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Encyclopedia > Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad (English)
Калининград (Russian)

Kaliningrad on the map of the Baltic region in Europe
Coordinates
54°43′N 20°31′E / 54.717, 20.517Coordinates: 54°43′N 20°31′E / 54.717, 20.517
Coat of Arms Flag
City Day: July 4; observed on first Saturday of July
Administrative status
Federal subject
In jurisdiction of
Administrative center of
Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
Local self-government
Charter Charter of Kaliningrad
Municipal status Urban okrug
Head (Mayor) Yury Savenko
Legislative body City Council of Deputies
Area
Area 215.7 km² (83.3 sq mi)
Population (as of the 2002 Census)
Population
- Rank
- Density
430,003 inhabitants
42nd
1,993.5/km² (5,163.1/sq mi)
Events
Founded 1255
City rights 1286
Transferred to the Soviet Union 1945
Renamed Kaliningrad 1946
Other information
Postal code 236010
Dialing code +7 4012
Official website
http://www.klgd.ru/

Kaliningrad (Russian: Калинингра́д; Lithuanian: Karaliaučius; German Königsberg , Polish: Królewiec; briefly Russified as Кёнигсберг Kyonigsberg), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. Map of Kaliningrad and the surrounding area. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... It has been suggested that the section intro from the article Civil flag be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Kgd_gerb. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kaliningrad. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ... Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ... Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Federal subjects of the Russian Federation Being the largest country in the world, and one of the most populated, Russia incorporates several types and levels of subdivisions. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... This is a list of cities and towns in Russia with population over 50,000, grouped by federal subject and sorted by population. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Postal codes are generally clearly visible outside local Australian post offices. ... // Proposed Country Code: 3 In 1996, the European Commission proposed the introduction of a single telephone numbering plan, in which all European Union member states would use the code 3. Calls between member states would no longer require the use of the international access code 00. This proposal would have... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Image File history File links Königsberg. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...


It is surrounded by NATO and EU members Poland and Lithuania and is geographically separated from the main part of Russia itself. Borderless connection is only possible by sea or air. NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...


As of the 2002 Census, its population was 430,003, which is up from 401,280 recorded in the 1989 Census). Ethnic composition: Russians 77.9%, Belarusians 8.0%, Ukrainians 7.3%.[1] Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... The 1989 Soviet Census was the final and most comprehensive census taken within The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics The census officially recorded the popullation of the USSR at 286,717,000, making it the third most populous country in the world. ...


Under its original German name of Königsberg, it was the capital of the German province of East Prussia, the earlier Duchy of Prussia, and before that of the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights (1254-1945). Geographical renaming is the act of changing the name of a geographical feature or area. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... This article needs to be wikified. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Contents

Geography

Kaliningrad is located at the mouth of the navigable Pregolya River, which empties into the Vistula Lagoon, an inlet of the Baltic Sea. A river or canal is Navigatable if the water is deep and wide enough, and not flowing too fast. ... Pregolya (Преголя), also spelt as Pregola (German: Pregel) is a river in the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad. ... Landsat photo Vistula Lagoon Vistula Lagoon (or Bay, Gulf) is the sweet water lagoon on the Baltic Sea that is cut off from Gdansk Bay by the Vistula Spit. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...


Sea vessels can access Gdańsk Bay and the Baltic Sea by way of the Vistula Lagoon and the Strait of Baltiysk. The Bay of GdaÅ„sk (also known as the GdaÅ„sk Bay or Gulf of GdaÅ„sk; in Polish Zatoka GdaÅ„ska; in Kashubian/Pomeranian GduÅ„skô Hôwinga; in German Danziger Bucht) is a southeastern bay of the Baltic sea enclosed by a large curve of the shores of... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The Strait of Baltiysk (also Pilawa Strait) is the strait between Gdansk Bay (Baltic Sea) and Vistula Bay in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. ...


Until circa 1900 ships drawing more than 2 m of water could not pass the bar and come into town, so that larger vessels had to anchor at Pillau (now Baltiysk), where merchandise was moved onto smaller vessels. In 1901 a ship canal between Königsberg and Pillau was completed at a cost of 13 million mark, which enabled vessels of a 6.5 m draught to moor alongside the town. (See also Ports of the Baltic Sea.) Baltiysk (Балтийск) – known prior to 1945 by its German name, Pillau (Polish PiÅ‚awa, Lithuanian Piliava)– is a Russian sea port in the strait between Vistula Bay and Gdansk Bay, called Strait of Baltiysk on the territory of Kaliningrad Oblast with about 20,000 inhabitants. ... The Canal du Midi, Toulouse, France Canals are man-made channels for water. ... German 20 Mark banknote from 1914 (www. ... This table lists statistics (2002) (GdaÅ„sk, Gdynia, ÅšwinoujÅ›cie, Szczecin, Helsinki and Tallinn 2004)( KlaipÄ—da 2005) for the major ports of the Baltic Sea. ...


Khrabrovo Airport is located 24 km north of Kaliningrad, and has a few scheduled/charter services to several destinations throughout Europe. There is the smaller Kaliningrad Devau Airport for general aviation. Kaliningrad is also home to Kaliningrad Chkalovsk naval air base. Khrabrovo Airport is located 24km north of Kaliningrad, east off the Zelenogradsk highway. ... Kaliningrad Devau is an airport in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia located 5 km northeast of Kaliningrad. ... Kaliningrad Chkalovsk (also Chkalovskoye, Tchalov, or Proveren) is a naval air base in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia located 9 km northwest of Kaliningrad. ...


