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Encyclopedia > Kalilag and Damnag
Kelileh va Demneh manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the lion astray.
Kelileh va Demneh manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the lion astray.

Kalilag and Damnag in Syriac or Kalila wa Dimna كليلة و دمنة in Arabic, is the name of the translation into Syriac of the Sanskrit Panchatantra literary work of fables originating in India. It was translated to Pahlavi Persian then into Syriac, then into Arabic, and from there to European languages. Thomas Irving (1980) further states that from North Africa the stories were carried south to Sub-saharan Africa, and on to North America by African slaves. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (734x783, 1023 KB)This 15th century Persian mauscript is kept at the Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (734x783, 1023 KB)This 15th century Persian mauscript is kept at the Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Herāt (Persian هرات) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the valley of the Hari Rud river in the province also known as Herat, and was traditionally known for wine. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation : ) is a classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... The Panchatantra (also spelled Pañcatantra, Sanskrit पञ्चतन्त्र Five Chapters , Kelileh va Demneh or Kalilag and Damnag in Persian) is a collection of Sanskrit fables in prose and verse. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


The book is about symbolic wisdom fables put in the mouths of animals. All the tales have a moral message, and many have a political undertone.


Two main figures are the jackals Kalila and Dimna (Sanskrit: Karataka and Damanaka). The main narrator is the philosopher (Hakim) Bidpai (Arabic: Baydaba), who is asked for a fable by the king Dabshalim. Species Canis aureus Canis adustus Canis mesomelas Canis simensis A jackal is any of four small to medium-sized members of the family Canidae, found in Africa and Asia. ... Bidpai or Pilpai is the presumed author of a collection of Hindu fables of ancient date, in extensive circulation over the East, and widely translated. ...


The fables originated around 200 BC in a Sanskrit collection of animal stories called the Panchatantra. In the 6th century, at the command of the Sassanian King Khosrau I of Persia, a translation was made into Pahlavi, the literary language of Persia at the time. The Panchatantra (also spelled Pañcatantra, Sanskrit पञ्चतन्त्र Five Chapters , Kelileh va Demneh or Kalilag and Damnag in Persian) is a collection of Sanskrit fables in prose and verse. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... A coin of Khosrau I Khosrau I, (Most commonly known as Anooshiravan also spelled Anushirvan, Persian: انوشيروان meaning the immortal soul), also known as Anooshiravan the Just (انوشیروان عادل, Anooshiravan-e-ādel) (ruled 531–579), was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I of Persia (488–531), and the most famous and... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... The term Persian Empire refers to a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ...


By the end of the 6th century, a Syriac translation from Pahlavi was made (Kalilag and Damnag), and then another one into Arabic (Kalila wa Dimna) in the 8th century by Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa in Baghdad. This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Abdullah Ibn Dhadawayh, also known as Ibn al-Muqaffa (d. ... Location of Baghdad within Iraq Baghdad (Arabic: ‎ translit: , Kurdish: Bexda, from Persian Baagh-daad or Bag-Da-Du meaning “Garden of God” [1]) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


Around 1080, a translation from Arabic into Greek was done, then one into Hebrew about 1240, and old Castilian (Calila e Dimna) in 1250. Events William I of England, in a letter, reminds the Bishop of Rome that the King of England owes him no allegiance. ... Hebrew (עִבְרִית ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than seven million people in Israel and Jewish communities around the world. ... Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Events December 13 - Death of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor Louis IX of France is captured by Muslims and has to ransom himself Mabinogion appears Albertus Magnus isolates the element arsenic Vincent of Beauvais writes proto-encyclopedic The Greater Mirror City of Stockholm founded Alphonso III of Portugal takes Algarve...


From the Hebrew translation came the version into Latin (Calila et Dimna), made by John of Capua, dating from about 1270 and called Directorium Humanae Vitae, or "Directory of Human Life." It has been suggested that History of the Latin language be merged into this article or section. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ...


From this Latin version came the German translation, first printed about 1481 at the instance of Duke Eberhard. Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted...


From the Latin version came the English version of Sir Thomas North, 1570. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Sir Thomas North (1535? - 1601?), English translator of Plutarch, second son of the 1st Baron North, was born about 1535. ... Events January 23 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England with the bull Regnans in Excelsis May 20 - Abraham Ortelius issues the first modern atlas. ...


La Fontaine

La Fontaine, the great French fabulist, in the second edition of his Fables, 1678, confesses his indebtedness to 'Pilpay', the "Indian Sage": There are communes that have the name Fontaine, and Fontaines: Fontaine, in the Aube département Fontaine, in the Isère département Fontaine, in the Territoire de Belfort département Related names Fontaine-au-Bois, in the Nord département Fontaine-au-Pire, in the Nord département Fontaine...

"This is a second book of fables that I present to the public... I have to acknowledge that the greatest part is inspired from Pilpay, an Indian Sage" ("Je dirai par reconnaissance que j’en dois la plus grande partie à Pilpay sage indien") Jean de La Fontaine

In the Fable entitled "Le Milan, le Roi et le Chasseur" (XII, 12) La Fontaine explains that "Pilpay has the Adventure start near the Ganges" ("Pilpay fait près du Gange arriver l’aventure"). Early morning on the Ganges The River Ganges (Ganga in Indian languages) (Devanagiri गंगा) is a major river in northern India. ...


See also

Persian literature (in Persian: ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... Indian literature is generally acknowledged, but not wholly established, as the oldest in the world. ...

External links

  • A brief summary of translations

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kalilag and Damnag at AllExperts (497 words)
Kalilag and Damnag in Syriac or Kalila wa Dimna كليلة و دمنة in Arabic, is the name of the translation into Syriac of the Sanskrit Panchatantra literary work of fables originating in India.
In the 6th century, at the command of the Sassanian King Khosrau I of Persia, a translation was made into Pahlavi, the literary language of Persia at the time.
By the end of the 6th century, a Syriac translation from Pahlavi was made (Kalilag and Damnag), and then another one into Arabic (Kalila wa Dimna) in the 8th century by Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa in Baghdad.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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