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Encyclopedia > Kalevala

The Kalevala is an epic poem which the Finn Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish and Karelian folklore in the 19th century. It is held to be the national epic of Finland and is traditionally thought of as one of the most significant works of Finnish language literature. Also Karelians in the Republic of Karelia and other Balto-Finnic speakers value Kalevala. The Kalevala is credited with some of the inspiration for the national awakening that ultimately led to Finland's independence from Russia in 1917. The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... Elias Lönnrot ( ) (April 9, 1802 – March 19, 1884) was a Finnish philologist and collector of traditional Finnish oral poetry. ... This article is about Karelia, the land of the Karelians, in its broadest meaning. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A national epic is an epic poem or similar work which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation-state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy. ... Template:Languaklkkkhytgf Finnish ( , or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (91. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... The Karelians is a name used to denote two related, yet different ethnic groups of Finnic-language speakers. ... The Fennomans were the most important political movement in the 19th century Grand Duchy of Finland. ... The Bolshevist government led by Lenin approve Finlands independence The Finnish declaration of independence was adopted by the Parliament of Finland on 6 December 1917. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


The name can be interpreted as the "lands of Kaleva" (by the Finnish suffix -la/lä for place). The epic consists of 22,795 verses, divided into fifty cantos or "chapters" (Finnish runo). A canto is a significant section of a long poem or the highest part in a piece of choral music. ...

Kalevala. The national epic of Finland John Martin Crawford, 1888
Kalevala. The national epic of Finland John Martin Crawford, 1888

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (600x867, 75 KB) Summary Scan of the front cover of vols 1 & 2 of Kalevala. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (600x867, 75 KB) Summary Scan of the front cover of vols 1 & 2 of Kalevala. ... John Martin Crawford (1845 - 1916) was an American (US) physician and scholar who translated the Finnish epic Kalevala into English (From a previous German translation by Franz Anton Schiefner published in 1852), to be published for the first time in 1888. ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Compilation

Main article: Elias Lönnrot

Elias Lönnrot (1802–84) was a scholar and a district health officer in Kainuu, an eastern region of Finland which in his time was an autonomous Grand Duchy. The son of a tailor in the village of Sammatti, he entered the University in Turku (the successor of which is the University of Helsinki) in 1822 and started his poem collection journeys in 1827. He made a total of eleven field trips during a period of fifteen years. Elias Lönnrot ( ) (April 9, 1802 – March 19, 1884) was a Finnish philologist and collector of traditional Finnish oral poetry. ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline, perhaps receiving financial support through a scholarship. ... Kainuu (Swedish: Kajanaland) is a region (maakunta / landskap) of Finland. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... A tailor attending to a customer in Hong Kong. ... Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Lohja Area - Of which land - Rank 85. ... The Royal Academy of Turku (Sv: Ã…bo Kungliga Akademi), was the name of the University of Helsinki until 1809, when it was renamed. ... University of Helsinki is not to be confused with Helsinki University of Technology. ... A field trip is typically a journey by a group of people performing research on a topic to a place away from their normal environment. ...


The poetry

The statue of Väinämöinen by Robert Stigell (1888) decorating the Vanha Ylioppilastalo (Old Studenthouse) built in 1870 in Helsinki, Finland.
The statue of Väinämöinen by Robert Stigell (1888) decorating the Vanha Ylioppilastalo (Old Studenthouse) built in 1870 in Helsinki, Finland.

Finnish folk poetry was first written down in the 1670s, followed by a few collectors during the next centuries. In the 19th century, collecting became more extensive and systematic. Altogether, almost two million verses were collected during this time. Of these, about 1,250,000 have been published and some 500,000 remain unpublished in the archives of the Finnish Literature Society and the collections in Estonia and the Republic of Karelia and other parts of Russia. By the end of the 19th century this pastime and the cumulating cultural orientation towards eastern lands had become a fashion called Karelianism. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Events and Trends Newton and Leibniz independently discover calculus. ... The Finnish Literature Society (Suomen Historiallinen Seura) was founded in 1875 to promote literature written in Finnish. ... The Republic of Karelia (Russian: ) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Historically, Finland has been part of Russia and part of Sweden, with varying degrees of autonomy. ...


