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Encyclopedia > Kalmyk

The Republic of Kalmykia ( Russian (русский язык  listen?) is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. Russian belongs to the group of Indo-European languages, and is therefore related to Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, as well as the modern Germanic, Romance, and Celtic... Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; The Kalmyk (Kalmuck) language is spoken mainly in Kalmykia, in the Russian Federation. It belongs to the western subgroup of the Mongolian languages and reflects the characteristic Mongolian vowel harmony, and its script is based on the Mongolian alphabet. It also has some elements in common with the Uralic and... Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a Russia is a federation which consists of 89 subjects (Russian: субъект(ы); English transliteration: subyekty, sing. subyekt). These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of... federal subject of the The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches... Russian Federation (a The Russian Federation is divided into 89 federal subjects (administrative units), 21 of which are republics: Constitutional Status Republics differ from other federal subjects in that they have the right to establish their own official language (Article 68 of the Constitution of Russia). Other federal subjects, such as krais and... republic). The direct There exist many possible systems for transliterating the Cyrillic alphabet of the Russian language to English or the Latin alphabet. Such transliteration is necessary for writing Russian names and other words in English text. It is also essential for the input of Russian text into computer by users who either... transliteration of the republic's name is Respublika Kalmykiya.

Republic of Kalmykia
Республика Калмыкия
Хальм Тангч
   
File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image uploaded on that date. (del) (cur) 19:31, 11 Apr 2004 . . Dagestan (2741 bytes) File links The following pages... This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. It may be ineligible for copyright or in the public domain. In other cases, it is believed that these images may be exhibited on Wikipedia under the fair use provision of United States copyright law. File...
Flag of Kalmykia Coat of arms of Kalmykia
Image:RussiaKalmykia.png
Capital Categories: Russia geography stubs | Cities in Russia ... Elista
This article explains the meaning of area as a physical quantity. The article area (geometry) is more mathematical. Area is a quantity expressing the size of a region of space. Surface area refers to the summation of the areas of the exposed sides of an object. Units Units for measuring... Area

- total
- % water

Here is a list of the 89 federal subjects of Russia in order of size. Values are given using SI (metric) units. Sakha Republic 3,103,200 km² Krasnoyarsk Krai 2,339,700 km² Tyumen Oblast 1,435,200 km² Taymyria 862,100 km² Khabarovsk Krai 788,600 km² Irkutsk... 44th

- 76,100 Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. It is one of the SI derived units. 1 km² is equal to: the area of a square measuring 1 kilometre on each side 1 000 000 m2 100 hectares 0.386 102 square miles... km²
- negligible

In the most common sense of the word, a population is the collection of people—or organisms of a particular species—living in a given geographic area. Population is studied in a wide variety of ways and disciplines. In population dynamics, size, age and sex structure, mortality, reproductive... Population

- Total
- Population density can be used as a measurement of any tangible item. However it is most frequently applied to living organisms, humans in particular. Population density is usually expressed in terms of items or organisms per unit area. Definitions of population density Population density, according to the definition above, depends... Density

Here is a list of the 89 federal subjects of Russia in order of population according to the 2002 census. Moscow 10,382,754 Moscow Oblast 6,618,538 Krasnodar Krai 5,125,221 Saint Petersburg 4,661,219 Sverdlovsk Oblast 4,486,214 Rostov Oblast 4,404,013 Bashkortostan... 78th

- est. 292,410 ( 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. It was designated: International Year of Ecotourism and Mountains National Science Year in the United Kingdom Autism Awareness Year in the United Kingdom Events January Euro banknotes in circulation throughout the twelve countries of the European Union that... 2002)
- est. 3.8/km²

Political status The Russian Federation is divided into 89 federal subjects (administrative units), 21 of which are republics: Constitutional Status Republics differ from other federal subjects in that they have the right to establish their own official language (Article 68 of the Constitution of Russia). Other federal subjects, such as krais and... Republic
All of the federal subjects of Russia are grouped into seven federal districts (Russian: федеральные округа, sing. федеральный округ; English transliteration... Federal district Southern Federal District (Northern Caucasus) is one of the seven federal districts of Russia. It is located in the extreme southwest, between Ukraine and Kazakhstan. It is the Russian part of the Caucasus. Subdivisions, with republics (that enjoy a high degree of autonomy on most issues and correspond to some... Southern Federal District
Russia is divided into eleven economic regions (Russian: экономические районы, sing. экономический район; English transliteration: ekonomicheskiye rayony... Economic Region Povolzhye
Cadaster # 08
Official languages Russian (русский язык  listen?) is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. Russian belongs to the group of Indo-European languages, and is therefore related to Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, as well as the modern Germanic, Romance, and Celtic... Russian, The Kalmyk (Kalmuck) language is spoken mainly in Kalmykia, in the Russian Federation. It belongs to the western subgroup of the Mongolian languages and reflects the characteristic Mongolian vowel harmony, and its script is based on the Mongolian alphabet. It also has some elements in common with the Uralic and... Kalmyk
President Kirsan Nikolayevich Ilyumzhinov (Russian: Кирса́н Никола́евич Илюмжи́нов) (b. April 5, 1962) is the President of the Republic of Kalmykia of the Russian Federation. He has... Kirsan Nikolayevich Ilyumzhinov
Vice-President Valery Petrovich Bogdanov
Anthem
Contents

Geography

  • Area: 76,100km².
  • Borders:
    • internal: Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Volgograd Oblast (NW/N), Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Astrakhan Oblast (N/NE/E), The Republic of Dagestan ( Russian: Респу́блика Дагеста́н) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). The direct transliteration of the republics name is Respublika Dagestan. It is the largest... Dagestan (S), Categories: Stub | Krais of Russia ... Stavropol Krai (SW), Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Rostov Oblast (W).
    • water: Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea or Mazandaran Sea is a landlocked sea between Asia and Europe ( European Russia). It is the worlds largest inland body of water, with a surface area of 371,000 km² (143,000 sq. mi.), and therefore has characteristics common to... Caspian Sea (SE).
  • Highest point: no data.
  • Maximum N->S distance: 448 km.
  • Maximum E->W distance: 423 km.