History

Map of Kaliningrad Oblast in the historical Northeastern Prussia
Map of Kaliningrad Oblast in the historical Northeastern Prussia

This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

Teutonic Order

Around 300 BC an Old Prussian settlement called Tvanksta (also Tvangste, Tvangeste) was founded near the site of modern Kaliningrad[citation needed]. This settlement was conquered and destroyed during the conquest of Prussia by the Teutonic Order. In its place Königsberg ("King's Mountain") was founded in 1254 by the Order, named in honour of one of their Northern Crusaders, King Ottakar II of Bohemia, who paid for the erection of the first fortress there.[2] Over a long period, the Teutonic Knights, assisted by various knights from Western Europe, conquered the indigenous Baltic Old Prussians. This marked the beginning of the extermination of pagan Baltic culture and German colonisation of the area. The small remaining population of Old Prussians eventually became Germanised. However, the Old Prussian language did not become extinct until the 18th century. The Prussians kill Adalbert The Prussian people, or (old) Prussians, inhabited the area around the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons, (in what is now northern Poland), in the region roughly occupied by the Mazurian Lakes. ... Motto Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Government Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I (first)  - 1688–1701 Frederick III (last) King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I (first)  - 1888–1918 William II (last) Prime Minister1,2... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... The Northern Crusades, or Baltic Crusades, were undertaken by Western Europeans against the still heathen people of North Eastern Europe around the Baltic Sea. ... Ottokar II of Bohemia Areas ruled by Ottokar II Otakar II (also spelled Ottokar or PÅ™emysl Otakar/Ottokar) (c. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... http://www. ... Extermination is the act of killing with the intention of eradicating demographics within a population. ... Look up pagan, heathen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... http://www. ... Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is either the spread of the German language, people and culture either by force or assimilation, or the adaptation of a foreign word to the German language in linguistics, much like the Romanisation of many languages which do not use the Latin alphabet. ... Old Prussian is an extinct Baltic language spoken by the inhabitants of the area that later became East Prussia (now in north-eastern Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia) prior to German colonization of the area beginning in the 13th century. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ...


Königsberg was originally the capital of Sambia, or Samland, one of the four dioceses into which Prussia had been divided in 1243 by the papal legate William of Modena. Saint Adalbert of Prague became the main patron saint of Königsberg Cathedral, one of the main landmarks of the city. Sambia (German: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is a peninsula in the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, on the south-eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... William of Modena, Bishop of Modena in 1221, was frequently appointed a legate, or papal ambassador by the popes Honorius III and Gregory IX, especially in Livonia in the 1220s and in the Prussian questions of the 1240s. ... Silver coffin of St. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Modern view of the cathedral. ...


Königsberg eventually became a member of the Hanseatic League and an important port for the southeastern Baltic region, trading goods with Prussia, Poland, and Lithuania. Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ...


As a result of its defeat in the Thirteen Years' War at the hands of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights was reduced by the dictated Peace of Toruń in 1466 to the area of the later Duchy of Prussia, held by the Teutonic Order under the feudal overlordship of the Polish crown. The Order saw the actions of Poland as a betrayal of their original mission and pledges, the Polish Duke of Masovia, Konrad, having first called in the crusaders to eliminate the Pagan Prussians who were constantly raiding his territory, causing death and destruction, and who, as the Polish historian Vincent Kadlubek states, had resisted all Polish attempts to subdue and convert them. Konrad promised the Teutonic Knights the heathen Prussian lands they conquered (although they were not his to promise).[3] The Thirteen Years War (also called the War of the Cities) started out as an uprising by Prussian cities and the local nobility with the goal of gaining independence from the Teutonic Knights. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Second Peace of ToruÅ„. (Discuss) Peace of Thorn 1466 (also Peace of ToruÅ„ 1466 or the Second Peace of Thorn) was a peace treaty signed on 19 October 1466 in Thorn (ToruÅ„) between Poland and the Teutonic Order... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... Historical division of Masovia Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital at Warsaw. ... Konrad I of Masovia. ...


Duchy of Prussia

The 14th century Königsberg Cathedral
The 14th century Königsberg Cathedral
Cathedral
Cathedral

With the secularisation of the Order's territories in 1525, Grandmaster Albert of Prussia of the Hohenzollern dynasty became the Duke of Prussia after paying feudal homage to King Sigismund I of Poland. The capital of the fief was Königsberg (Polish: Królewiec). It became one of the biggest cities and ports of the Prussian region, having considerable autonomy, a separate parliament and currency, and with German as its dominant language. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1146x1734, 187 KB) en: Object: Old cathedral of Kaliningrad, Russia Description: Main façade of the cathedral as in 2002 Author: created by Volkov Vitaly w:ru:Участник:Kneiphof Created: Photo taken in 2002 Source: uploaded by author Licence: CC-BY ru... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1146x1734, 187 KB) en: Object: Old cathedral of Kaliningrad, Russia Description: Main façade of the cathedral as in 2002 Author: created by Volkov Vitaly w:ru:Участник:Kneiphof Created: Photo taken in 2002 Source: uploaded by author Licence: CC-BY ru... Modern view of the cathedral. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1632x1224, 296 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kaliningrad Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1632x1224, 296 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kaliningrad Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... This article concerns secularism, the exclusion of religion and supernatural beliefs. ... Albert (May 16, 1490 - March 20, 1568), (Albertus in Latin, Margrave Albrecht of Brandenburg in German) Grand Master of the Teutonic Order and first duke of Ducal Prussia, was the third son of Frederick of Hohenzollern, prince of Ansbach and Bayreuth, and Sophia, daughter of Casimir IV Jagiello Grand Duke... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... The Prussian Homage by Jan Matejko The Prussian Homage or Prussian Tribute (Polish: hoÅ‚d pruski) was the formal investment of Albert of Prussia as duke of the Polish fief of Ducal Prussia. ... Reign From December 8, 1506 until April 1, 1548 Coronation On January 24, 1507 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Kazimierz IV JagielloÅ„czyk Elżbieta Rakuszanka Consorts Katarzyna Telniczanka Barbara Zapolya Bona Sforza Children with Katarzyna Telniczanka Jan Regina Katarzyna with Barbara Zapolya Jadwiga... Motto Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Government Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I (first)  - 1688–1701 Frederick III (last) King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I (first)  - 1888–1918 William II (last) Prime Minister1,2... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ...


Anna, daughter of Duke Albert Frederick, married Elector John Sigismund of Brandenburg, who was granted the right of succession to Prussia on Albert Frederick's death in 1618. From this time the Duchy of Prussia and Königsberg were ruled by the Electors of Brandenburg, the rulers of Brandenburg-Prussia. Albert Frederick (1553-1618) was duke of Prussia from 1568 until his death. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... John or Johann Sigismund Hohenzollern (1572-1619) succeeded his father Joachim Friedrich as margrave of Brandenburg and duke of Ducal Prussia in 1608. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... An order of succession is a formula or algorithm that determines who inherits an office upon the death, resignation, or removal of its current occupant. ... The Margrave of Brandenburg was one of the seven Electors of the Holy Roman Empire created by the Golden Bull of 1356. ... The Brandenburg-Prussian state was formed in 1618 when the Duchy of Prussia came under the control of the Elector of Brandenburg (part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation). ...


