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Encyclopedia > Kalmar Union
The Kalmar Union flag.
The Kalmar Union flag.
This article is part of the
Scandinavia series
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History of Sweden

The Kalmar Union (Danish/Norwegian/Swedish: Kalmarunionen) was a series of personal unions (13971521) that united the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden under a single monarch.[1] The countries had given up their sovereignty, but not their independence, and diverging interests (especially Swedish dissatisfaction over the Danish and Holsteinish dominance) gave rise to a conflict that would hamper it from the 1430s until its final dissolution in 1523. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Kalmar_Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Kalmar_Union. ... Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe named after the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... The Scandinavian Mountains, in Swedish Skanderna, Fjällen (The Mountains) or Kölen and in Norwegian Kjølen, with the two latter meaning the Keel, are a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... The Scandinavian Peninsula is in northeastern Europe, consisting principally of the mainland territories of Norway and Sweden. ... The Viking Age is the name of the period between 793 and 1066 AD in Scandinavia and Britain, following the Germanic Iron Age (and the Vendel Age in Sweden). ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... The term Viking is used to denote the ship-borne explorers, traders and warriors who originated in Norway, Iceland, Denmark and Sweden and raided the coasts of the British Isles, France and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century. ... A thing or ting (Old Norse and Icelandic: þing; other modern Scandinavian: ting) was the governing assembly in Germanic societies, made up of the free men of the community and presided by lawspeakers. ... The Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, consisting of Denmark and Norway, including Norways possessions Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, is a term used for the two united kingdoms after their amalgamation as one state in 1536. ... Sweden and Norway 1888 The Union between Sweden and Norway refers to the kingdoms of Sweden and Norway between 1814 and 1905, when they were united under one monarch in a personal union, following the Convention of Moss, on August 14, and the Norwegian constitutional revision of November 4. ... The Scandinavian Monetary Union (Swedish: Skandinaviska myntunionen, Danish: Skandinaviske møntunion) was a monetary union formed by Sweden and Denmark on May 5, 1873 by fixing their currencies against gold at par to each other. ... A Scandinavian defense union that would include Sweden, Norway and Denmark was planned between the three countries after World War II. Denmark and Norway had been occupied by Germany between 1940 and 1945, while Sweden, having escaped the horrors of occupation it had, still felt the effects of the war. ... The history of Scandinavia is the common history of the Scandinavian countries— Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... The Royal League logo The Royal League is an annual Scandinavian football tournament, starting after the end of the regular domestic seasons of Norway and Sweden. ... The history of Sweden dates back to 9000 BC. // Pre-historic age: 9,000–500 BC Main article Prehistoric Sweden Sweden, as well as the adjacent country Norway, has a high concentration of petroglyphs (ristningar or hällristningar in Swedish) throughout the country, with the highest concentration in the province... // Ice age The pre-history of Sweden begins at the end of the Pleistocene epoch at the beginning of Holocene epoch, following the last ice age, the Weichsel glaciation. ... This article will cover the time following the pre-historic era and partly the Viking Age, and spans from circa 800 AD, when the process of Christianization began, up to 1523, when the king Gustav Vasa was crowned. ... // Gustav Vasa Main article: Gustav I of Sweden Gusav Vasa Gustav I of Sweden (Vasa) had political and religious difficulties in his kingdom established in 1523. ... // Charles IX Main article: Charles IX of Sweden Not till March 6, 1604, after Duke John son of John III of Sweden, had formally renounced his hereditary right to the throne, did Charles IX of Sweden begin to style himself king. ... Sweden between the years 1611 and 1718 is known as the Swedish Empire. ... The period from Charles XIIs death in 1718 to Gustav IIIs coup detat in 1772 is mostly referred to as Frihetstiden (the Age of Liberty), representing a 50 year long experiment with Parliamentarism and increasing Civil Rights. ... // The Enlightened Despot See also: Gustav III of Sweden Adolf Frederick of Sweden died on February 12, 1771. ... Sweden and Norway 1888 The Union between Sweden and Norway refers to the kingdoms of Sweden and Norway between 1814 and 1905, when they were united under one monarch in a personal union, following the Convention of Moss, on August 14, and the Norwegian constitutional revision of November 4. ... Politics in the New Riksdag See also: Riksdag The economic condition of Sweden, owing to the progress in material prosperity which had taken place in the country as the result of the Franco-German War, was at the accession of Oscar II to the throne on September 18, 1872 fairly... The policy of Sweden during World War II was to remain neutral. ... A personal union is a political union of two or more entities that, internationally, are considered separate states, but through established law, share the same head of state —hence also whatever political actions are vested in the head of state, but no (or very few) others. ... Events February 10 - John Beaufort becomes Earl of Somerset. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... Events and Trends A map of Europe in the 1430s. ... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ...