Time zone

Kalmykia is located in the Moscow Time (MSK) is the time zone 3 hours ahead of UTC. Categories: Stub | Time zones ... Moscow Time Zone (MSK/MSD). UTC also stands for the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Coordinated Universal Time or UTC, also sometimes referred to as Zulu time, is an atomic realization of Universal Time or Greenwich mean time, the astronomical basis for civil time. Time zones around the world are expressed as positive and negative... UTC offset is +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD).


Rivers

Major rivers include:

  • Kuma River
  • Manych River

Lakes

Kalmykia is located on the shores of the Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea or Mazandaran Sea is a landlocked sea between Asia and Europe ( European Russia). It is the worlds largest inland body of water, with a surface area of 371,000 km² (143,000 sq. mi.), and therefore has characteristics common to... Caspian Sea. In general, there are very few lakes on the territory of the republic. The biggest lakes include:

  • Manych-Gudilo Lake
  • Sarpinskoye Lake
  • Sostinskiye Lakes
  • Tsagan-Khak Lake is located in the Russian republic of Kalmykia, and is the third-largest lake in the province. Several industries are attached to the lake including fishing, textiles, and plastics manufacturing. The lake is well known throughout southern Russia for its nude beaches. Categories: Russia geography stubs ... Tsagan-Khak Lake

Natural Resources

Kalmykia's natural resources include Coal Coal is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground either by underground mining, open-pit mining or strip mining. It is a readily combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock. It is composed primarily of carbon and hydrocarbons, along with assorted other elements, including sulfur. Often associated with the... coal, Oil is a generic term for organic liquids that are not miscible with water. The name comes from Latin oleum ( olive oil). Oil is frequently used to refer to petroleum, the type of oil that is pumped up from the ground and currently serves as a major energy source and... oil, and Natural gas rig Natural gas is a gas produced by the anaerobic decay of organic material. It is usually found in oil fields and natural gas fields, but is also generated in swamps and marshes (where it is called swamp gas or marsh gas), in landfill sites, and during digestion... natural gas.


Climate

Kalmykia has continental climate, with very hot and dry summers and cold winters with little snow.

  • Average January temperature: -7°C
  • Average July temperature: +24°C
  • Average annual In meteorology, precipitation is any kind of water that falls from the sky as part of the weather. This includes snow, rain, sleet, freezing rain, hail, and virga. Precipitation is a major part of the hydrologic cycle, and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet... precipitation: 170 mm (eastern parts) to 400 mm (western parts)

Administrative division

Main article: Cities and towns under republics jurisdiction Elista (Элиста) (capital) Districts: Chernozemelsky (Черноземе́льский) with 8 rural municipalities under the districts jurisdiction. Gorodovikovsky (Городов... Administrative division of Kalmykia

Demographics

As per the 2002 census, The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). The direct transliteration of... Kalmyks at 155,938 make up 53,3% of the population, followed by ethnic Russians (Русские - Russkie) are an East Slavic ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries. The English term Russians is also used to refer to citizens of Russia, regardless of their ethnicity (see demographics of Russia for information on other nationalities inhabiting Russia... Russians at 98,115 (33.5%), Dargwa language: It is a native to the region and spoken by 350,000 people in Western Dagestan with two dialects Dargwa and Lakh. The language has two dialects, and its people are Sunni-Muslims. Dargwa peoples use a modified version of the Cyrillic alphabets to write their language, which... Dargins at 7,295 (2.49%), This article covers the Chechen people as an ethnic group, not Chechen meaning citizens of Chechnya. Geography The Chechen people are mainly inhabitants of Chechnya, which is internationally recognized as part of Russia. Two wars were fought in the 1990s and 2000s over attempts of some ethnic clans to secede... Chechens at 5,979 (2.04%), A Kazakh and his camel The Kazakhs (Qazaq, Quazaq), (in Kazakh: Казак; in Russian: Казах; English term is the transliteration from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia famous in the past for the fierce love of... Kazakhs at 5,011 (1.71%), The Ukrainians are a Slavic people of central-eastern Europe. They are the descendants of several peoples who inhabited the vast area extending from north of the Black Sea to the borders of Russia, Poland, Moldova, Belarus and Slovakia. Ukraine had a very turbulent history, a fact justified by its... Ukrainians at 2,505 (0.86%), The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people who established a state in the Volga River area in the early 6th century. Avars or Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan, in which they are the predominant group. Their self designation is maarulal, or people of... Avars at 2,305 (0.79%), The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living near the Volga River and the Black Sea, maintaining German culture, German language, German traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutherans or Roman Catholic. Many Volga Germans immigrated to the American mid-west in the 19th century. After she displaced Peter III from the Russian... Volga Germans at 1,643 (0.56%), The Korean people are one of the main east Asian ethnic groups of Mongoloid stock. Most Koreans live in Korea (the Korean peninsula) and speak the Korean language. Koreas population is one of the most ethnically and linguistically homogeneous in the world, with the only minorities being very small... Koreans at 1,049 (0.36%) and a host of smaller groups. All in all, 97 ethnic groups are listed for the republic.

  • Population: 292,410 (2002)
    • Urban: 129,539 (44.3%)
    • Rural: 162,871 (55.7%)
    • Male: 140,097 (47.9%)
    • Female: 152,313 (52.1%)
  • Females per 1000 males: 1,087
  • Average age: 33.0 years
    • Urban: 32.0 years
    • Rural: 33.8 years
    • Male: 31.2 years
    • Female: 34.7 years
  • Number of households: 90,464 (with 289,816 people)
    • Urban: 40,885 (with 128,564 people)
    • Rural: 49,579 (with 161,252 people)
  • Average life expectancy:
    • Male: 59.6 years (exceeding Russia's average of 59.0 years)
    • Female: 72.4 years (exceeding Russia's average of 72.2 years)

