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Encyclopedia > Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast (English)
Калининградская область (Russian)

Location of Kaliningrad Oblast in Europe
Coat of Arms Flag

Coat of arms of Kaliningrad Oblast

Flag of Kaliningrad Oblast
Anthem: None
Administrative center Kaliningrad
Established April 7, 1946
Political status
Federal district
Economic region
Oblast
Northwestern
Kaliningrad
Code 39
Area
Area
- Rank
15,100 km²
79th
Population (as of the 2002 Census)
Population
- Rank
- Density
- Urban
- Rural
955,281 inhabitants
57th
63.3 inhab. / km²
77.6%
22.4%
Official language Russian
Government
Governor Georgy Boos
Legislative body Duma
Charter Charter of Kaliningrad Oblast
Official website
http://www.gov.kaliningrad.ru/

Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: Калинингра́дская о́бласть, Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (Янта́рный край, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. With no land connection to the rest of Russia, it is an exclave of Russia surrounded by Lithuania, Poland, and the Baltic Sea. As Lithuania and Poland both are members of the European Union and NATO, the oblast is surrounded by the territories of these organizations as well. It is the westernmost part of the Russian Federation. Its largest city and the administrative center is Kaliningrad (formerly known as Königsberg), which has historical significance as both a major city of Prussia and the capital of the former German province East Prussia, of which the region remains the northern core remnant. Population: 968,200 (2004 est.); 955,281 (2002 Census); 871,283 (1989 Census). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... The Dannebrog, national flag of Denmark. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kaliningrad_Oblast. ... Flag of Kaliningrad Oblast The flag of the exclave of Kaliningrad Oblast consists of a red upper stripe (symbolizing the Red Army), a small yellow field in the middle (symbolizing the wealth of amber) and a blue stripe at the bottom, symbolizing peace and its proximity of the ocean. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ), until 1945 known by its German name Königsberg, then briefly as Kyonigsberg (), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... All of the federal subjects of Russia are grouped into seven federal districts (Russian: , sing. ... Russia is divided into eleven economic regions (Russian: экономические районы, sing. ... The Russian Federation is divided into 89 subjects (administrative units), 49 of which are oblasts: Amur Arkhangelsk Astrakhan Belgorod Bryansk Chelyabinsk Chita Irkutsk Ivanovo Kaliningrad Kaluga Kamchatka Kemerovo Kirov Kostroma Kurgan Kursk Leningrad Lipetsk Magadan Moscow Murmansk Nizhny Novgorod Novgorod Novosibirsk Omsk Orenburg Oryol Penza Perm Pskov Rostov Ryazan Sakhalin... Northwestern Federal District (Russian: Се́веро-За́падный федера́льный о́круг; tr. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Here is a list of the 88 federal subjects of Russia in order of size. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... Here is a list of the 89 federal subjects of Russia in order of population according to the 2002 census. ... Georgy Valentinovich Boos (in Russian: , b. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... This is a list of articles about the fundamental constitutional laws, known as Basic Laws, of various jurisdictions. ... A website (or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets and hosted on a particular domain or subdomain on the World Wide Web. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasÅ¥, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Rugged coast of the West Coast of New Zealand The coast is defined as the part of the land adjoining or near the ocean. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Types of inhabited localities in Russia, Soviet Union, and some other post-Soviet states have certain peculiarities with respect to the English language traditions. ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ), until 1945 known by its German name Königsberg, then briefly as Kyonigsberg (), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... Geographical renaming is the act of changing the name of a geographical feature or area. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... The 1989 Soviet Census was the final and most comprehensive census taken within The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics The census officially recorded the popullation of the USSR at 286,717,000, making it the third most populous country in the world. ...

Contents

Geography

Kaliningrad Oblast is a non-contiguous exclave of Russia surrounded by Lithuania, Poland, and the Baltic Sea. D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...