Brandenburg-Prussia and German Empire

In the Treaty of Oliva in 1660 the Hohenzollern dynasty negotiated the release of the Duchy of Prussia from Polish sovereignty for the duration of their line, upon the expiration of which the duchy would revert back to Poland. By the act of coronation in Königsberg in 1701, Prince-elector Frederick III of Brandenburg became King Frederick I of Prussia, King in Prussia, independent in Prussia (though not in his other domains) from both Poland and the Holy Roman Empire. After the Partitions of Poland, Königsberg became the capital of the newly-created province of East Prussia within the Kingdom of Prussia. Treaty of Oliwa. ... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The coronation of Empress Farah, of Iran in 1967. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... Friedrich I of Prussia, Kurfürst of Brandenburg, King in Russia (Fredrick I, July 11, 1857 -- February 25, 1913), Hohenzollern, was the first King in Prussia, reigning from January 18, 2001, until his death. ... It is the little word in that makes the title King in Prussia (German König in Preussen) an extraordinary one. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim...


Königsberg became a centre of education when the Albertina University was founded by Albert of Prussia in 1544. The university was situated opposite the north and east side of the Königsberg Cathedral. In 1560 Albert's sovereign, Polish king Sigismund II of Poland equalled the university in law with the University of Kraków. In 1900 it contained the Municipal Library. In 1862 a new university in the Renaissance style, was completed. The facade was adorned by an equestrian figure in relief of Albert of Prussia, the founder. Below it were niches containing statues of Martin Luther and Philipp Melanchthon. Inside was a handsome staircase, borne by marble columns. The Senate Hall contained a portrait of Emperor Frederick III and a bust of Immanuel Kant by Friedrich Hagemann. The adjacent hall ("Aula") was adorned with frescoes painted in 1870. The university library was situated in Dritte Fliess Straße and contained over 230,000 volumes. There were 900 students in 1900. The inscription upon Kants tomb in Kaliningrad. ... Albert (May 16, 1490 - March 20, 1568), (Albertus in Latin, Margrave Albrecht of Brandenburg in German) Grand Master of the Teutonic Order and first duke of Ducal Prussia, was the third son of Frederick of Hohenzollern, prince of Ansbach and Bayreuth, and Sophia, daughter of Casimir IV Jagiello Grand Duke... Modern view of the cathedral. ... Reign From April 1, 1548 until July 6, 1572 Coronation On September 15, 1697 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Zygmunt I Stary Bona Sforza Consorts Elżbieta Habsburzanka Barbara RadziwiÅ‚Å‚ Katarzyna Austriaczka Barbara Giżycka Children with Barbara Giżycka Barbara Date of Birth... Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet JagielloÅ„ski) is a university in Krakow, Poland. ... By region Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance French Renaissance German Renaissance English Renaissance Renaissance Architecture: The cultural movement called the Renaissance (which literally means re-birth) was just that in architecture, a rebirth of the Roman traditions of design. ... Albert (May 16, 1490 - March 20, 1568), (Albertus in Latin, Margrave Albrecht of Brandenburg in German) Grand Master of the Teutonic Order and first duke of Ducal Prussia, was the third son of Frederick of Hohenzollern, prince of Ansbach and Bayreuth, and Sophia, daughter of Casimir IV Jagiello Grand Duke... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Portrait of Philipp Melanchthon, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. ... Emperor Frederick III Frederick III of Habsburg (Innsbruck, September 21, 1415 – August 19, 1493 in Linz) was elected as German King as the successor of Albert II in 1440. ... “Kant” redirects here. ...


Königsberg as well was the place where the first printed books in Lithuanian language were published and it for long remained the center of the publishing in Lithuanian because here there were educated Lithuanians (from Lithuania Minor, which was as well part of East Prussia; in Lithuania Minor sermons after the Protestant reformation were held in Lithuanian, and thus Lithuanian prayer books were needed). Protestantism and policies of Prussia promoted education and this helped as well. The first non-religious Lithuanian books were published later as well. Lithuanian is the official language of Lithuania, spoken by about 4 million native speakers (Lithuanians). ... Regions of Lithuania Pregel River, a presumable southern ethnic border of Lithuania Minor in the 19th century Lithuania Minor (also known as Prussian Lithuania, German: , Lithuanian: ) was the name given to the northern part of East-Prussia in view of its predominantly Lithuanian-speaking population. ...

The Königsberg Castle before World War I
The Königsberg Castle before World War I

It was the birthplace (1690) of the mathematician Christian Goldbach, the writer E.T.A. Hoffmann, and the home of the philosopher Immanuel Kant. In 1736, the mathematician Leonhard Euler used the arrangement of bridges and islands at Königsberg as the basis for the Seven Bridges of Königsberg Problem which led to the mathematical branches of topology and graph theory. More latterly Königsberg was the birthplace in the 19th century of David Hilbert, the most influential mathematician of the first half of the 20th century and professor at the German intellectual centre of the University of Goettingen. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2565x3493, 3361 KB) Description Königsberg Castle tower and Emperor Williams Monument, Kaliningrad, Russia Original image Photochrom print (color photo lithograph) Created between 1890 and 1905 Source Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Photochrom Prints Collection, reproduction number LC... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2565x3493, 3361 KB) Description Königsberg Castle tower and Emperor Williams Monument, Kaliningrad, Russia Original image Photochrom print (color photo lithograph) Created between 1890 and 1905 Source Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Photochrom Prints Collection, reproduction number LC... Königsberg Castle, 1895 The ruins of the Köningsberg Castle were destroyed in 1968 The Königsberg Castle (German: , Russian: ) was a castle in Kaliningrad, Russia (formerly Königsberg, Germany), and one of the landmarks of the East Prussian capital Königsberg. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... Christian Goldbach (March 18, 1690 - November 20, 1764), was a Prussian mathematician, who was born in Königsberg, Prussia, as son of a pastor. ... ETA Hoffman Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (January 24, 1776 - June 25, 1822), was a German romantic and fantasy author and composer. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... “Kant” redirects here. ... Leonhard Paul Euler (pronounced Oiler; IPA ) (April 15, 1707 – September 18 [O.S. September 7] 1783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist, who spent most of his life in Russia and Germany. ... Map of Königsberg in Eulers time showing the actual layout of the seven bridges, highlighting the river Pregolya and the bridges. ... A Möbius strip, an object with only one surface and one edge; such shapes are an object of study in topology. ... A pictorial representation of a graph In mathematics and computer science, graph theory is the study of graphs, mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects from a certain collection. ... David Hilbert (January 23, 1862, Königsberg, East Prussia – February 14, 1943, Göttingen, Germany) was a German mathematician, recognized as one of the most influential and universal mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries. ...