History

What sets Kalmykia apart from its neighbors is the fact that it is the only Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. Buddhism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit; in Pāli, Siddhattha Gotama), who lived between approximately 563 and... Buddhist territory in World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. It is conventionally considered a continent, which, in this case, is more of a cultural distinction than a geographic one. ( National Geographic, however, officially recognises... Europe. Russians adopted the name The Republic of Kalmykia ( Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). The direct transliteration of... Kalmyk from the Tatars in the (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. Events Beginning of the Little Ice Age a cooling period that resulted in lower crop yields across the world, and harsher... 16th century and the Russians later learned about name Oyirad, which had come from the Mongols. There is a very common misunderstanding that the Kalmyks are "western Honorary guard of Mongolia. The Mongols are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China, particularly Inner Mongolia. They currently number about 8.5 million and speak the Mongol language. They form one of the 56 nationalities officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of... Mongols". This is analogous to calling Englishmen Germans just because both languages (English and German) belongs to the Germanic may refer to Germanic languages: A language family, the languages of which are spoken in northern and northwestern Europe, and in many places colonized since around 1500 Germanic peoples: Collective name of a number of tribes and peoples, originating from northern Europe, several of which invaded the Roman Empire... Germanic language group. Kalmyks, in fact, are not Mongols. The two culture have their own histories. Kalmyks (not Mongols) controlled a vast area known as Grand Tartary or the Kalmyk Empire to Westerners, which stretched from the The Great Wall of China (TC: 長城; SC: 长城, Pinyin: Chángchéng), also known in China as the Great Wall of 10,000 Li¹ (SC: 万里长城, Pinyin: Wànlĭ Chángchéng), is an ancient Chinese fortification built from the end of the... Great Wall of China to the This article is about the river in Western Russia. For other rivers with the same name, see Don River. The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. It rises near Tula, southeast of Moscow, and flows for a distance of about 1,950 km (1... River Don, and from the Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. (annotated version) The Himalaya (the Himalayan Range) is a mountain range in Asia, separating the Indian subcontinent on the south from the Tibetan Plateau on the north. The proper... Himalayas to Siberian federal subjects of Russia Siberia ( Russian: Сиби́рь, common English transliterations: Sibir, Sibir; possibly from the Mongolian for the calm land) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. It extends eastward from the Ural Mountains to... Siberia.


The European steppes always were much more productive than the Asian steppes since they get more moisture from the Atlantic. It is why all powerful nomads from Central Asia were always trying to conquer European plains. Hungarians (Kalmyks call them Uugr) in the (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. Sometime this century, Beowulf is probably composed. Borobodur, the famous Indonesian Buddhist structure, begins... 8th century, Tatars (Kalmyks call them Mangyd) in the (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages. Events Fourth through eighth crusades... 13th century, and Kalmyks (Kalmyks call themself Dörvn Öörd—The Allied Four) in the (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. During this period, the power of England and the United Provinces increased; while that of Spain and Portugal declined. Similarly, the power... 17th century—all of them were driven to Europe because of its rich pastureland.


So, the Torghuud chief Khoo Örlög decided to move westward in the beginning of 17th century. But not because to a mythical internal struggle of the Kalmyks created by the Khoshuud tribe. Khoo Örlög was not a refugee. He led the Torghuuds and part of Dörvuuds. Khoshuuds and Ölööds have joined them almost century later. Kalmyks reached as far as the The steppe of Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, steppe (from Slavic step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said... steppes of southeast Europe in Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. June 6 - Swedish warships depart from Stockholm to Germany. June 26 - Swedish troops begin to land in Pomerania to aid Protestants. July 6 - Swedish troops under Gustavus Adolphus land in Germany. July 6 - Success, last ship of the Winthrop... 1630. That land was not empty. It was homeland of very powerful Nogay Hordes. But under pressure of Kalmyk warriors, Nogays fled to the Crimea and the Kuban river. All other nomads in European steppes became vassals of Kalmyk Khan.


Kalmyks settled not only around Astrakhan (А́страхань; Tatar: Ästerxan), a major city in southern European Russia, capital of Astrakhan Oblast. The city lies on the Volga river, close to where it empties into the Caspian Sea. Astrakhan contains a kremlin dating from the 1580s, a cathedral... Astrakhan on the For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1.35 million km² Origin Valdai Hills Mouth Caspian Sea Basin countries Russia The Volga river (Russian В... Volga delta. Kalmyk domain has spreaded from Ural to Terek river. And they still kept a close bond with the Kalmyks in their Central Asian homeland. Allied with Russia, Torghuud flourished there during the reign of Ayuki Khan, who was given the title of Khan by the 6th This article describes the office of Dalai Lama. For the 14th holder of the office (born 1935), see Tenzin Gyatso. For the song, see Dalai Lama (song). The 14th and current Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso The 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933) The Dalai Lama belongs to the Gelug... Dalai Lama.


In the late 18th century, they were disillusioned with increasing Russian interference. The Kalmyk Khan and Ayuki's great-grandson Ubashi decided to return to their homeland. By Khan's order about 200,000 Kalmyks started their unprecedented march to Central Asia. After almost seven months Kalmyks successfully reached Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. 1,550,000 km2) in Northeast Asia which is today the northeast part of Peoples Republic of... Manchurian outposts near the Categories: Lakes of Kazakhstan | Rift lakes | Stub ... Balkhash Lake. The opinion about the hazardous journey home, that only small number survived was created by Imperial Russian propaganda.


Part of Kalmyks did not manage to cross the Volga and the Ural rivers to join their Khan to return to World map showing location of Asia A satellite composite image of Asia Asia is the central and eastern part of the continent of Eurasia, defined by subtracting the European peninsula from Eurasia. Geologically and geographically, Asia is not a continent or a subcontinent. The exact boundaries are vaguely defined, especially... Asia. This part of Kalmyk people then aligned themselves with Russian rule, first under the Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... tsars, and later under the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) .( Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик... communists. They gradually created fixed settlements with houses and temples, instead of their transportable round felt A Yurt is a traditional home of the nomads who live on the cold, dry steppes of Central Asia. Uzbek woman at the entrance to a yurt in Turkestan; 1913 picture by Prokudin-Gorskii. Yurt or yurta is actually the Russian word for these felt dwelling places. The Kazakhs who... yurts, this process lasting until well after the The phrase Russian Revolution can refer to three specific events in the history of Imperial Russia. Timeline of The Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a series of riots and anti-government violence against Tsar Nicholas II, leading to the first Russian Constitution and the creation of the... Russian Revolution.