Geographical features include:

The Curonian Lagoon (or Bay, Gulf) is sundered from the Baltic Sea by the Curonian Spit and belongs to Lithuania and Russia. ... Landsat photo Vistula Lagoon Vistula Lagoon (or Bay, Gulf) is the sweet water lagoon on the Baltic Sea that is cut off from Gdansk Bay by the Vistula Spit. ...

Politics

Kaliningrad Oblast

The current governor (since 2005) of Kaliningrad Oblast is Georgy Boos, who succeeded Vladimir Yegorov. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Georgy Valentinovich Boos (in Russian: , b. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The EU and Russia have had serious political debate over Kaliningrad. The recent enlargement of the EU (2004) saw Poland and Lithuania become member states making Kaliningrad an enclave of the EU. Issues of security have been at the forefront of debate, with high relevance to the Schengen Agreement.  Implementing countries  Members (not yet implemented)  Expressed interest in joining A monument to the Agreement in Schengen A typical Schengen border crossing without any border control post, just the common EU-state sign welcoming the visitor, as here between Germany and Austria The 1985 Schengen Agreement is an agreement among...


History

East Prussia

The region of Kaliningrad Oblast was inhabited during the Middle Ages by tribes of Old Prussians. The Teutonic Knights conquered the region and established a monastic state. Atop a destroyed Prussian settlement known as Tvanksta, the Order founded the major city Königsberg, the current Kaliningrad. Germans and Poles resettled the territory and assimilated the indigenous Old Prussians. The Lithuanian-inhabited areas became known as Lithuania Minor. In 1525 Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg secularised the Prussian branch of the Teutonic Order and established himself as the sovereign of the Duchy of Prussia, later inherited by the Margravate of Brandenburg. The region was reorganized into the Province of East Prussia within the Kingdom of Prussia in 1773. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Prussian tribes settlements. ... For Sienkiewicz novel, see The Teutonic Knights. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ), until 1945 known by its German name Königsberg, then briefly as Kyonigsberg (), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... Regions of Lithuania Pregel River, a presumable southern ethnic border of Lithuania Minor in the 19th century Lithuania Minor (also known as Prussian Lithuania, German: , Lithuanian: ) was the name given to the northern part of East-Prussia in view of its predominantly Lithuanian-speaking population. ... Albert of Prussia Albert I Hohenzollern of Brandenburg-Ansbach (German: ; Latin: Albertus; 16 May 1490 – 20 March 1568) was Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and, after converting to Lutheranism, the first duke of Ducal Prussia, which he made the first state to adopt the Lutheran faith. ... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ...

The former East Prussian town of Cranz as it looked in 1920. It is now the resort town of Zelenogradsk.
The former East Prussian town of Cranz as it looked in 1920. It is now the resort town of Zelenogradsk.

East Prussia was an important centre of German culture. Many important figures, such as Immanuel Kant, originated from this region. The cities of Kaliningrad Oblast, despite being heavily damaged during World War II and after, still bear typical German architecture, such as Jugendstil, showing the rich German history and cultural importance of the area. The Lithuanian-speaking population in East Prussia diminished due to Germanization; in the early 20th century Lithuanians made up a majority only in the far northeast of East Prussia, the rest of the area being predominantly German-speaking. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1722x1140, 196 KB) Kaliningrad cathedral, own photo Object: Old Catherdral of Kaliningrad Description: Photo of old cathedral of Kaliningrad in Russia (former Prussian Königsberg) Author: photo taken by Volkov Vitaly w:ru:Участник:Kneiphof (Волков Виталий Сергеевич) Created: Photo taken in the summer of... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1722x1140, 196 KB) Kaliningrad cathedral, own photo Object: Old Catherdral of Kaliningrad Description: Photo of old cathedral of Kaliningrad in Russia (former Prussian Königsberg) Author: photo taken by Volkov Vitaly w:ru:Участник:Kneiphof (Волков Виталий Сергеевич) Created: Photo taken in the summer of... Modern view of the cathedral. ... Image File history File links Cranz. ... Image File history File links Cranz. ... Old postcard of Zelenogradsk Zelenogradsk (Russian: Зеленоградск, German: Cranz, Lithuanian: Krantas, Polish: Kraniec) is a town in the Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia. ... Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804), was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Jugendstil is defined as a style of architecture or decorative art similar to Art Nouveau, popular in German-speaking areas of Europe during the late 19th and early 20th centuries [1]. Jugendstil was also popular in the Nordic countries, where it became integrated with the National Romantic Style. ...