Lönnrot and his contemporaries (e.g. A.J. Sjögren and D.E.D. Europaeus) collected most of the poem variants (one poem might have up to two hundred variants) scattered across the regions of Karelia and Ingria amongst the rural people. They carefully noted the name of the poem singer, his or her age, the place of performance and the date in their records. During his fourth field trip in September 1833 Lönnrot got the idea that the poems might represent a wider continuity when poem entities were performed to him along with comments in normal speech connecting them. Ingria may be seen represented in the easternmost part of the Carta Marina (1539) Ingria (Finnish: , Russian: , Swedish: , Estonian: ) is a historical region, now situated mostly in Russia, comprising the area along the basin of the river Neva, between the Gulf of Finland, the Narva River, Lake Peipsi in the... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China An artists rendering of an aerial view of the Maryland countryside: Jane Frank (Jane Schenthal Frank, 1918-1986), Aerial Series: Ploughed Fields, Maryland, 1974, acrylic and mixed materials on apertured double canvas, 52...


The poetry was usually sung to tunes built on a pentachord, sometimes assisted by the kantele (a kind of five-string zither). The rhythm could vary but the tunes were arranged in either two or four lines consisting of five beats each. Sometimes the poems were performed antiphonally, sometimes they were a part of a "singing-match" between knowers of the tradition. Despite the vast geographical distances and cultural spheres separating the individual singers, the poetry was always sung in the same metre, the so-called archaic trochaic tetrametre. Its other formal features are alliteration and parallelism and inversion into chiasmus. A pentachord is a perfect fifth divided into four subintervals by five tones. ... Koistinen concert kantele with 38 strings A kantele, Finnish (or kannel) in Estonian, is a traditional plucked string instrument. ... Concert zither The zither is a musical string instrument, mainly used in folk music, most commonly in German-speaking Alpine Europe. ... This article is about the musical term. ... Alliteration is a literary device in which the same sound appears at the beginning of two or more consecutive words. ... Parallelism means to give two or more parts of the sentences a similar form so as to give the whole a definite pattern. ... Chiasmus (latinized form of Greek χιασμός, from χίασμα (chiasm), crossing) is a figure of speech based on inverted parallelism. ...


The chronology of this oral tradition is uncertain. The seemingly oldest themes (the beginning of the world) have been interpreted to have their roots in distant pre-history while the seemingly latest events (e.g. the arrival of Christianity) seem to be from the Iron Age. For the novel by Michael Crichton, see Timeline (novel). ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... Prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is the period of human history prior to the advent of writing (which marks the beginning of recorded history). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...


Of the tens of poem singers who contributed to the Kalevala, significant ones include:

  • Arhippa Perttunen (1769–1840)
  • Matro
  • Ontrei Malinen (1780–1855)
  • Vaassila Kieleväinen
  • Soava Trohkimainen

Arhippa Perttunen (Russian: ; Ladvozero village, northern Karelia 1769 — c. ...

Lönnrot’s contribution to Kalevala

Lönnrot arranged the collected poems into a coherent whole. In this process he merged poem variants and characters together and left out verses that did not fit in or composed lines of his own in order to connect certain passages into a logical plot. He even invented a few names which could be used for a character throughout the whole story. It has been estimated that the Kalevala comprises: one third of word for word recordings by the collectors, 50% of material that Lönnrot adjusted slightly, 14% of verses he wrote himself based on poem variants and 3% of verses purely of his own invention. What can be thought to be Lönnrot's most significant contribution is the arrangement of the poems. In the preface of Old Kalevala (signed on February 28, 1835), Lönnrot highlights the possibility that somebody other than him could select different poems variants and that Kalevala would still be as genuine as it was on the day of its completion. As a matter of fact, Lönnrot added some 3,000 verses of poem variants in the end of the Old Kalevala for others to compare. Later on these variants were dropped out in the new editions of the epic. February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Publishing

The first version of Lönnrot's compilation, Kalewala, taikka Wanhoja Karjalan Runoja Suomen Kansan muinoisista ajoista (The Kalevala, or old Karelian poems about ancient times of the Finnish people), also known as simply the Old Kalevala, came out in two volumes in 18351836. The Old Kalevala consisted of 12,078 verses or thirty-two poems. | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Lönnrot continued to collect new material, which he integrated into a second edition, Kalevala (the Kalevala), published in 1849. This "new Kalevala" contains fifty poems, and is the standard text of the Kalevala read today. 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Translations

Of the five full translations into English, the older translations by John Martin Crawford (1888), William Forsell Kirby (1907) and the more recent Eino Friberg translation (1989) follow the original rhythm (Kalevala meter) of the poems (which may sound cumbersome to English ears). The Kalevala meter is the meter of the epic Finnish poem, Kalevala. ...


