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Encyclopedia > Kalisz
Kalisz
Flag of Kalisz Coat of Arms of Kalisz
(Flag) (Coat of Arms)
Motto: Młode duchem najstarsze miasto w Polsce
Oldest town in Poland - young at heart
Location of Kalisz
Voivodship Greater Poland
Municipal government Rada Miasta Kalisz
Mayor Janusz Pęcherz
Area 69.77 km² km²
Population
 - city
 - urban
 - density

109,000
~250,000
1560/km²
Founded 2nd century?
City rights after 1253
Latitude
Longitude
51°45' N
18°04' E
Area code +48 62
Car plates PK XXXX
Twin towns Ostrów Wielkopolski, Adria, Erfurt, Heerhugowaard, Hautmont, Hamm, Kamieniec Podolski, La Louviere, Martin, Minsk (borough of Frunze), Preston, Szentendre, Southampton, Tongeren
Municipal Website

Kalisz (pronounce: Image:Ltspkr.png ['kaliʃ]) is a city in central Poland with 109,800 inhabitants (1995). Situated on the Prosna river in the southeastern part of the Greater Poland Voivodship, the city forms a conurbation with the nearby towns of Ostrów Wielkopolski and Skalmierzyce. from pl wiki File links The following pages link to this file: Kalisz Categories: Flag images ... from pl wiki This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... A motto is a phrase or a short list of words meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group or organization. ... from pl wiki File links The following pages link to this file: Kalisz Categories: GFDL images ... A Voivodship (also voivodeship, Romanian: voievodat, Polish: województwo, Serbian: vojvodstvo or vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod (voivode). ... Greater Poland Voivodship (in Polish województwo wielkopolskie) is an administrative region or voivodship of western-central Poland It was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Poznan, Kalisz, Konin, Pila and Leszno voivodships as a result of Local Government Reorganization Act of 1998. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... A telephone numbering plan is a system that allows subscribers to make and receive telephone calls across long distances. ... // Polish car number plates since May 1, 2000 Polish 2000 series car plates have black letters on a white background. ... This article is about partnerships between towns distant from each other; see Twin cities for the different concept of physically neighbouring cities. ... Ostrów Wielkopolski (often abbreviated , formerly called only Ostrów or Ostrowo, Latin: Ostrovia) is a town in central Poland with 73100 inhabitants (2005), situated in the Greater Poland Voivodship. ... Adria is a town in the province of Rovigo in the Veneto region of Northern Italy, situated between the mouths of the rivers Adige and Po. ... Map of Germany showing Erfurt Mariendom and the Severikirche Erfurt [ˈɛrfÊŠrt] is a city in central Germany. ... Heerhugowaard (population: 47,239 in 2004) is a town in the north-western Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. ... Map of Germany showing Hamm Hamm is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... ... La Louvière is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut. ... The given name Martin is an Anglicization of the Roman name Martinus, derived from Mars, the god of war. ... Minsk or Miensk (Belarusian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ) is the capital and a major city of Belarus with a population of 1,780,000 (2006 estimate}. Minsk is also a headquarters of the Commonwealth of Independent States. ... Preston is a city and local government district in North West England. ... Szentendre (in Serbian: Sentandreja/Сентандреја) is a town in Pest county, Hungary, near the capital city of Budapest. ... Southampton is a city and major port situated on the south coast of England. ... Tongeren is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg near Hasselt. ... The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ... A panorama of Sydney, Australia at night. ... Prosna is a river in central Poland, a tributary of the Warta river (near Pyzdry), with a length of 217 kilometres (28th longest) and the basin area of 4,925 sq. ... Greater Poland Voivodship (in Polish województwo wielkopolskie) is an administrative region or voivodship of western-central Poland It was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Poznan, Kalisz, Konin, Pila and Leszno voivodships as a result of Local Government Reorganization Act of 1998. ... A conurbation is an urban area comprising a number of cities or towns which, through population growth and expansion, have physically merged to form one continuous built up area. ... Ostrów Wielkopolski (often abbreviated , formerly called only Ostrów or Ostrowo, Latin: Ostrovia) is a town in central Poland with 73100 inhabitants (2005), situated in the Greater Poland Voivodship. ...