The Memel Territory (Klaipėda region), formerly part of northeastern East Prussia, came under Lithuanian control in 1923 after World War I. After coming to power in Weimar Germany, the Nazis radically altered about a third of the place names of this area by Germanizing most names of Old Prussian or Lithuanian origin in 1938. Historical map of Memelland and the northern part of East Prussia The KlaipÄ—da Region (Lithuanian: ) or Memel Territory (German: ; French: ) was defined by the Treaty of Versailles in 1920 when it was put under the administration of the Council of Ambassadors. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Adolf Hitler (last) Legislature Reichstag... National Socialism redirects here. ...


Kaliningrad Oblast

During World War II the Soviet Red Army entered the eastern-most tip of East Prussia on August 29, 1944. Rumours of massacres committed by the Soviet troops spread panic in the province and caused a mass flight westward. More than two million people were evacuated, many of them via the Baltic Sea. The remaining population was deported after the war ended and the area was repopulated primarily by Russians and, to a lesser extent, by Ukrainians and Belarusians (see "Demographics", below). Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Soviet redirects here. ... Red Army flag The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that, in 1922, became the army of the Soviet Union. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Evacuation of East Prussia refers to the events that took place in East Prussia, especially the evacuation of German population from that area as well as from other Prussian lands in 1944 and 1945. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Capital Kaliningrad Area - total - % water Ranked 79th - 15,100 km² - Population - Total - Density Ranked 57th - est. ...


The Potsdam Agreement of world powers assigned northern East Prussia to the Soviet Union pending the final determination of territorial questions at the peace settlement: The Potsdam Agreement, or the Potsdam Proclamation, was an agreement on policy for the occupation and reconstruction of Germany and other nations after fighting in the European Theatre of World War II had ended with the German surrender of May 8, 1945. ...

VI. CITY OF KOENIGSBERG AND THE ADJACENT AREA
The Conference examined a proposal by the Soviet Government that pending the final determination of territorial questions at the peace settlement the section of the western frontier of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics which is adjacent to the Baltic Sea should pass from a point on the eastern shore of the Bay of Danzig to the east, north of Braunsberg and Goldap, to the meeting point of the frontiers of Lithuania, the Polish Republic and East Prussia.
The Conference has agreed in principle to the proposal of the Soviet Government concerning the ultimate transfer to the Soviet Union of the city of Koenigsberg and the area adjacent to it as described above, subject to expert examination of the actual frontier.
The President of the United States and the British Prime Minister have declared that they will support the proposal of the Conference at the forthcoming peace settlement. [1] The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The Bay of Gdańsk (also known as the Gdańsk Bay or Gulf of Gdańsk; in Polish Zatoka Gdańska; in Kashubian/Pomeranian Gduńskô Hôwinga; in German Danziger Bucht) is a southeastern bay of the Baltic sea enclosed by a large curve of the shores of... Braniewo (until 1945 Polish: ; German: ) is a city in northeastern Poland, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, with a population of 18,068 (2004). ... Coat of arms Gołdap (German: ( ); Lithuanian: ) is a town and a seat of a powiat in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship in Poland. ... Motto Bóg, Honor, Ojczyzna. ... President Truman announces that Germany had surrendered (May 8 1945) Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from 1945 to 1951. ...