Kalmykia was granted the status of an An oblast (Russian, Ukrainian: о́бласть) is a name for the subnational entity of Russian Federation, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union. In the Soviet Union and the mentioned post-Soviet republics, oblasts are one step below the national level and further subdivided into... autonomous oblast on November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. Events 1500-1899 1576 - Eighty Years War: In Belgium, Spain captures Antwerp (after three days the city was nearly destroyed). 1612 - Moscow China Town taken by Russian troops under... November 4, 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. January 9 - Britain announces it will build 1,000,000 homes for war veterans. January 10 - League of Nations holds its first meeting... 1920, and was elevated to the status of In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. All of them were socialist republics, and all of them, with the exception of Russia had their own Communist parties. They are all independent countries now; 12 of... autonomous republic within State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme... RSFSR on October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. Events 362 - The temple of Apollo at Daphne, outside of Antioch is destroyed in a mysterious fire. 1383 - The 1383-1385 Crisis in Portugal: A period of civil war... October 22, 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 1 - Italian colonies of Tripoli and Kyrenaika are joined together as Libya January 7 - Italian premier Benito Mussolini and French foreign minister Pierre Laval conclude agreement in which each power undertakes not to... 1935. In 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. Events January January 4 - End of term for Culbert Olson, 29th Governor of California. He is succeeded by Earl Warren. January 11 - The United States and United Kingdom give up territorial rights in China. January 11 - General Juanto dies in Argentina - Ramon... 1943 the republic status was recalled as Kalmykia was put directly under control of the central government.


Forced Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. The process of establishing collective farms is called collectivization. The Soviet Union undertook the worlds first campaign of mass collectivization in 1929–... collectivization was a social, economic and cultural disaster, unsuited to the Kalmyk temperament and the dry treeless landscape. During the Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air. August 9, 1945 World War II was a global conflict that started in 7 July 1937 in Asia and 1 September 1939 in Europe and lasted until 1945, involving the majority of the... Second World War Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin ( Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili ( Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილ... Stalin, suspicious of their loyalty due to their dissatisfaction with their conditions, Categories: Russia-related stubs | Acts of Soviet repression | Forced migration ... deported the whole Kalmyk nation without notice to Siberia in cattle trucks in midwinter. Half of their number perished during the journey and in the following years of See Exile (disambiguation) for other meanings. To be in exile is to be away from ones home (i.e. city, state or country) while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened by prison or death upon return. It is common to distinguish between internal exile, i... exile, an The term ethnic cleansing refers to various policies of forcibly removing people of another ethnic group. At one end of the spectrum, it is virtually indistinguishable from forced emigration and population transfer, while at the other it merges with deportation and genocide. At the most general level, however, ethnic cleansing... ethnic cleansing unknown to the outside world to this day.


Due to their widespread dispersal in Siberia their language and culture suffered possibly irreversible decline. Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union... Khrushchev finally allowed their return in 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). Events Environmental change The Africanized bee is accidentally released in Brazil The Asian Flu pandemic begins in China March 10 - Floodgates of The Dalles Dam are closed inundating Celilo Falls and ancient indian fisheries along the... 1957, when they found their homes, jobs and land occupied by imported Russians (Русские - Russkie) are an East Slavic ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries. The English term Russians is also used to refer to citizens of Russia, regardless of their ethnicity (see demographics of Russia for information on other nationalities inhabiting Russia... Russians and The Ukrainians are a Slavic people of central-eastern Europe. They are the descendants of several peoples who inhabited the vast area extending from north of the Black Sea to the borders of Russia, Poland, Moldova, Belarus and Slovakia. Ukraine had a very turbulent history, a fact justified by its... Ukrainians, who remained. On January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 356 days remaining (357 in leap years). Events 1431 - Trial of Joan of Arc began in Rouen, the seat of the English occupation government. 1760 - Afghans defeat Marathas in Battle of Barari Ghat. 1768 - Philip... January 9, 1957, Kalmykia again became an autonomous oblast, and on July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. Events 1014 - Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts not only a decisive defeat on the Bulgarian army, but his subsequent savage treatment of 15,000 prisoners reportedly... July 29, 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 1 - Treaty of Rome founding the EU is implemented January 4 - Sputnik 1 falls to Earth from its orbit (launched on October 4, 1957) January 8 - 14 year old Bobby Fischer wins the... 1958—an autonomous republic within State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme... RSFSR.


In the following years bad planning of agriculture and irrigation projects resulted in widespead Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas into desert, resulting from various factors including climatic variations and human activities. Modern desertification often arises from the demands of increased populations that settle on the land in order to grow crops and graze animals... desertification, and economically unviable industrial plants were constructed. With the collapse of the Soviet regime the economy also disintegrated, causing widespread social hardship and increasing depopulation of rural areas lacking in resources and facilities.


After dissolution of the USSR, Kalmykia kept the status of an autonomous republic within newly formed The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches... Russian Federation ( March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years). There are 275 days remaining. Events 300-1899 307 - After divorcing his wife Minerva, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Maximian. 1774 - American Revolutionary War: The Kingdom of Great... March 31, 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events January January - The Internet Society is formed. January 1 Boutros Boutros-Ghali of Egypt replaces Javier Pérez de Cuéllar of Peru as United Nations Secretary-General George H. W. Bush becomes the first... 1992).


Politics

The head of government in Kalmykia is the President. 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. It was designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) Elections were held in 73 countries during 2004. See a list of elections... As of 2004, the president is Kirsan Nikolayevich Ilyumzhinov (Russian: Кирса́н Никола́евич Илюмжи́нов) (b. April 5, 1962) is the President of the Republic of Kalmykia of the Russian Federation. He has... Kirsan Nikolayevich Ilyumzhinov, who assumed power in 1993.