The town is an important industrial and commercial centre of the area, with many notable factories located there. It is also the seat of the Calisia piano factory and one of traditional centres of folk art. A grand piano A piano is a musical instrument which is classified as a keyboard, percussion or string instrument, depending on the system of classification used. ...

Contents


History

Sometimes Kalisz is called "the oldest town of Poland" because the mention by Ptolemy of a town called Calisia that was situated on the Amber Trail. Although it is still not certain whether the exact spot where the city centre is located nowadays was inhabitated in 2nd century, there are many artifacts of the Roman times in the area, pointing to the fact that it must have been one of the stops of the Roman caravans heading for the Baltic Sea. Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... Calisia was a station on so-called Amber Road, mentioned by Ptolemy, formerly universally identified with Kalisz. ... The Amber Road (in Polish: Szlak Bursztynowy, Jantarowy Szlak; in German: Bernsteinstraße; in Russian: Янтарный путь) was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53 deg. ...

Mediaeval seal of the Duchy of Kalisz.
Mediaeval seal of the Duchy of Kalisz.

Modern Kalisz was most probably founded in 9th century as a castellany and a minor fort. The name itself stems from the Slavic term kał, meaning swamp or marsh. In 1106 Bolesław Krzywousty captured the town and incorporated it into his feudal domain. Between 1253 and 1260 the town was granted with Środa Śląska Law, a local variation of the Magdeburg Law, and soon started to grow. One of the richest towns of Greater Poland, during the feudal fragmentation of Poland it formed a separate duchy ruled by local branch of the Piast dynasty. After Poland was reunited, the town became a notable centre of weavery and wood production, as well as one of the cultural centres of Greater Poland. The economical development of the area was aided by a large number of Protestant Czech Brothers, who settled in and around Kalisz after being expelled from Bohemia. Also, Jewish settlement of Kalisz dates back to 1139. Download high resolution version (888x866, 185 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (888x866, 185 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... A castellany is a province rulled by a castellan. ... A freshwater swamp This article is about the wetland type (a landform). ... Freshwater marsh in Florida In geography, a marsh is a type of wetland, featuring grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, and other herbaceous plants (possibly with low-growing woody plants) in a context of shallow water. ... The Magdeburg Rights (or Magdeburg law) were the laws of the Imperial Free City of Magdeburg during many centuries of the Holy Roman Empire, and possibly the most important set of Germanic medieval city laws. ... Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: Wielkopolska, German: Grosspolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is one of the historical regions of Poland. ... In the first centuries of its existence, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christendom, created a strong Central European state, and integrated Poland into European culture. ... The Piast dynasty is a line of Kings and dukes that ruled Poland from its beginnings as an independent state up to 1370. ... Bohemia. ... The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ...


In 1282 the city laws were confirmed by Przemysł II of Poland and in 1314 it was made the capital of the Kalisz Land, one of the Voivodships of Poland, by king Władysław Łokietek. A notable centre of trade, Kalisz was also located more or less in the centre of Poland back then. Because of its strategic location, in 1343 king Casimir the Great signed there a peace treaty with the Teutonic Order. As a royal town, the city managed to defend much of its initial privileges and in 1426 a new town hall was built. Also, it was there that king Mieszko the Old is buried. PrzemysÅ‚ II PrzemysÅ‚ II (October 14, 1257 – February 8, 1296), was a duke of PoznaÅ„, Greater Poland, Kraków and Pomerania, and King of Poland from 1295 until his death. ... The voivodship (Polish: województwo) has been a second-level administrative unit in Poland since the 14th century. ... Wladislaus I on Jan Matejkos painting Wladislaus I the Short or Elbow-high (Polish: WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I Łokietek) (1261–1333), was a King of Poland. ... Casimir the Great Casimir III or the Great (Kazimierz Wielki), (1310-1370), King of Poland , son of Władyslaw I Łokietek (Wladyslaw the Elbow High), 1305-1333 and Jadwiga. ... The Treaty of Kalisz in 1343 was signed by Casimir III the Great and the Teutonic Order. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... City Hall is a 1996 film directed by Harold Becker. ... Categories: Poland-related stubs | Polish monarchs | Dukes of Greater Poland | Dukes of Poznan | Dukes of Gniezno | Dukes of Kalisz ...