Also in the Dritte Fliess Straße was the Palaestra Albertina, established in 1898 for the encouragement of the higher forms of sport among the students and citizens. Nearby were the government offices, adorned with mural paintings by Knorr and Schmidt.


In the König Straße stood the Academy of Art with a good collection of over 400 pictures. About 50 works were by old Italian Masters; and some early Dutch paintings were also to be found there. (A summary list of some of the paintings can be found in Baedeker's Northern Germany, London, 1904.) At the Königs Tor (King's Gate) stood statues of Otakar I of Bohemia, Albert of Prussia and Frederick I of Prussia. Königsberg had a magnificent Exchange (completed in 1875) with fine views of the harbour from the staircase. In Bahnhof Strasse (Railway Street) were the offices of the famous Royal Amber Works – this district was celebrated as the "Amber Coast". There was also an Observatory fitted up by the astronomer Friedrich Bessel, a Botanical Garden and Zoological Museum. The "Physikalisch", near the Heumarkt, contained botanic and anthropological collections and prehistoric antiquities. Otakar I (also spelled Ottokar or PÅ™emysl Otakar/Ottokar) (c. ... Albert (May 16, 1490 - March 20, 1568), (Albertus in Latin, Margrave Albrecht of Brandenburg in German) Grand Master of the Teutonic Order and first duke of Ducal Prussia, was the third son of Frederick of Hohenzollern, prince of Ansbach and Bayreuth, and Sophia, daughter of Casimir IV Jagiello Grand Duke... Friedrich I of Prussia, Kurfürst of Brandenburg, King in Russia (Fredrick I, July 11, 1857 -- February 25, 1913), Hohenzollern, was the first King in Prussia, reigning from January 18, 2001, until his death. ... Amber pendants. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (July 22, 1784 – March 17, 1846) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and systematizer of the Bessel functions (which, despite their name, were discovered by Daniel Bernoulli). ...


Of Königsberg's notable structures, the 1815 Encyclopaedia Britannica refers to "the magnificent palace in which is a hall 83.5 m long and 18 m broad without pillars to support it, and a handsome library. The gothic tower of the castle is very high (100 m) and has 284 steps to the top, from where a great distance can be seen". This extensive building, enclosed in a large quadrangle and situated almost in the centre of the city, was formerly a seat of the Teutonic Order. It was altered and enlarged in the 16th - 18th centuries. The west wing contained the Schloßkirche, where Frederick I of Prussia was crowned in 1701, and Wilhelm I, later the first Emperor or Kaiser of Germany, as King of Prussia, in 1861. The arms emblazoned upon the walls and columns were those of the Knights of the Order of the Black Eagle. Above the church was the spacious Moscowiter-Saal, one of the largest halls in Germany. Until the latter part of World War II the apartments of the Royal Family and the Prussia Museum (north wing) were open to the public daily. An extensive collection of provincial archives was also housed there. Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... Statue of Martin Luther in the main square Wittenberg, officially [Die] Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59 E, 51° 51 N, on the Elbe river. ... Friedrich I of Prussia, Kurfürst of Brandenburg, King in Russia (Fredrick I, July 11, 1857 -- February 25, 1913), Hohenzollern, was the first King in Prussia, reigning from January 18, 2001, until his death. ... William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia This is a list of the rulers of the former German state of Prussia, originally territories on the Baltic Sea which the Teutonic Knights had conquered from of Poland and Lithuania, which later became a duchy under the suzerainty of the Kingdom of Poland... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... The Order of the Black Eagle (Schwarzer-Adler-Orden) was the highest order of chivalry in Prussia and later the German Empire. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


By 1800 the city was approximately five miles in circumference and had 60,000 inhabitants (including a military garrison of 7,000). After the abolition of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Königsberg remained the capital of East Prussia, which was outside the formal borders of the German Confederation of 1815-1866. it was incorporated into the German Empire in 1871. The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick...


Königsberg flourished as the capital of East Prussia. An extensive local railway network was established linking the city to Breslau, Thorn, Insterburg, Eydtkuhnen, Tilsit, and Pillau. In 1860 the railroad connecting Berlin with St. Petersburg was completed and made Königsberg an even more important commercial centre. Extensive electric tramways were in operation by 1900; and regular steamers plied to Memel, Tapiau and Labiau, Cranz, Tilsit, and Danzig. Two large theatres were built during this time: the Stadt (City) Theatre and the Appollo. By 1900 the city's population had grown to 188,000, with a 9,000-strong military garrison. East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... Motto: Durabo (lat. ... Chernyakhovsk (Russian: ; German: ( ); Lithuanian: ; Polish: ) is a town located at in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. ... Chernyshevskoye (German: Eydtkuhnen) is a town in the Kaliningrad Oblast of German province of East Prussia. ... A road bridge in Sovetsk Sovetsk (Russian: Советск; until 1946 German: Tilsit. ... Baltiysk (Балтийск) – known prior to 1945 by its German name, Pillau (Polish PiÅ‚awa, Lithuanian Piliava)– is a Russian sea port in the strait between Vistula Bay and Gdansk Bay, called Strait of Baltiysk on the territory of Kaliningrad Oblast with about 20,000 inhabitants. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Location Ethnographic region Lithuania minor County KlaipÄ—da County Municipality KlaipÄ—da city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 1 General Information Capital of KlaipÄ—da County KlaipÄ—da city municipality Population 187,316 in 2006 (3rd) First mentioned 1252 Granted city rights 1254 or 1258 (Lübeck); 1475 (CheÅ‚mno... Central square of Gvardeysk Gvardeysk (Russian: ; until 1946—Tapiau) is a town in Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, located on the right bank of the Pregolya River some 38 km east of Kaliningrad. ... Polessk (Russian: Полесск, German: Labiau (until 1945), Polish: Labiawa, Lithuanian: Labguva) is a small city in the Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia. ... Old postcard of Zelenogradsk Zelenogradsk (Russian: Зеленоградск, German: Cranz, Lithuanian: Krantas, Polish: Kraniec) is a town in the Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia. ... A road bridge in Sovetsk Sovetsk (Russian: Советск; until 1946 German: Tilsit. ... Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Pomeranian Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ...