Economy

Kalmykia has a developed agricultural sector. Other developed industries include Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food in such a way as to stop or greatly slow down spoilage to prevent foodborne illness while maintaining nutritional value, texture and flavor. Preservation usually involves preventing the growth of bacteria, fungi and other micro-organisms, as well as retarding... food processing and oil and gas industries.


Education

Kalmyk State University is the biggest higher education facility in the republic.


Miscellaneous

There is a small Kalmyk minority living within eastern Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан) is a country in Central Asia. It borders China, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Its capital is Bishkek (formerly Frunze.) National motto: none Official languages Kyrgyz, Russian Capital Bishkek President Askar Akayev Prime Minister Nikolay Tanayev Area  - Total... Kyrgyzstan, especially in villages in the Karakol (black wrist in Kyrgyz) is a city of about 75,000, located near the eastern tip of lake Issyk-Kul in Kyrgyzstan. It is the administative capital of the Ysyk-Kol Oblasty. History Since about 1860 a Russian military outpost, Karakol grew in the 19th century after explorers came... Karakol region. These Kalmyks are those who remained when the bulk of the nation moved westwards in the early (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. Events Beginning of the Little Ice Age a cooling period that resulted in lower crop yields across the world, and harsher... 16th century. The Kalmyk language and their traditions are dying out rapidly due to small numbers and majority pressures. Although some of these Kalmyks are now Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. Etymology In Arabic, Islām means submission and is described as a Dīn, meaning way of life... Muslims, most Kalmyks throughout the world remain Tibetan/Lamaist Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. Buddhism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, who lived between approximately 563 and 483 BCE. Originating in India, Buddhism gradually... Buddhists. The Kalmyk culture has seen a resurgence of interest in the last 20 years, and most Kalmyks regard His Holiness the This article describes the office of Dalai Lama. For the 14th holder of the office (born 1935), see Tenzin Gyatso. For the song, see Dalai Lama (song). The 14th and current Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso The 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933) The Dalai Lama belongs to the Gelug... Dalai Lama as their spiritual leader.


There are also small Kalmyk communities in State nickname: The Keystone State Other U.S. States Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Governor Ed Rendell Official languages None Area 119,283 km² (33rd)  - Land 116,074 km²  - Water 3,208 km² (2.7%) Population (2000)  - Population 12,281,054 (6th)  - Density 105... Pennsylvania and State nickname: The Garden State Other U.S. States Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Governor Richard Codey Official languages None defined Area 22,608 km² (47th)  - Land 19,231 km²  - Water 3,378 km² (14.9%) Population (2000)  - Population 8,414,350 (9th)  - Density... New Jersey in the The word Usa has more than one meaning: U.S.A. - The United States of America Usa, Oita - A city in Japan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you... USA. They are descended from those Kalmyks who migrated through The Federal Republic of Germany ( German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. Due to its central location, Germany has more neighbours than any other European country: these are Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the... Germany, The French Republic or France ( French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. France is a democracy organised as a... France, and Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. Translated, the name means Land of the South Slavs (jug in Jugoslavija means south). The first was a... Yugoslavia during the last years of Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air. August 9, 1945 World War II was a global conflict that started in 7 July 1937 in Asia and 1 September 1939 in Europe and lasted until 1945, involving the majority of the... World War II. While some Kalmyks fought on the German side, the The Wehrmacht (literally defence force or means/power of resistance) was the name of the armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945. It replaced the old Reichswehr and was succeeded by the West German Bundeswehr, and the East German Nationale Volksarmee (NVA). The term was not only used for... German army was already in retreat when the Kalmyks began to arrive in western Europe.


As a consequence of their decade-long migration through World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. It is conventionally considered a continent, which, in this case, is more of a cultural distinction than a geographic one. ( National Geographic, however, officially recognises... Europe, many older Kalmyks are fluent in The word German can mean: From or related to Germany or its predecessor states - see also the German language Germanic tribes Holy Roman Empire (843-1806) German Confederation (1815-1866) North German Confederation (1867 - 1871) German Empire (1871-1918) Weimar Republic (1919-1933) Nazi Germany (1933-1945) West Germany (1949... German, French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. In 1999 French was the 11th most spoken language in the world being spoken by about 77 million people (called Francophones) as a mother tongue, and... French and Serbo-Croatian (srpskohrvatski or hrvatskosrpski) is a name for a language of the Western group of the South Slavic languages. Serbo-Croatian was one of the official languages of the former Yugoslavia (the other two were Slovenian and Macedonian). It continues to be used under different names/standards in today... Serbo-Croatian, in addition to their native Russian (русский язык  listen?) is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. Russian belongs to the group of Indo-European languages, and is therefore related to Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, as well as the modern Germanic, Romance, and Celtic... Russian and The Kalmyk (Kalmuck) language is spoken mainly in Kalmykia, in the Russian Federation. It belongs to the western subgroup of the Mongolian languages and reflects the characteristic Mongolian vowel harmony, and its script is based on the Mongolian alphabet. It also has some elements in common with the Uralic and... Kalmyk language (a version of their original The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in Central Asia. Some linguists propose the grouping of Mongolian languages with Turkic (of which Turkish is a member) and Tungusic as Altaic languages, but this is not universally agreed upon. The best-known member of this language family, Mongolian, is... Mongolian language). There is a Kalmyk Buddhist temple in Belgrade (disambiguation). Belgrade ( Serbian, Београд, Beograd), is the capital ( 2003–) of Serbia and Montenegro and Yugoslavia ( 1918– 2003). The city lies on the outfall of the Sava river to the Danube river in northern central Serbia, at 44.83° N 20... Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro  -Serbia    - Kosovo and Metohia    - Vojvodina  - Montenegro Official language Serbian 1 Capital Belgrade Area  - Total  - % water 88,361 km² n/a Population  - Total ( 2002) census - without Kosovo  - Density 7.498.001 126.83/km²... Serbia, and several Kalmyk Buddhist temples in Monmouth County, State nickname: The Garden State Other U.S. States Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Governor Richard Codey Official languages None defined Area 22,608 km² (47th)  - Land 19,231 km²  - Water 3,378 km² (14.9%) Population (2000)  - Population 8,414,350 (9th)  - Density... New Jersey, where the vast majority of American Kalmyks reside, as well as a Tibetan Buddhist Learning Center and monastaryin (http://www.njskylands.com/clbuddhist.htm) Washington County, NJ.