In 1574 the Jesuits were brought to Kalisz and in 1584 they opened a Jesuit College there, one of the most notable centres of education in Poland back then. However, with time the importance of Kalisz declined and its place was taken by nearby Poznań. The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Motto: none Voivodship Greater Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Poznania Mayor Ryszard Grobelny Area 261,3 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 578 900 (2002) 850 000 2215/km² Founded City rights 8th century 1253 Latitude Longitude 52°1734 N - 52°3027 N 16°4408 E - 17°04...


In 1792 the town was struck by a fire that destroyed much of its centre. The following year, following the II partition of Poland, the town was annexed by Kingdom of Prussia. In 1801 Wojciech Bogusławski built a theatre there, one of the first permanent theatres in the area. In 1806 Kalisz was joined with the Duchy of Warsaw, but after the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte it was annexed by Imperial Russia. The proximity of Prussian border speeded up the economical development in the city and Kalisz, rendered Кализ in Russian, started to attract many settlers, not only from Poland, but also from German states and all over the Russian empire. In 1902 Kalisz was linked with Warsaw and Łódź by a railroad. The Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, commonly known as the Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... Wojciech BogusÅ‚awski (9 April 1757 in Glinno near PoznaÅ„ - 23 July 1829 in Warsaw) was a Polish actor, director of theater, writer of dramas, father of Polish theater during the times of Polish Enlightenment. ... Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 155,000 km² Population about 4,3 million Existed 1806–1814 The Duchy of Warsaw (Polish: KsiÄ™stwo Warszawskie, Latin: Ducatus Varsoviae, French: Duche de Varsovie) was a Polish... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Łódź (pronunciation: ), the second-largest city (population 776,297 in 2004) of Poland, lies in the centre of the country. ...


After the outbreak of the Great War, the proximity of the border proved disastrous for the city, as it was one of the first destroyed towns of that war. After a series of border clashes, the German army bombed the city with artillery. During the heavy fights that lasted from August 7 to August 22, 1914, the town was destroyed almost completely. Upon entering the city, the German units led by Hermann Preusker took revenge for the defence of the city by the Russian army on the civilians. 800 men were arrested and then decimated, while the city was set on fire and the remaining inhabitants were expelled. Out of roughly 68,000 inhabitants in 1914, only 5,000 live in the city the following year. However, by the end of the Great War much of the city centre was more or less rebuilt and many of the former inhabitants were allowed to return to their town. Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead:5 million Civilian dead:3 million Total dead:8 million Military dead:4 million Civilian dead:3 million Total dead:7 million The First World... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... August 22 is the 234th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (235th in leap years), with 131 days remaining. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...

Enlarge
St. Joseph's Church in Kalisz.
Enlarge
Downtown Kalisz with church and town hall's towers visible