In 1957, an agreement was signed and later came into force which delimited the boundary between Poland and the Soviet Union. (Full text: [2], for other issues of the frontier delimitation see [3])


According to some documents written during the administration of Nikita Khrushchev, the Soviet government had planned to make the rest of the area a part of the Lithuanian SSR. The area was administered by the planning committee of the LSSR, although the area had its own Party committee. However, the leadership of the Lithuanian SSR (especially Antanas Sniečkus) refused to take the territory mainly because of its devastation during the war. Instead the region was added to the Russian SFSR and since 1946 it has been known as Kaliningrad Oblast. According to some historians, Joseph Stalin created it as an oblast separate from the LSSR because it further enclosed the Baltic republics from the West.[4] Names of the towns, cities, rivers, and other geographical objects were changed into newly-created Russian ones. Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[1]–September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... State motto: Lithuanian: Visų Å¡alių proletarai, vienykitÄ—s! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Vilnius Official language None. ... A Planning committee in the United Kingdom is a committee of Local Authority councillors that sit as the Local Planning Authority to determine Planning Applications. ... Antanas Sniečkus (07 January 1903 (O.S. 25 December 1902)) in Bublelai village - 22 January 1974 in Druskininkai) was First Secretary of the Lithuanian Communist Party [LKP] between 08. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... “Stalin” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Baltic States. ... The term Western world or the West (also on rare occasions called the Occident) can have multiple meanings depending on its context (i. ...


The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the independence of the Baltic states physically isolated Kaliningrad Oblast from the rest of Russia. Some ethnic Germans began to migrate to the area, especially Volga Germans from other parts of Russia and Kazakhstan, especially after Germany stopped granting free right of return to ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union. The economic situation has been badly affected by this isolation (and the large reduction in the size of the Russian military garrison which was previously one of the major employers), especially when neighbouring nations imposed strict border controls when they joined the European Union. Proposals for visa-free travel between the EU and Kaliningrad have so far been rejected. The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania The Baltic states refer to Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. ... The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living near the Volga River and the Black Sea, maintaining German culture, German language, German traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutherans or Roman Catholic. ...


In recent times, the situation has slowly changed as the people of Kaliningrad have begun to reexamine their past. Germany and Lithuania have renewed contact with Kaliningrad Oblast through town twinning and other projects. This has helped to promote interest in the history and the culture of the East Prussian and Lietuvinink communities. For the 1997 film, see Twin Town Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...


Time zone

The northernmost part of the oblast is occupied by the Curonian Spit National Park (a World Heritage Site).

Kaliningrad Oblast is located in the Eastern European Time Zone (known locally as the Kaliningrad Time Zone or the Russia Zone 1). UTC offset is +0200 (USZ1)/+0300 (USZ1S). Curonian spit photo from German wikipedia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Curonian spit photo from German wikipedia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Curonian Spit and Lagoon The Curonian Spit (Lithuanian: KurÅ¡ių Nerija, Russian: Куршская коса, German: Kurische Nehrung) is a 98 km long, thin, curved sand dune peninsula that separates the Curonian Lagoon from the Baltic Sea. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links RTZ1. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Time zones of Europe: Pale colours indicate countries without daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precison atomic time standard. ...

Administrative divisions

Cities and towns under the oblasts jurisdiction: Kaliningrad (Калининград) (administrative center) city districts: Baltiysky Leningradsky Moskovsky Oktyabrsky Tsentralny Baltiysk (Балтийск) Towns under the towns jurisdiction: Primorsk (Приморск) Pionersky (Пионерский) Sovetsk (Советск) Svetlogorsk (Светлогорск) Urban-type settlements under the towns jurisdiction: Primorye (Приморье) Yantarny (Янтарный) Svetly (Светлый) Districts: Bagrationovsky (Багратионовский) Towns under the districts jurisdiction: Bagrationovsk (Багратионовск) Ladushkin... List of cities of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia with their former names in German, Polish and Lithuanian; after the former German regions of East Prussia was annexed to the USSR as an exclave of the Russian SFSR, nearly all toponyms were renamed to Russianized names with no relation to their former...