The word Kalmyk means 'those who remained'—a reference to the return to Jungaria of a large part of the population in the (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. Historians will sometimes specifically refer to the 18th century as 1715-1789, denoting the period of time between the death... 18th century. There are three cultural subgroups within the Kalmyk nation: Turguts, Durbets (Durwets), and Buzavs ( The Oyirad (also spelled Oirat) is an alliance of the western Mongols. Also called Eleuth or Olood in different documentations, the Oyirad was originally a Mongol tribal group inhabiting on the Yenisei River. In 1208 it submitted to Genghis Khan rising from Eastern Mongolia. The royal family had marital relations... Oirats, who joined Russian This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan of Turkey. Painted by Ilya Repin from 1880 to 1891. Cossack (Polish Kozak; plural, Kozacy, Russian Kazak (Казак); plural, Kazaki (К... Cossacks).


The 'Durbets' subgroup includes the Chonos tribe (literally meaning "a tribe of the Wolf", other names - "Shonos", "Chinos", "A-Shino" or "A-Chino"), which is considered to be one of the most ancient tribes in the world, dating back to (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded... 6th to (10th century - 11th century - 12th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages. Events 1000 (cca), Vikings, led... 11th century.


External links


Administrative Being the largest country in the world, and one of the most populated, Russia incorporates several types and levels of subdivisions. Federal subjects Main article: Federal subjects of Russia Russia is a federation which consists of 89 subjects (Russian: субъе́кт(ы); English transliteration... subdivisions of The Russian Federation ( Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches... Russia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image uploaded on that date. (del) (cur) 23:41, 14 Mar 2005 . . Zscout370 (918 bytes) (Changed image ratio. See my...
Russia is a federation which consists of 89 subjects (Russian: субъект(ы); English transliteration: subyekty, sing. subyekt). These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of... Federal subjects
The Russian Federation is divided into 89 federal subjects (administrative units), 21 of which are republics: Constitutional Status Republics differ from other federal subjects in that they have the right to establish their own official language (Article 68 of the Constitution of Russia). Other federal subjects, such as krais and... Republics The Republic of Adygea (Russian: Респу́блика Адыге́я; Adyghe: Адыгэ Республик) is a Russian Federation (a republic) enclaved within Krasnodar Krai. The direct... Adygeya | The Altai Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Алта́й; Altay: Алтай Республика) is a Russian Federation (a republic). The direct transliteration of the republics... Altai | The Republic of Bashkortostan or Bashkiria (Russian: Респу́блика Башкортоста́н or Башки́рия; Bashkir:) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation... Bashkortostan | The Buryat Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Буря́тия; Buryat: Буряад Республика) is a Russian Federation (a republic). The direct transliteration of... Buryatia | The Chechen Republic (Russian: Чеченская Республика; Chechen: Нохчийн Республика/Noxçiyn Respublika), also known as Chechnya (Russian... Chechnya | Capital Cheboksary Area - total - % water N/A - 18,300 km² - N/A Population - Total - Density N/A _ est. 1,346,300 (2002) - est. N/A/km² Political status Republic Federal district N/A Economic Region N/A Cadaster # N/A Official languages Russian, Chuvash Anthem — Chuvashia (Russian: Ч... Chuvashia | The Republic of Dagestan ( Russian: Респу́блика Дагеста́н) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). The direct transliteration of the republics name is Respublika Dagestan. It is the largest... Dagestan | The Republic of Ingushetia (Russian: Респу́блика Ингуше́тия; Ingush: Гiалгiай Мохк) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). The... Ingushetia | The Kabardino-Balkar Republic or Kabardino-Balkaria (Russian: Кабарди́но-Балка́рская Респу́блика; Kabardian: Къэбэрдей... Kabardino-Balkaria | For other uses of Karelia, see Karelia (disambiguation). The Republic of Karelia (Russian: Респу́блика Каре́лия; Karelian: Karjalan Tazavalla) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). The direct transliteration of the... Karelia | Categories: Stub | Republics of Russia ... Khakassia | For other uses, see Komi (disambiguation). The Komi Republic (Russian: Респ́ублика Ко́ми; Komi: Коми Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). The... Komi | Kalmykia | The Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia (Russian: Карача́ево-Черке́сская респу́блика, or, less formal, Карача́ев... Karachay-Cherkessia | The Mari El Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Мари́й Эл; Mari: Марий Эл Республика) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation... Mari El | The Republic of Mordovia (Russian: Респу́блика Мордо́вия, Mordvinian: Мордовскяй Республикась) is a... Mordovia | The Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (Russian: Респу́блика Се́верная Осе́тия-Ала́ния; Ossetic: Цæгат Ирыс... North Ossetia-Alania | The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Саха́ (Яку́тия); Yakut: Саха Республиката) is a federal subject of... Sakha | A new page based on the new template is being worked on at Tatarstan/Temp, please make any changes you want to make on that page. Tatarstan (Russian: Респу́блика Татарста́н; Tatar... Tatarstan | Tuva or Tyva (Russian: Республика Тыва [Тува], Respublika Tyva [Tuva]) (pop. 310,300, census 2002) is a constituent republic of Russian Federation, 170,500 km² (65,830 mi², ranked 24th), located in extreme southern Siberia... Tuva | Categories: Stub | Republics of Russia ... Udmurtia
The Russian Federation is divided into 89 subjects (administrative units), 6 of which are krais: Altai Krai Khabarovsk Krai Krasnodar Krai Krasnoyarsk Krai Primorsky Krai Stavropol Krai See also Republics of Russia Oblasts of Russia Autonomous Districts of Russia Autonomous Oblasts of Russia Federal cities of Russia Categories: Krais of... Krais Categories: Stub | Krais of Russia ... Altai | Khabarovsk Krai (Хаба́ровский кра́й) (1995 pop. 1,588,100 est.) in Russias Far East lies mostly in the basin of the lower Amur River, but the krai also occupies a vast mountainous area along... Khabarovsk | Categories: Stub | Krais of Russia ... Krasnodar | Krasnoyarsk Krai (Красноя́рский край) (2002 pop. 2,966,000) is the second largest Russian region after Sakha Republic (Yakutia), occupying an area of 2,339,700 km², which is 13% of the countrys total... Krasnoyarsk² | The Primorsky Krai (Russian: Примо́рский край), also known as Primorye (Примо́рье), is one of Russias 89 federal subjects (also referred to as members of the Federation). Krai is... Primorsky | Categories: Stub | Krais of Russia ... Stavropol
The Russian Federation is divided into 89 subjects (administrative units), 49 of which are oblasts: Amur Arkhangelsk Astrakhan Belgorod Bryansk Chelyabinsk Chita Irkutsk Ivanovo Kaliningrad Kaluga Kamchatka Kemerovo Kirov Kostroma Kurgan Kursk Leningrad Lipetsk Magadan Moscow Murmansk Nizhny Novgorod Novgorod Novosibirsk Omsk Orenburg Oryol Penza Perm Pskov Rostov Ryazan Sakhalin... Oblasts The Amur Oblast (363,700 km², pop. 902844 as of 2002 All-Russian Population Census) of Russia is situated about 8,000 km east of Moscow on the banks of the Amur and Zeya rivers. It shares its border with Sakha Republic on the north, Khabarovsk Krai on the east... Amur | Arkhangelsk Oblast (Арха́нгельская о́бласть) is a Russia. It includes Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya island, and also the autonomous district of Nenetsia. Excluding Nenetsia, Arkhangelsk Oblast has an area... Arkhangelsk | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Astrakhan | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Belgorod | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Bryansk | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Chelyabinsk | Chita Oblast (Russian: Чити́нская о́бласть) (431,500 km², pop. 1155346 as of 2002 All-Russian Population Census) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of... Chita | The Irkutsk Oblast, Russia is located in south-eastern Siberia in the basins of Angara, Lena and Nizhnyaya Tunguska rivers, and occupies an area of 767,900 km² (4.6% of