Königsberg in historical East Prussia, located near the Baltic Sea. Here seen in German borders from 1919 to 1939.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (743x801, 23 KB) Summary Germanys province of East Prussia from 1923 to 1939, with Memelland occupied by Lithuania Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (743x801, 23 KB) Summary Germanys province of East Prussia from 1923 to 1939, with Memelland occupied by Lithuania Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ...

Weimar Republic

After World War I, the creation of the Polish Corridor cut off the East Prussian land connection from the rest of Weimar Germany. The Ostmesse (East European Fair) at the Königsberg Tiergarten was organized every year since 1920, it was intended as a compensation for the geographical distance that handicapped the economic development of East Prussia and its capital Königsberg. In 1922 the first permanent airport and commercial terminal solely for commercial aviation was built at Königsberg-Devau. In 1929, Königsberg amalgamated with some surrounding suburbs. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A Polish map showing the territory known as the Polish Corridor The Polish Corridor was the name given to a strip of territory which was transferred from Germany to Poland by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Adolf Hitler (last) Legislature Reichstag... The Kaliningrad Zoo is one of the largest and oldest zoos in Russia. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Third Reich

In 1932 Prussia's legal (Social Democratic) government under Otto Braun was ousted by the Reich Government, and Gauleiter Erich Koch replaced the elected local government during Nazi rule from 1933 to 1945. Motto Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Government Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I (first)  - 1688–1701 Frederick III (last) King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I (first)  - 1888–1918 William II (last) Prime Minister1,2... SPD redirects here. ... Otto Braun to the left, 1932 Otto Braun (28 January 1872 - 14 December 1955) was a German Social Democratic politician, who was Prime Minister of Prussia. ... A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau. ... Erich Koch (June 19, 1896, Elberfeld - November 12, 1986, Barczewo) was a Gauleiter of the NSDAP in East Prussia from 1928 until 1945, and Reichskomissar in Ukraine from 1941 until 1944. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


In 1935, the Wehrmacht designated Königsberg as the Headquarters for Wehrkreis I, (under the command of General der Artillerie Albert Wodrig) which originally took in all of East Prussia. Wehrkreis I was extended in March of 1939 to include the Memel area. In October of 1939, it was extended again to include the Ciechanów and Suwałki areas. In 1942, the Wehrkreis was again expanded to include the Białystok district. Army units that called Königsberg home included the I Infantry Corps, which was part of the pre-Nazi era Standing Army; the 61st Infanterie Division, which was formed upon mobilization from Reservists from East Prussia. It took part in the invasion of Belgium, and Russia. Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Ciechanów coat of arms Ciechanów (pronounced (IPA): [tÉ•exanuv]) is a town in north-central Poland with 47,900 inhabitants (2002). ... Motto: none Voivodship Podlaskie Municipal government Rada miejska w SuwaÅ‚kach Mayor Józef Gajewski Area 65. ... Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Podlachian Powiat city county Gmina BiaÅ‚ystok Established 14th century City Rights 1692 Government  - Mayor Tadeusz Truskolaski Area  - City 102 km²  (39. ...


Winston Churchill [WWII, Book XII] referred to Königsberg as "a modernised heavily defended fortress". Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. ...


Bombing by British
Main article: Bombing of Königsberg in World War II

In 1944 Königsberg suffered heavy damage from British air attacks and burned for several days. Occasionally bombed by the Soviet Air Forces, No. 5 Group of the Royal Air Force first attacked the city on the night of 26/27 August 1944. The raid was in the extreme range for the 174 Avro Lancasters that flew 1500 km from their bases to bomb the city. Fortunately for the Königsbergers, this first raid was not successful, most bombs falling on the eastern side of the town. (Four of the attacking aircraft were lost.) In 1944, the city of Königsberg was extensively bombed from the air by the British and burned for several days. ... The Soviet Air Force, also known under the abbreviation VVS, transliterated from Russian: ВВС, Военно-воздушные силы (Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily), formed the official designation of the air force of the Soviet Union. ... No. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Avro Lancaster was a British four-engine Second World War bomber aircraft made initially by Avro for the British Royal Air Force (RAF). ...


Three nights later on the 29/30 August, a further 189 Lancasters of No. 5 Group tried the target again dropping 480 t of bombs on the centre of the city. Bomber Command estimated that 20% of all the industry and 41% of all the housing in Königsberg was destroyed in the attack. A heavy German night fighter defense downed fifteen of the attacking bombers (7.9% of the force).[4] is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A night fighter is a fighter aircraft adapted for use at night, or in other times of bad visibility. ...


The historic city center, consisting of the quarters Altstadt, Löbenicht and Kneiphof was in fact completely destroyed, among it the cathedral, the castle, all churches of the old city, the old and the new universities and furthermore the old shipping quarter.