Contents


Union

The union was formed by Queen Margaret I of Denmark (13531412) in the Swedish town of Kalmar, then close to the Danish border, after Danish and Swedish troops in 1389 had defeated the Swedish king, Albert of Mecklenburg, and he subsequently failed to pay the required tribute of 60,000 silver marks within three years after his release [2]. King Albert, born in Germany, was disliked by the Swedish nobility and their rebellion had received help from the Danes, who intended the union to serve as a check on the growing power of the German Hanseatic League.[3] Queen Margaret, who was a daughter of the late Danish king Valdemar Atterdag and wife of the late Norwegian king Haakon VI, maneuvered to have her grandnephew Eric of Pomerania recognized as heir to the Norwegian throne [4], and then elected king over the two other countries. Margaret promised to protect the political influence and privileges of the nobility under the union, but Eric wanted to strengthen the monarchy. Queen Margaret I for Queens Margaret of Denmark, see Queen Margaret of Denmark, and for a namesake queen consort of Scotland, see Margaret of Denmark Margaret Valdemarsdotter (1353 – October 28, 1412) was Queen of Norway, Regent of Denmark and of Sweden, and founder of the so-called Kalmar Union which... Events The Decameron was finished by Giovanni Boccaccio. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Komatsu of Japan. ... Kalmar is a city in Småland in south east Sweden, situated by the Baltic Sea. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... Albert of Mecklenburg or Albrekt av Mecklenburg (appr. ... A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution) is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often case in historical contests, of submission or allegiance. ... The mark was originally a unit of weight for gold and silver common throughout western Europe, and was equal to 8 troy ounces. ... The Swedish nobility (Adeln) was historically a privileged class in Sweden. ... Carta marina of Baltic Sea (1539). ... Valdemar Atterdag (c. ... This article is a list of rulers of Norway up until the present, including: The Norwegian kingdom (with the Faroe Islands) The Union with Iceland and Greenland (1262-1814) The Norwegian kingdom (with Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands 1262-1814) The Union of Sweden and Norway (1319-1343) The... Haakon VI Magnusson (appr. ... Eric of Pomerania Eric of Pomerania, Erik af Pommern, Erik VII (Danish title), Erik av Pommern (Eirik III) (Norwegian title) or Erik av Pommern (Eric XIII) (Swedish title), was adopted by Margaret I of Denmark and became the hereditary king of Norway (1389 – 1440), elected king of Denmark (1412 – 1439...


Conflict

The Swedes were not happy with the Danes' frequent wars on Schleswig, Holstein, Mecklenburg, and Pomerania, which were a disturbance to Swedish exports (notably iron) to the Continent. Furthermore, the centralization of government in Denmark raised suspicions. The Swedish Privy Council wanted to retain a fair degree of self-government. The unity of the union eroded in the 1430s, even to the point of armed rebellion (the Engelbrecht rebellion), leading to the expulsion of Danish forces from Sweden. Eric was deposed (14381439) as the union king and was succeeded by the childless Christopher of Bavaria. In the power vacuum that arose following Christopher's death (1448), Sweden elected Charles VIII king with the intent to reestablish the union under a Swedish crown. Charles was elected king of Norway in the following year, but the counts of Holstein were more influential than the Swedes and the Norwegians together, and made the Danish Privy Council appoint Christian I of Oldenburg as king. During the next seven decades struggle for power and the wars between Sweden and Denmark would dominate the union. The region of Schleswig (former English name: Sleswick, Danish: Sønderjylland or Slesvig, Low German: Sleswig, North Frisian: Slaswik or Sleesweg) covers the area about 60 km north and 70 km south of the border between Germany and Denmark. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... The coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Western-Pommerania Mecklenburg is a geographical area located in Northern Germany. ... Historic Pomerania (outlined in yellow) on the background of modern country borders. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Swedish Senate: Riksrådet, from 1809 Statsrådet, from 1975 Regeringen was and is the principal government institution of Sweden The Swedish Senate, Senatus Regni Sueciae, originated as a council of Regional Magnates acting as advisers to the Monarch of the combined Realms of the Swedes (from 996, approximately). ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... Events and Trends A map of Europe in the 1430s. ... The Engelbrekt rebellion was a rebellion in 1434-1436 led by Swedish nobleman Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson against Eric of Pomerania, the king of the Kalmar Union. ... Events Pachacuti who would later create Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire became the ruler of Cuzco In Italy, the siege of Brescia by the condottieri troops of Niccolò Piccinino was raised after the arrival of Scaramuccia da Forlì. January 1 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary March 18 - Albert... Events Battle of Grotnik, which ended the hussite movement in Poland Eric of Pomerania, King of Sweden, Denmark and Norway is declared deposed in Sweden. ... Christopher of Bavaria, known by his Danish and Norwegian title as Christoffer (III) af/av Bayern and by his Swedish title as Kristofer av Bayern (26 February 1418-6 January 1448) was union king of Denmark and Norway (1440-1448), and of Sweden (1441-1448). ... Events January 5/ 6 - Christopher of Bavaria, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden dies with no designated heir leaving all three kingdoms with vacant thrones. ... Charles VIII of Sweden, Charles I of Norway, or Karl Knutsson (Bonde), king of Sweden (1448 – 1457, 1464 – 1465 and from 1467 to his death in 1470); king of Norway (1449 – 1450). ... Look up Count in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Countess redirects here. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... The Council of State (Statsrådet) The Council of State (Statsrådet) is the Danish Privy Council. ... Christian I of Denmark (1426 – 1481), Danish monarch and union king of Denmark (1448 – 1481), Norway (1450 – 1481) and Sweden (1457 – 1464), under the Kalmar Union. ... Oldenburg (Low German: Ollnborg) is an Independent City in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...