Russias territory). The Irkutsk Oblast borders with the Buryat and Tuva Republics in the south and south-west... Irkutsk | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Ivanovo | map of Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: Калининградская область), informally called Yantarny kray (Russian:Янтарный Край - meaning Amber land) is... Kaliningrad | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Kaluga | For other uses of Kamchatka, see Kamchatka (disambiguation). Kamchatka Oblast (Russian: Камча́тская о́бласть) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). To the north, it borders the Magadan Oblast and the Chukotka Autonomous... Kamchatka | Kemerovo Oblast (Russian:Ке́меровская о́бласть) (pop. 2,899,142 as of 2002 All-Russia Population Census), often called Kuzbas (Кузбасс) after the Kuznetsk Basin, is located... Kemerovo | Categories: Russia-related stubs | Oblasts of Russia ... Kirov | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Kostroma | Categories: Russia geography stubs | Oblasts of Russia ... Kurgan | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Kursk | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Leningrad | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Lipetsk | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Magadan | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia | Moscow Oblast ... Moscow | Murmansk Oblast (Му́рманская о́бласть) is an oblast in north-western Russia. Its administrative center is Murmansk. Area 144,900 km², population 892,534 (as of 2002 All-Russian Population Census). Categories: Russia geography... Murmansk | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Nizhny Novgorod | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Novgorod | Novosibirsk Oblast (Новосиби́рская о́бласть) is a regional subdivision of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Novosibirsk. Novosibirsk Oblast (area 178,200 km², pop. 2692251 as of 2002 All... Novosibirsk | Categories: Russia geography stubs | Oblasts of Russia ... Omsk | Categories: Russia geography stubs | Oblasts of Russia ... Orenburg | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Oryol | Penza Oblast (Пе́нзенская О́бласть) is an administrative division of the Russian Federation. It is located in the Privolzhsky (Volga) Federal District. The administrative center is Penza. Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Penza | The Perm Oblast (Пе́рмская о́бласть) is an oblast in the Privolzhsky (Volga) Federal District of Russia. It is named after its primary city, Perm. The oblast covers an area of 160,600 km², and as... Perm¹ | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Pskov | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Rostov | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Ryazan | Categories: Russia geography stubs | Oblasts of Russia | History of Manchuria ... Sakhalin | Samara Oblast (Сама́рская о́бласть) is an administrative division of the Russian Federation. It is located in the Privolzhsky (Volga) Federal District. The administrative center is Samara. Area 53,600 km², population 3,239,737... Samara | Categories: Russia geography stubs | Oblasts of Russia ... Saratov | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia | Smolensk Oblast ... Smolensk | Sverdlovsk Oblast (Russian: Свердло́вская о́бласть) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) located in the Urals Federal District. At 194,800 km², it is Russias 20th largest subdivision and... Sverdlovsk | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Tambov | Tomsk Oblast (Russian: То́мская о́бласть) (2002 pop. 1,060,800) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (an oblast). It lies in the southeastern West Siberian Plain, in the southwest of Siberian Federal District. The... Tomsk | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Tver | Tula Oblast (Ту́льская о́бласть) is a regional subdivision of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Tula. Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Tula | Categories: Russia geography stubs | Oblasts of Russia ... Tyumen | Ulyanovsk Oblast (Улья́новская о́бласть) is an administrative division of the Russian Federation. It is located in the Privolzhsky (Volga) Federal District. Its administrative center is Ulyanovsk, named after Vladimir Ulyanov Lenin. Categories... Ulyanovsk | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Vladimir | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Volgograd | Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Vologda | Voronezh Oblast (Russian:Воро́нежская о́бласть) is a regional subdivision of Russia. Administrative Division Districts Voronezh Oblast consists of the following districts (Russian: районы): Anninsky (Анн... Voronezh | Yaroslavl Oblast (Яросла́вская о́бласть) is located in the Central Federal District of Russia, surrounded by the Tver, Moscow, Ivanovo, Vladimir, Kostroma, and Vologda Oblasts. This geographic location affords the oblast the advantages... Yaroslavl
The Russian Federation is divided into 89 subjects (administrative units), 2 of which are federal cities: Moscow Saint Petersburg See also: Republics of Russia, Krais of Russia, Oblasts of Russia, Autonomous Districts of Russia Categories: Federal cities of Russia ... Federal cities Saint Basils Cathedral Moscow  listen? ( Russian/Cyrillic: Москва́, pronunciation: Moskva), capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva, and encompassing 1097.12 km2. Its coordinates are 55°45′ N 37°37′ E. The citys population... Moscow | Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... St. Petersburg
The Russian Federation is divided into 89 subjects (administrative units), 1 of which is an autonomous oblast: Jewish Autonomous Oblast See also Republics of Russia Krais of Russia Oblasts of Russia Autonomous Districts of Russia Federal cities of Russia Categories: Subdivisions of Russia | Autonomous Oblasts of Russia ... Autonomous oblasts The Jewish Autonomous Oblast (Евре́йская автоно́мная о́бласть - Yevreyskaya avtonomnaya oblast; formerly Jewish Autonomous Republic) is situated in the Far Eastern federal district of Russia... Jewish
The Russian Federation is divided into 89 subjects (administrative units), 10 of which are autonomous districts: Aga Buryatia Chukotka Evenkia Khantia-Mansia Koryakia Nenetsia Permyakia Taymyria Ust-Orda Buryatia Yamalia See also: Republics of Russia, Oblasts of Russia, Krais of Russia Categories: Autonomous Districts of Russia | Subdivisions of Russia ... Autonomous districts Categories: Stub | Autonomous Districts of Russia ... Aga Buryatia | Chukotka Autonomous District ( Russian: Чуко́тский автоно́мный о́круг; tr.: Chukotsky avtonomny okrug), or Chukotka (Чуко́тка), is an autonomous district located... Chukotka | Categories: Stub | Autonomous Districts of Russia ... Evenkia² | Khantia-Mansia, or Yugra is an autonomous district of Tyumen Oblast in the Russian Federation. The people native of the region are the Khanty and the Mansi, known collectively as Ob Ugric, whose languages are the closest relatives to Hungarian. Khantia-Mansia has an area of 523,100 km², but... Khantia-Mansia | Categories: Stub | Autonomous Districts of Russia ... Koryakia | Categories: Russia geography stubs | Autonomous Districts of Russia ... Nenetsia | Categories: Stub | Autonomous Districts of Russia ... Permyakia¹ | Categories: Russia geography stubs | Autonomous Districts of Russia ... Taymyria² | Categories: Stub | Autonomous Districts of Russia ... Ust-Orda Buryatia | http://eo.wikipedia.org/upload/0/03/Ru-jamalo-nenecija.gif Yamalo-Nenetsas flag Categories: Russia geography stubs | Autonomous Districts of Russia ... Yamalia
1. On December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 30 days remaining. Events 1640 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. 1822 - Peter I is crowned as Emperor of Brazil. 1824... December 1, 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. Events January Iraqi police officers hold up their index fingers marked with purple indelible ink, a security measure to prevent double voting. Worldwide aid effort continues to develop in response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. January 3... 2005, Perm Oblast and Permyakia will be merged to form Perm Krai ( Russian: Пе́рмский край) is a new federal subject of Russia that is scheduled to come into existence on December 1, 2005 as a result of the 2004 referendum on the merger of Perm Oblast and Permyakia Autonomous... Perm Krai.

