monmouth County is a county located in the state of New Jersey. ...


The word Kalmyk means 'those who remained'— origin is unknown but this name was known centuries before a large part of Kalmyks moved back from Volga River to Dzhungaria in the 18th century. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


There are three cultural subgroups within the Kalmyk nation: Turguts, Durbets (Durwets), and Buzavs (Oirats, who joined Russian Cossacks, else we can find some villages of Hoshouts and Zungars. The 'Durbets' subgroup includes the Chonos tribe (literally meaning "a tribe of the Wolf", other names - "Shonos", "Chinos", "A-Shino" or "A-Chino"), which is considered to be one of the most ancient tribes in the world, dating back to 6th to 11th century. The Oyirad (also spelled Oirat) is an alliance of the western Mongols. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ...


See also

Kalmykia is a Russian region. ...

References

Further reading

  • Lost Cosmonaut: Observations of an Anti-tourist Daniel Kalder

External links

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  1. On January 1, 2007, Evenk and Taymyr Autonomous Okrugs will be merged into Krasnoyarsk Krai.
  2. On January 1, 2008, Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug will be merged into Irkutsk Oblast.
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Kalmykia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2210 words)
The ancestors of the Kalmyks, the Oirats, migrated from the steppes of southern Siberia on the banks of the Irtysh River to the Lower Volga region.
The Kalmyks settled in the wide open steppes from Saratov in the north to Astrakhan on the Volga delta in the south and to the Terek River in the southwest.
In December 1943, the Kalmyk SSR was abolished and its territory was divided and transferred to the adjacent regions, viz., the Astrakhan and Stalingrad Oblasts and Stavropol Krai.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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