The scholarly translation by Francis Peabody Magoun Jr. (1963) is an attempt to keep the literal meaning of the poem intact for study and preservation reasons and is written in prose; the appendices of this version also contain many notes on the history and culture of the poem, comparisons between the original Old Kalevala and the most well-known version today, and a detailed glossary of terms and names used in the poem.


The most recent version by the poet Keith Bosley (1998) is written in a more fluid linguistic style. This translation is often recognised as the leading version. Keith (Anthony) Bosley (born 1937 in Bourne End, Buckinghamshire, grew up in Maidenhead, Berkshire) is a British language expert. ...


A notable partial translation of the German translation (by Franz Anton Schiefner published in 1852) was made by Prof. John Addison Porter in 1868 and published by Leypoldt & Holt. An article on this version is available here. Franz Anton Schiefner (July 18, 1817 - November 16, 1879), Russian linguist, was born at Reval, in Russia. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... John Addison Porter (March 15, 1822 - August 25, 1866) was an American (US) Professor of Chemistry. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


So far the Kalevala has been translated into forty-nine languages.


Partial list of translations in chronological order by language (Based partially on the list created by Rauni Puranen):

Language Year Translator Remark
Swedish 1841 M. A. Castrén old Kalevala (original of 1835)
1864–1868 Karl Collan new Kalevala (original of 1849)
1884 Rafaël Hertzberg free translation
1944 Olaf Homén abridged Swedish edition
1948 Björn Collinder entire Kalevala
1999 Lars Huldén and Mats Huldén entire Kalevala
French 1845 and 1867 Louis Léouzon le Duc
1927 Jean Louis Perret
1991 Gabriel Rebourcet entire Kalevala translated using old French vocabulary
German 1852 Franz Anton Schiefner
1885-1886 H. Paul
1967 Lore Fromm, Hans Fromm
2004 Gisbert Jänicke
English 1868 John Addison Porter Partial translation, via. Franz Anton Schiefner's version
1888 John Martin Crawford Full translation, via. Franz Anton Schiefner's version
1907 William Forsell Kirby First translation directly from Finnish
1963 Francis Peabody Magoun, Jr. prose translation
1989 Eino Friberg editing and introduction by George C. Schoolfield
1998 Keith Bosley A work of literature that goes beyond translating verse as verse.
Hungarian 1871 Ferdinánd Barna
1909 Béla Vikár
1971 Kálmán Nagy
Russian 1888 Leonid Petrovic Belsky [1]
Estonian 1891–1898 M. J. Eisen
Czech 1894–1895 J. Holecek
Ukrainian 1901 E. Timcenko
Danish 1907 Ferdinand Ohrt selected parts
1994 Hilkka and Bent Søndergaard
Italian 1909 I. Cocchi
1910 Paolo Emilio Pavolini
Japanese 1937 Kakutan Morimoto
1976 Tamotsu Koizumi
Hebrew 1954 Saul Tschernichovsky
1978 Sarah Tubia
Yiddish 1954 Hersh Rosenfeld
Romanian 1959 Iulian Vesper
Chinese 1962 Shih Hêng
1985 Sun Yong
Esperanto 1964 Johan Edvard Leppäkoski
Turkish 1965 Hilmi Ziya Ülken
1982 Lale and Muammar Oğuz
Norwegian 1967 Albert Lange Fliflet "i attdiktning ved" (nynorsk)
Polish 1974 Józef Ozga-Michalski based on the work of Karol Laszecki Full text translation
1998 Jerzy Litwiniuk Full text translation
Fulani 1983 Alpha A. Diallo
Dutch 1985 Mies le Nobel
Tulu 1985 Amrith Someshwar
Latin 1986 Tuomo Pekkanen
Vietnamese 1986 Cao Xuân Nghiêp
1991 Hoàng Thái Anh
1994 Búi Viêt Hòa's
Hindi 1990 Vishnu Khare
Arabic 1991 Sahban Ahmad Mroueh
Slovenian 1991 Jelka Ovaska Novak Partial translation
1997 Jelka Ovaska Novak Full text translation
Swahili 1991 Jan Knappert
Bulgarian 1992 Nino Nikolov
Greek 1992 Maria Martzouk
Faroese 1993 Jóhannes av Skarði
Tamil 1994 R. Sivalingam (Uthayanan) Full translation
Catalan 1997 Ramon Garriga i Marquès, Pirkko-Merja Lounavaara Full translation directly from Finnish. In verse.
Portuguese 2007 Orlando Moreira Full text (Partial version available online)