After the war and the Greater Poland Uprising, Kalisz became part of the, once again independent, Republic of Poland. The reconstruction continued and in 1925 the new town hall was opened. Until 1939 the town had roughly 89,000 inhabitants. After the outbreak of the Polish Defensive War of 1939, a Polish-German conflict that sparked World War II, the proximity of the border proved once again disastrous. Although the town was captured by the Wehrmacht almost instantly and without much fight, the city was directly annexed by the Nazi Germany. Until the end of World War II approximately 30,000 Poles of Jewish faith from the town and its area were murdered. Additional 20,000 local Catholics were either murdered or expelled to the General Government or to Germany as slave workers. In 1945 the city had only 43,000 inhabitants, that is roughly half of the pre-war population. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 311 KB) Sanktuarium Å›w. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 311 KB) Sanktuarium Å›w. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Widok_zimÄ…_na_katedre_i_ratusz. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Widok_zimÄ…_na_katedre_i_ratusz. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Polish September Campaign Conflict World War II Date 1 September - 6 October 1939 Place Poland Result Decisive German and Soviet victory The Polish September Campaign — also known as Polish-German War of 1939, in Poland often as Wojna obronna 1939 roku (Defensive War of 1939), in Germany as Polish Campaign... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead:17 million Civilian dead:33 million Total dead:50 million Military dead:8 million Civilian dead:4 million Total dead:12 million World War II... German cavalry and motorized units entering Poland from East Prussia during the Polish Defensive War of 1939 Wehrmacht (help· info) (Defence force) was the name of the armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead:17 million Civilian dead:33 million Total dead:50 million Military dead:8 million Civilian dead:4 million Total dead:12 million World War II... The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. ...


After World War II the reconstruction of the town started. In 1975, after Edward Gierek's reform of the administrative scheme of Poland, Kalisz became the seat of a separate Kalisz Voivodship. It was abolished in 1998 and since then Kalisz is the capital of a separate powiat within the Greater Polish Voivodship. In 1991 the city's feast was established on June 11, to commemorate the reaffirmation of city rights in 1282. The following year the city became a seat of a separate diocese. Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead:17 million Civilian dead:33 million Total dead:50 million Military dead:8 million Civilian dead:4 million Total dead:12 million World War II... Edward Gierek Edward Gierek (January 6, 1913 - July 29, 2001) was a Polish Communist leader. ... Map as of 1975 Kalisz Voivodship (1) 1975-1998 ( Polish: województwo kaliskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975- 1998, superseded by Greater Poland Voivodship. ... Greater Poland Voivodship (in Polish województwo wielkopolskie) is an administrative region or voivodship of western-central Poland It was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Poznan, Kalisz, Konin, Pila and Leszno voivodships as a result of Local Government Reorganization Act of 1998. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ...


Education

Adam Asnyk's college
Adam Asnyk's college

Kalisz is a notable centre of education in the region. It is home to 30 kindergartens, 29 primary schools and 15 gymnasiums. There are also 7 colleges and a dozen or so trade schools. The city is also home to branches of the Poznań University, Poznań University of Economy and Poznań University of Science and Technology, as well as several private institutions of higher education. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 64 KB) Opis I Liceum OgólnoksztaÅ‚cÄ…ce im. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 64 KB) Opis I Liceum OgólnoksztaÅ‚cÄ…ce im. ... Adam Asnyk (born September 11, 1838 in Kalisz, died August 2, 1897 in Krakow), was a Polish poet and dramatist. ... The University of PoznaÅ„ (Polish: Uniwersytet im. ...


Economy

Although there is little heavy industry within the city limits, Kalisz is home to several of the biggest companies in Poland. It is notable for the Calisia piano factory, but also for Winiary and Ziołopex food processing plants (the earlier is now part of the Nestlé group), Big Star jeans factory, Hellena, Jutrzenka and Kaliszanka soft drink production plants. There are also two plane engines production factories, WSK-Kalisz and Pratt & Whitney Kalisz - branch of Pratt & Whitney Canada. Winiary was in the past a village - today a suburb of Warka, Poland. ... Nestlé S.A. or Société des Produits Nestlé S.A., headquartered in Vevey, Switzerland, is the worlds biggest food and beverage company. ... Big Star was an American rock and roll band of the early 1970s whose work is often cited as a prime example of power pop. ... Pratt & Whitney Canada (PWC) is a Canadian aircraft engine manufacturer. ...


Sports

Winiary Kalisz is a Polish womens volleyball team, based in Kalisz, playing in Polish Seria A Womens Volleyball League Contents // Categories: Sports stubs | Polish volleyball clubs ... Volleyball is a popular team sport in Poland. ... Polish Seria A Volleyball Leage is the highest level of women volleyball games played in Poland. ...