Demographics

Population: According to the 2002 Census the population of the region was 955,281 (78% urban; 22% rural). Kaliningrad Oblast is the fourth most densely populated in the Russian Federation, with 62.5 persons per sq.km. Almost none of the pre-World War II Lithuanian population (Lietuvininks) or German population remain in Kaliningrad Oblast. Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasť, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... Lietuvinink (Lithuanian: Lietuvininkas, plural - Lietuvininkai) is a Lithuanian from Lithuania Minor. ...


Ethnic groups: According to the 2002 Census the 'national composition' included Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ...

as well as other groups of less than three hundred persons each. An additional 0.93% of residents declined to state their nationality or ethnocultural identity on the census questionnaire.[1] Belarusians or Belarusans (Belarusian: , previously also spelled Belarussians, Byelorussians and Belorussians) are an East Slavic ethnic group who populate the majority of the Republic of Belarus and form minorities in neighboring Poland (especially in the former Bialystok province), Russia, Lithuania and Ukraine. ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... Aside from a large Azeri community that is native to Russias Dagestan Republic, the majority of Azeris in Russia are fairly recent immigrants. ... The Mordvins (Mordva) are a people who speak languages of the Finno-Permic branch of the Finno-Ugric language family. ... The Chuvash are a bunch of pakis . ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... This article covers the Chechen people as an ethnic group, not Chechen meaning citizens of Chechnya. ... Languages Kazakh (and/or languages in country of residence) Religions Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Kipchak and other Turk peoples, ancient Indo-Iranian tribes, Mongols The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар []; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turk people of the northern parts of Central... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... The Yezidi or Yazidi (Kurdish; Êzidî) are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. ... The Mari (also known as Cheremis in Russian and ÇirmeÅŸ in Tatar) are a Volga-Finnic people in the Volga area, the natives of Mari El, Russia. ... The Ossetians (oss. ... Udmurts are Finno-Ugric people that speak the Udmurt language. ... Flag of the Lezgian people The Lezgins, also called the Lezgin, Lezgi, Lezgis, Lezgs, and Lezgians are an ethnic group who live mainly in southern Dagestan and northern Azerbaijan who speak the Lezgi language. ... Languages Persian (varieties of Dari and Tajik) Religions Islam (predominantly Sunni) Related ethnic groups Other Iranian peoples TājÄ«k (Persian: ; UniPers: Tâjik; Cyrillic: ) is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking peoples of Iranian origin living east of Iran. ...


References

History section:

  1. Simon Grunau, Preußische Chronik. Hrsg. von M. Perlbach etc., Leipzig, 1875.
  2. A. Bezzenberger, Geographie von Preußen, Gotha, 1959

External links

  • Online guide to Kaliningrad - Kaliningradcity.ru
  • Official site (Russian)
  • Kaliningrad Oblast on Google Maps
  • Photos of Kaliningrad
  • Recent photos taken by Joost Lemmens of the Netherlands shows examples of small towns neglected under the Soviet Union around Kaliningrad Oblast. This site gives the Prussian German town names and the corresponding Russian names after 1945/49. It starts out with the gate of the horse breeding stables in Trakehnen, and hopeful signs of new beginnings for this devastated land.
  • Master's thesis by Sergey Naumkin on the possibility of Kaliningrad integrating with the EU as a special economic zone
  • Life in Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian)
  • Spuren der Vergangenheit / Следы Пρошлого (Traces of the past) This site by W.A. Milowskij, a Kaliningrad resident, contains hundreds of interesting photos, often with text explanations, of architectural and infrastructural artifacts of the territory's long German past. (German) (Russian)
  • Euroregion Baltic

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kaliningrad Oblast travel guide - Wikitravel (463 words)
Kaliningrad Oblast (Polish: Krolewiec, German: Nord-Ostpreussen) is one of the numerous Russian oblasts (admininstrative subdivisions).
Kaliningrad Oblast is interesting in that is situated between Poland and Lithuania making it physically separated from the rest of Russia.
The Kaliningrad Oblast is the northern part of historic East Prussia (the southern part is roughly the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship of Poland).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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