After the successful retaking of Sweden by Christian II and the subsequent Stockholm bloodbath in 1520, the Swedes started yet another rebellion which ousted the Danish forces once again in 1521. While independence had been reclaimed the election of King Gustav of the Vasa on June 6, 1523, restored sovereignty for Sweden and finally dissolved the union. The day of Gustav Vasa's crowning is since 1983 the National Day of Sweden, but was only recently made a national holiday, in 2005. Christian II (July 2, 1481 – January 25, 1559) was a Danish monarch and King of Denmark, Norway (1513 – 1523) and Sweden (1520 – 1521), under the Kalmar Union. ... Stockholm Bloodbath - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... mary elline m. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Gustav I of Sweden, commonly known as Gustav Vasa, but originally known as Gustav Eriksson (May 12, 1496 – September 29, 1560) was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death. ... The Vasa Coat of Arms The House of Vasa was the Royal House of Sweden (1523-1654) and of Poland (1587-1668). ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a country. ...


Final dissolution

The Kalmar Union at the beginning of the 16 Century
The Kalmar Union at the beginning of the 16 Century

The last structures of the Kalmar Union remained until 1536 when the Danish Privy Council, in the aftermath of a civil war, unilaterally declared Norway to be a Danish province [5], without consulting their Norwegian colleagues. As Norway was a hereditary kingdom, it was in the king's interest to maintain Norway's formal status as semi-independent, to ensure that future members of the Oldenburg dynasty would be elected to the Danish throne. Norway kept some separate institutions and its legal system [5], but the former Norwegian possessions of Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands, came directly under the Danish crown. In 1814 the king of Denmark-Norway was forced to cede Norway to the king of Sweden. In the middle of the 19th century, this would give rise to the Scandinavist movement, which sought to reunite the countries of the Kalmar Union, except Finland, under one monarch. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (949x926, 47 KB) Beskrivelse The Kalmar Union at the beginning of the 16 Century. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (949x926, 47 KB) Beskrivelse The Kalmar Union at the beginning of the 16 Century. ... Events February 2 - Spaniard Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... The Council of State (Statsrådet) The Council of State (Statsrådet) is the Danish Privy Council. ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, consisting of Denmark and Norway, including Norways possessions Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, is a term used for the two united kingdoms after their amalgamation as one state in 1536. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Scandinavism is a political movement with origins in the mid-19th century that support the idea of Scandinavia as a unified region or even a single nation, based on the common linguistic, political and cultural heritage of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ...


See also

This is a listing of monarchs in the countries of the Kalmar Union. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 10 KB) The Scandinavian royal lineages for the around the founding of the Kalmar Union in 1397. ...

External links

  • Kalmar Union Flag - Flags of the World
  • The Kalmar Union - Maps of the Kalmar Union

Notes

  1. ^ Boraas, Tracey (2002). Sweden, 24, Capstone Press. ISBN 0736809392.
  2. ^ Boraas, Tracey; Henry Smith Williams (1904). The Historians' History of the World, 205, The Outlook Company.
  3. ^ Nordstrom, Byron (2000). Scandinavia Since 1500, 22, University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0816620989.
  4. ^ Boraas, Tracey; Henry Smith Williams (1904). The Historians' History of the World, 204, The Outlook Company.
  5. ^ a b Nordstrom, Byron (2000). Scandinavia Since 1500, 147, University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0816620989.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Kalmar Union - Encyclopedia Article (613 words)
The Kalmar Union united the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden under one monarch in 1397.
The union was formed by Queen Margaret I (1353 - 1413) in the Swedish town of Kalmar, close to the Danish border, after Danish and Swedish troops in 1389 had defeated the Swedish king, Albert of Mecklenburg, and he subsequently failed to pay the tribute of 60,000 silver marks within three years after his release.
Eric was deposed in 1438-1439 as the union king and succeeded by the childless Christopher of Bavaria.
Kalmar Union - definition of Kalmar Union in Encyclopedia (646 words)
The union was formed by Queen Margaret I (1353–1413) in the Swedish town of Kalmar, close to the Danish border, after Danish and Swedish troops in 1389 had defeated the Swedish king, Albert of Mecklenburg, and he subsequently failed to pay the tribute of 60,000 silver marks within three years after his release.
Eric was deposed in 1438–1439 as the union king and succeeded by the childless Christopher of Bavaria.
The last structures of the Kalmar Union remained until 1536 when the Danish Privy Council, in the aftermath of a civil war, unilaterally declared Norway to be a Danish province, without consulting their Norwegian colleagues.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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