Red Army's capture of Königsberg

Many people fled Königsberg in advance of the Red Army's advance after October 1944, particularly after word spread of Soviet atrocities at Nemmersdorf and Gumbinnen.[5][6] Soviet forces under General Chernyakhovsky reached the city on January 13, 1945 and had encircled the city by the end of the month, but a temporary German breakout allowed many of the remaining civilians to escape via train and naval evacuation from the nearby port of Pillau (now Baltiysk). The siege of Königsberg (or Battle of Königsberg), which had been declared a "fortress" (Festung) by the Germans and fanatically defended, raged all through February and March. The city was bombed and shelled continuously. The Red Army force for the final assault numbered 137,250 men, supported by almost 5,000 artillery pieces, 540 tanks, and 2,450 aircraft. Chernyakhovsky was succeeded by Marshal Aleksandr Vasilevsky. For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Mayakovskoye (Russian: ; German: ) is a settlement in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. ... The city of Gusev (Гусев; Gumbinnen, German, until 1945; GumbinÄ—, Lithuanian, until 1945) is in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. ... Baltiysk (Балтийск) – known prior to 1945 by its German name, Pillau – is a Russian sea port in the strait between Vistula Bay and Gdansk Bay, called Strait of Baltiysk on the territory of Kaliningrad Oblast with about 20,000 inhabitants. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders General Otto von Lasch Marshal Vasilevsky Marshal Rokossovsky Strength 130,000 250,000 Casualties 50,000 60,000 The Battle of Königsberg was the last battle of the East Prussian Operation. ... Festung is a generic German word for a fortress. ... Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Vasilevsky (Russian: , September 30, 1895 – December 5, 1977) was a Soviet military commander, promoted to Marshal of the Soviet Union in 1943. ...


On April 9 — one month before the end of the war in Europe — the German military commander, General Otto Lasch, surrendered the remnants of his forces, which had numbered 35,000. For this act, he was sentenced to death in absentia by Hitler, who declared him a "traitor." At the time of the surrender, military and civilian dead in the city were estimated at 42,000, with the Red Army claiming over 90,000 prisoners. (Lasch's subterranean command bunker has been preserved in Kaliningrad as a museum.) is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Otto Lasch (25 June 1893 - 29 April 1971) served as an officer in the German Wehrmacht. ...


About 50,000 survivors (out of Königsberg's prewar population of 316,000) remained in the ruins of the devastated city. These survivors, and a few others who returned immediately after the fighting ended, were held as virtual prisoners until 1949, during which time many died of disease and starvation. A significant number committed suicide. The remaining German residents were expelled in 1949-50.[citation needed] Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ...


Soviet Union

The "House of the Soviets", built on the former site of Königsberg Castle.
The "House of the Soviets", built on the former site of Königsberg Castle.

At the end of World War II in 1945, the city became part of the Soviet Union pending the final determination of territorial questions at the peace settlement (as part of the Russian SFSR) as agreed upon by the Allies at the Potsdam Conference: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (996x1224, 167 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kaliningrad Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (996x1224, 167 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kaliningrad Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Königsberg Castle, 1895 The ruins of the Köningsberg Castle were destroyed in 1968 The Königsberg Castle (German: , Russian: ) was a castle in Kaliningrad, Russia (formerly Königsberg, Germany), and one of the landmarks of the East Prussian capital Königsberg. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ...

VI. CITY OF KOENIGSBERG AND THE ADJACENT AREA
The Conference examined a proposal by the Soviet Government that pending the final determination of territorial questions at the peace settlement the section of the western frontier of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics which is adjacent to the Baltic Sea should pass from a point on the eastern shore of the Bay of Danzig to the east, north of Braunsberg and Goldap, to the meeting point of the frontiers of Lithuania, the Polish Republic and East Prussia.
The Conference has agreed in principle to the proposal of the Soviet Government concerning the ultimate transfer to the Soviet Union of the city of Koenigsberg and the area adjacent to it as described above, subject to expert examination of the actual frontier.
The President of the United States and the British Prime Minister have declared that they will support the proposal of the Conference at the forthcoming peace settlement.[1] The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The Bay of Gdańsk (also known as the Gdańsk Bay or Gulf of Gdańsk; in Polish Zatoka Gdańska; in German Danziger Bucht) is a southeastern bay of the Baltic sea enclosed by a large curve of the shores of Gdańsk... Braniewo (until 1945 Polish: ; German: ) is a city in northeastern Poland, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, with a population of 18,068 (2004). ... Coat of arms GoÅ‚dap (German: ( ); Lithuanian: ) is a town and a seat of a powiat in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship in Poland. ... Anthem Mazurek DÄ…browskiego(Polish) DÄ…browskis Mazurka Poland() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Warsaw Official languages Polish² Demonym Pole Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Lech KaczyÅ„ski  -  Prime Minister JarosÅ‚aw KaczyÅ„ski Formation  -  Christianisation4 966   -  Redeclared November 11, 1918  Accession to... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... For the victim of Mt. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from 1945 to 1951. ...

It was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946 after the death of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Mikhail Kalinin, one of the original Bolsheviks. The German population was expelled and the city was repopulated with Russian citizens. Life changed dramatically: the city had a new name (Kaliningrad), and German was replaced by Russian as the language of everyday life. As one of the westernmost territories of the USSR, the Kaliningrad Oblast became a strategically important area during the Cold War. The Soviet Baltic Fleet was headquartered in the city in the 1950s. Because of its strategic importance, Kaliningrad was closed to foreign visitors. The President of the Soviet Union was the Head of State of the USSR from March 15, 1990 to December 25, 1991. ... Mikhail Kalinin A 1919 image showing Joseph Stalin, Vladimir Lenin, and Mikhail Kalinin (right) Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin (Russian: ) (November 19 [O.S. November 7] 1875 – June 3, 1946) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet politician. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Soviet redirects here. ... Russian Baltic Fleet sleeve ensign The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот, in the Soviet period - The Double Red Banner Baltic Fleet - Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот) is located at the Baltic Sea and headquartered in Kaliningrad, the other major base is at Kronstadt, located in the Gulf of Finland. ... A closed city (town) is a city/town with travel and residency restrictions in the former Soviet Union, or in a CIS country. ...


In 1957 an agreement was signed and later came into force which delimited the boundary between Poland and the Soviet Union. (Full text: [2], for other issues of the frontier delimitation see [3])


Russian Federation

Due to the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Kaliningrad Oblast became a Russian exclave, separated from the rest of Russia. Kaliningrad is the only Russian Baltic Sea port that is ice-free all year. The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...