Notable people

  • Adam Asnyk, poet
  • Stanisław Barcikowski, painter
  • Wojciech Bogusławski, playwright and director
  • Boleslaus the Pious, duke of Greater Poland
  • Bolesław III Rozrzutny, duke of Silesia
  • Izabela Cywińska, director
  • Maria Dąbrowska, writer
  • Agaton Giller, journalist
  • Cyprian Godebski, freedom fighter and a poet
  • Abraham Abel Gombiner, Jewish rabbi and scholar
  • Augustyn Kordecki, prior of the Jasna Góra Monastery and hero of The Deluge
  • Jerzy Kryszak, actor
  • Tadeusz Kulisiewicz, artist
  • Bogumił Kunicki, journalist
  • Maciej Kurzajewski, TV personality
  • Bonawentura Niemojowski, journalist
  • Wincenty Niemojowski, journalist
  • Alfons Parczewski, lawyer, rector of the Wilno University
  • Wojciech Siemion, actor and director
  • Zevi Herman Solnik, writer and Zionist
  • Zdzisława Sośnicka, singer
  • Mieczysław Szcześniak, singer
  • Stefan Szolc-Rogoziński, traveller and explorer
  • Stanisław Wojciechowski, president of Poland
  • Mieczysław Voigt, actor
  • Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski, painter
  • Jan Ptaszyn Wróblewski, musician
  • Artur Zawisza Czarny, freedom fighter
  • Zvi Hirsch Chajes, 19th c. Talmudic scholar
  • Lukash Kalisz, 19th c. Prince of Galicia

Adam Asnyk (born September 11, 1838 in Kalisz, died August 2, 1897 in Krakow), was a Polish poet and dramatist. ... Wojciech BogusÅ‚awski (9 April 1757 in Glinno near PoznaÅ„ - 23 July 1829 in Warsaw) was a Polish actor, director of theater, writer of dramas, father of Polish theater during the times of Polish Enlightenment. ... Boleslaus the Pious (born between 1221-1227, died 14 April 1279), was a duke of Greater Poland (provinces of Poznan, Kalisz, and Gniezno). ... Maria DÄ…browska [] (6 October 1889 in Russów – 19 May 1965 in Warsaw) was a Polish writer. ... Cyprian Godebski Cyprian Godebski (1765-April 19, 1809) was a Polish poet, novelist, father of Franciszek Ksawery. ... Augustyn Kordecki Augustyn Kordecki, real name: Klemens Kordecki (b. ... Medieval Jasna Góra Monastery The Jasna Góra Monastery (pl. ... Combatants Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and allies Sweden and allies Commanders Jan Kazimierz of Poland Charles X of Sweden Strength Casualties This article is about the history of Poland. ... Vilnius University (Lithuanian Vilniaus Universitetas, Polish Uniwersytet Wileński, formerly Stefan Batory University) is the oldest and biggest university in Lithuania. ... Term of office from December 20, 1922 until May 14, 1926 Profession university professor Political party PSL Piast First Lady Date of birth March 15, 1869 Place of birth Kalisz, Poland Date of death April 9, 1953 Place of death GoÅ‚Ä…bki near Warsaw, Poland StanisÅ‚aw Wojciechowski (March 15... Zvi Hirsch Chajes (November 20, 1805 – October 12, 1855) was one of the foremost Galician talmudic scholars. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kalisz - the oldest town in Poland! (473 words)
In XI and XII centuries Kalisz was a castellan’s city, in XIII century became a capital of the duchy and since XV century it has been a capital of the province.
During the first Prussian rape and The Grand Duchy of Warsaw Kalisz was a capital of the department, in The Congress Kingdom of Poland (in the Russian rape) was a capital of the province and since 1837 - a capital of the guberniya.
Kalisz has similar and partner’s contacts with the following cities: Hautmont in France (since 1958), Heerhugowaard in Netherlands, Erfurt and Hamm in Germany, Kamieniec Podolski in Ukraine, Preston and Southampton in Great Britain, Adria in Italy, Martin in Slovakia and Tongeren and La Louviere in Belgium.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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