2. On January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. Here a calendar year refers to the order in which the months are displayed, January to December. The first day of the medieval Julian year was usually a day other than January 1... January 1, 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. Predicted events January January 1 - Target date for the admission of Romania and Bulgaria to the European Union. January 1 - Changing of ISBN Numbering system to be 13 Digit Code. February February 4 - Super Bowl XLI to be... 2007, Evenkia and Taymyria will be merged into Krasnoyarsk Krai.

All of the federal subjects of Russia are grouped into seven federal districts (Russian: федеральные округа, sing. федеральный округ; English transliteration... Federal districts
Central Federal District ( Russian: Центра́льный федера́льный о́круг; tr.: Tsentralny federalny okrug) is one of the seven federal districts of Russia. The word Central... Central | Southern Federal District (Northern Caucasus) is one of the seven federal districts of Russia. It is located in the extreme southwest, between Ukraine and Kazakhstan. It is the Russian part of the Caucasus. Subdivisions, with republics (that enjoy a high degree of autonomy on most issues and correspond to some... Southern | Northwestern Federal District is one of the seven federal districts of Russia. It consists of the northern part of European Russia. Subdivision, with republics (that enjoy a high degree of autonomy on most issues and correspond to some of Russias ethnic minorities) marked by a *: Arkhangelsk Oblast Nenetsia Kaliningrad... Northwestern | Far Eastern Federal District (Дальневосто́чный федера́льный о́круг) is one of the seven federal districts of Russia. It forms the... Far East | Siberian Federal District is one of the seven federal districts of Russia. It is the central of the three Asian districts. It should not be confused with Siberia, which includes the whole of Asian Russia. Below is a list of the federal subjects within the Siberian District. (Autonomous republics ar... Siberian | Urals Federal District (Ура́льский федера́льный о́круг) is one of the seven federal districts of Russia. It is the westernmost of the three Asian districts. Subdivision... Urals | Categories: Russia geography stubs | Federal districts of Russia ... Privolzhsky (Volga)

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Oyirad - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (506 words)
They were called Kalmak or Kalmyk which means "to stay" (as opposed to "to leave"), by their Western neighbors the Turks.
The 17th century is the century of the Kalmyk Empire, known as the Khanate of Dzungaria, which stretched from the Great Wall of China to the River Don, and from the Himalayas to Siberia.
The Kalmyk became Tibetan Buddhists in 1615 and it was not long before they got involved in the conflict between the Gelug and Karma Kagyu schools.
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