When Poland and Lithuania became members of the European Union in 2004, the region became completely surrounded by the EU. Special travel arrangements for the territory's inhabitants have been made. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Today, there is some debate about giving the city its old name back, as has happened in several Russian cities like St. Petersburg and Tver, which were known as Leningrad and Kalinin, respectively, during much of the Soviet time period. However, the continued use of "Kaliningrad", at least for the next few years, seems certain. "Kyonig" (shortened Russian form of "Königsberg") is often used in advertisements for tourism companies in this region. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Tvers coat of arms depicts grand ducal crown placed on a throne. ...


In July 2007, Russian First Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov declared that if US-controlled missile defense systems were deployed in Poland that nuclear weapons would again be deployed in Kaliningrad. Sergei Ivanov at a press conference following the meeting of the NATO-Russia Council, Colorado Springs - 9 October 2003 June 6, 2002 Sergei Borisovich Ivanov (Серге́й Бори́сович Ивано́в in Russian) (born January 31, 1953, Leningrad) is a first deputy prime minister of Russia and former minister of defense (March 2001-February 2007). ... Missile defence is an air defence system, weapon program, or technology involved in the detection, tracking, interception and destruction of attacking missiles. ...


Historical names

Coat of Arms of Altstadt (Old town) of Königsberg, 1286

Image File history File links Altstadt. ... Image File history File links Altstadt. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... This article or section should be merged with List of Sorbian languages The Sorbian languages are members of the West Slavic branch of languages spoken in eastern Germany. ...

Sightseeing

Brandenburg Gate, Kaliningrad
Brandenburg Gate, Kaliningrad

Image File history File links Koeningsburg-187. ... Image File history File links Koeningsburg-187. ... Modern view of the cathedral. ... The Cathedral in April 2005 The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (Hram Hrista Spasitelja) in the Russian city of Kaliningrad is still under construction. ... The Kaliningrad Zoo is one of the largest and oldest zoos in Russia. ... Ploshchad Pobedy is a common name for central and representative squares in Russian cities. ... The inscription dedicated to Kant close to the former castle in Kaliningrad. ...

Transport

Economy

Sport

Kaliningrad is home to the association football (soccer) club FC Baltika Kaliningrad, which plays in the Russian First Division. “Soccer” redirects here. ... Baltika is a Russian football club based in Kaliningrad. ... The Russian First Division is the second level of Russian professional football. ...


Famous residents

Writers

Athletes Abraham Mapu (1808–1867) is a Lithuanian novelist who wrote in the Hebrew language. ... Fanny Lewald (March 21, 1811 - August 5, 1889), German author, was born at Königsberg in East Prussia, of Jewish parentage. ... Lea Goldberg (1911-1970) was a Hebrew poet and student of literature who is considered one of Israels classic poets. ... Lea (Leah) Rabin (April 8, 1928 in Königsberg, East Prussia,Germany — November 12, 2000 in Petach Tikva, Israel) was the wife of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, who was assassinated in 1995. ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... ETA Hoffman Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (January 24, 1776 - June 25, 1822), was a German romantic and fantasy author and composer. ... Agnes Miegel(March 9, 1879 - October 26, 1964) was a German author, journalist and important poet. ...

Cosmonauts Sergei Alekseevich Beloglazov (Russian: Сергей Алексеевич Белоглазов)(born September 16, 1956 in Kaliningrad) is one of the greatest modern wrestlers. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Eugen Sandow Eugen Sandow (born Friederich Wilhelm Mueller on April 2, 1867 in Königsberg, East Prussia, died on October 14, 1925) was a pioneering bodybuilder of the Victorian era and is often refered to as the Father of Modern Bodybuilding. Sandow had been a great admirer of Greek and... Alexander Vladimirovich Volkov (Russian: ) (b. ... U.S. Space Shuttle astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit. ...

People of Science Viktor Patsayev Viktor Ivanovich Patsayev (Russian: Виктор Иванович Пацаев; June 19, 1933, Aktuybinsk – June 30, 1971) was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on the Soyuz 11 mission and had the unfortunate distinction of being part of the second crew to die during a space flight. ... General Aleksei Arkhipovich Leonov, Soviet Air Force (Ret. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... Roman Yurievich Romanenko (Major, Russian Air Force) (born August 9, 1971, in Schelkovo, near Moscow) is a test-cosmonaut at the Yu. ... Alexander Stepanovich Viktorenko (Александр Степанович Викторенко) is a Russian cosmonaut. ...

Others Christian Goldbach (March 18, 1690 - November 20, 1764), was a Prussian mathematician, who was born in Königsberg, Prussia, as son of a pastor. ... David Hilbert (January 23, 1862, Königsberg, East Prussia – February 14, 1943, Göttingen, Germany) was a German mathematician, recognized as one of the most influential and universal mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Gotthilf Heinrich Ludwig Hagen (March 3, 1797 - February 3, 1884) was a German physicist and hydraulic engineer. ... “Kant” redirects here. ... Gustav Robert Kirchhof (March 12, 1824 – October 17, 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects. ... Karl Rudolph König Karl Rudolph König (November 26, 1832 - October 2, 1901), was a German physicist, chiefly concerned with acoustic phenomena. ... Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld (December 5, 1868 in Königsberg, East Prussia – April 26, 1951 in Munich, Germany) was a German physicist who introduced the fine-structure constant in 1919. ... Otto Wallach (March 27, 1847 at Königsberg - February 26, 1931 at Göttingen) was a German Chemist who won the Nobel Prize in 1910 for work on alicyclic compounds. ...

Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a German Jewish political theorist. ... Rabbi Josef Hirsch Dunner (1913-2007), aka Harav Yosef Tzvi Haleivi Dunner, was a distinguished hareidi rabbi from Germany, who spent most of his life in London, England. ... Erich von Drygalskadekingles or Erich Dagobert von Drygalskadekingles (February 9, 1865 – January 10, 1949) was a German geographer, geophysicist and polar scientist, born in Königsberg, East Prussia, Kingdom of Prussia. ... Oleg Mikhaylovich Gazmanov (Russian: , born July 22, 1951, Gusev) is a Russian singer. ... Pavel Pabst (1854-1897) was a pianist, composer, and Professor of Piano at Moscow Conservatory. ... The Moscow Conservatory (Московская Государственная Консерватория им. П.И.Чайковского) is a prominent music school in Russia. ... Bella Kocharian, Laura Bush, Lyudmila Putina and Zorka Purvanova – first ladies of Armenia, the United States, Russia and Bulgaria respectively in 2003. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of Russia. ... This article is about the use of the term first lady internationally. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Michael Wieck (born 1928) is a German violinist and author. ... Heinrich August Winkler (* 1938 in Königsberg); is a German historian. ...

Sister cities

This article is about partnerships between towns distant from each other; see Twin cities for the different concept of physically neighbouring cities. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Pomeranian Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Gdynia (IPA: , German: (until 1939 and after 1945) / Gotenhafen (1939-1945); Kashubian: ) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and an important seaport at GdaÅ„sk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Motto: Durabo (lat. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Kiel ( ) is a city in northern Germany and the capital of the Bundesland Schleswig-Holstein. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province Groningen Area (2006)  - Municipality 83. ...

See also

Khrabrovo Airport is located 24km north of Kaliningrad, east off the Zelenogradsk highway. ... Radio Königsberg was a radio station which transmitted news related to Germany and Nazism during the WWII. The radiostation transmitted in Swedish and the purpose was to gain the Swedes support for Germany but most of all Adolf Hitler and his Nazi party. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Kaliningrad Oblast
  2. ^ Christiansen, Professor Eric, The Northern Crusades, London, 1980: 102. ISBN 0-333-26243-3
  3. ^ Christiansen, Professor Eric, The Northern Crusades, London, 1980: 100-101. ISBN 0-333-26243-3
  4. ^ http://www.raf.mod.uk/bombercommand/aug44.html RAF Bomber Command: Campaign Diary. August 1944]
  5. ^ Berlin , Antony Beevor
  6. ^ A Writer at War Vasily Grossman, Edited & Translated by Antony Beevor and Luba Vinoradova, Pimlico, 2006
  • Baedeker, Karl, Northern Germany, 14th revised (English-language) edition, Leipzig, London, and New York, 1904, pps: 176-7.
  • Vesilind, Priit J. Kaliningrad: Coping with a German Past and a Russian Future. National Geographic, March 1997.


The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ...

Coat of arms of Kaliningrad Oblast Cities and towns in Kaliningrad Oblast Flag of Russia
Administrative center: Kaliningrad

Bagrationovsk | Baltiysk | Chernyakhovsk | Guryevsk | Gusev | Gvardeysk | Krasnoznamyonsk | Ladushkin | Mamonovo | Neman | Nesterov | Ozyorsk | Pionersky | Polessk | Pravdinsk | Slavsk | Sovetsk | Svetlogorsk | Svetly | Zelenogradsk Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Bagrationovsk (Russian: Багратионовск, German: Preußisch Eylau before 1946, Lithuanian: Yluva/PrÅ«sų Ylava, Polish: Pruska IÅ‚awa / IÅ‚awka) is a small town in the Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia, located some 37 km south of Kaliningrad, at 54°23′ N 20°38′ E. Its population as of 2004 is 7... Baltiysk (Балтийск) – known prior to 1945 by its German name, Pillau (Polish PiÅ‚awa, Lithuanian Piliava)– is a Russian sea port in the strait between Vistula Bay and Gdansk Bay, called Strait of Baltiysk on the territory of Kaliningrad Oblast with about 20,000 inhabitants. ... Chernyakhovsk (Russian: ; German: ( ); Lithuanian: ; Polish: ) is a town located at in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. ... Guryevsk (Russian: ; German: ) is a town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located seven kilometers north-east of Kaliningrad at . Population: 10,913 (2002 Census). ... The city of Gusev (Гусев; Gumbinnen, German, until 1945; GumbinÄ—, Lithuanian, until 1945) is in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. ... Central square of Gvardeysk Gvardeysk (Russian: ; until 1946—Tapiau) is a town in Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, located on the right bank of the Pregolya River some 38 km east of Kaliningrad. ... Krasnoznamensk (Russian: ; German: ; Lithuanian: ) is a town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. ... Ladushkin (Russian: , German: Ludwigsort) is a small town lying between Kaliningrad and the Polish border, in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. ... Mamonovo (German: ) is a town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. ... Neman (German Ragnit, Lithuanian RagainÄ—, Polish Ragneta) is a town in Russias Kaliningrad Oblast, 11 kilometres East of the city of Sovetsk, on the bank of the Neman river. ... Niestierov (Lithuanian Stalupėnai, Polish Stołupnie, German Stallupönen) is a small town in Russias Kaliningrad Oblast. ... Ozyorsk (Russian: Озёрск, German until 1945: Darkehmen, Lithuanian until 1945: Darkiemis) is a town in the Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia. ... Coat of arms of Pionersky Pionersky (Russian: ( ); until 1945 German: ( ); Lithuanian: ) is a town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. ... Polessk (Russian: Полесск, German: Labiau (until 1945), Polish: Labiawa, Lithuanian: Labguva) is a small city in the Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia. ... Pravdinsk (Russian: ; German: Friedland in Ostpreußen until 1946, Polish: FrydlÄ…d) is a town in the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia. ... Slavsk (Russian: ; German: ) is a town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. ... A road bridge in Sovetsk Sovetsk (Russian: Советск; until 1946 German: Tilsit. ... Svetlogorsk beach in June. ... Svetly (Russian: ; German: ) is a town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the coast of Vistula Bay 30 km west of Kaliningrad at . Population: 21,745 (2002 Census). ... Old postcard of Zelenogradsk Zelenogradsk (Russian: Зеленоградск, German: Cranz, Lithuanian: Krantas, Polish: Kraniec) is a town in the Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kaliningrad - definition of Kaliningrad in Encyclopedia (1156 words)
Kaliningrad (Russian: Калининград), seaport city, capital and main city of the Kaliningrad Oblast, a small Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania with access to the Baltic Sea.
During the Cold War, Kaliningrad -- with the northern third of former East Prussia now the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic -- was an important naval base and closed to visitors.
Kaliningrad is located at the mouth of the River Pregel, which empties into the Vistula Lagoon.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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