Matthias Castrén Matthias Alexander Castrén (December 2, 1813-May 7, 1853) was a Finnish ethnologist and philologist. ... Franz Anton Schiefner (July 18, 1817 - November 16, 1879), Russian linguist, was born at Reval, in Russia. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... John Addison Porter (March 15, 1822 - August 25, 1866) was an American (US) Professor of Chemistry. ... John Martin Crawford (1845 - 1916) was an American (US) physician and scholar who translated the Finnish epic Kalevala into English (From a previous German translation by Franz Anton Schiefner published in 1852), to be published for the first time in 1888. ... William Forsell Kirby (January 14, 1844 - 1912) was an English entomologist and folklorist. ... Francis Peabody Magoun (January 6, 1895 – June 5, 1979) was an American British Royal Flying Corps Lieutenant, who served in the First World War and became an ace on October 28, 1918. ... Eino Friberg (1901 - after 1995), was a Finnish born citizen of the United States. ... Keith (Anthony) Bosley (born 1937 in Bourne End, Buckinghamshire, grew up in Maidenhead, Berkshire) is a British language expert. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... This article is about the language. ... Nynorsk (literally New Norwegian) is one of the two officially sanctioned orthographic standards of the Norwegian language, the other being BokmÃ¥l. ... Categories: Africa-related stubs | Burkina Faso | Cameroon | Ethnic groups of Africa | Fulani Empire | Mali | Nigeria ... Tulu is one of the minor languages of India with under 2,000,000 speakers. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the two central official languages of India, the other being English. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... This article is about the language. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia , and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ...

The Storyline

Synopses

Main article: Kalevala (Synopses)
"Aino-Taru" (The Aino Story) by Akseli Gallen-Kallela 1891
"Aino-Taru" (The Aino Story) by Akseli Gallen-Kallela 1891

Cantos 1–10: The first Väinämöinen cycle: Creation of the world; the first man; Väinämöinen’s and Joukahainen’s encounter; Joukahainen promises his sister’s hand to Väinämöinen in exchange for his life; Aino (Joukahainen’s sister) walks into the sea; Joukahainen’s revenge; the wounded Väinämöinen floats into Pohjola (Northland); Väinämöinen encounters the Maid of the North and promises the Mistress of the North the Sampo in exchange for her daughter; Väinämöinen tricks the smith Ilmarinen into Pohjola where he forges the Sampo. The Kalevala is considered the national epic of Finland, it was compiled and edited by Elias Lönnrot while he was a district health officer in (then under the governance of Russia) eastern Finland. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (912x439, 58 KB) Painting by Akseli Gallen-Kallela, depicting a scene from Kalevala, a Finnish epic poem. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (912x439, 58 KB) Painting by Akseli Gallen-Kallela, depicting a scene from Kalevala, a Finnish epic poem. ... NB Aino is also an alternative spelling of Ainu; see Ainu language and Ainu people. ... From the Kalevala, 1896 Akseli Gallen-Kallela (April 26, 1865 _ March 7, 1931) was a Finnish painter who is most of all known for his illustrations of the Kalevala, the Finnish national epic (illustration, right). ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... NB Aino is also an alternative spelling of Ainu; see Ainu language and Ainu people. ... Pohjola is a location in Finnish mythology, referring to Pohja (North), as a point of the compass, the Northland — the whole polar region, and in the world of the Kalevala, the land of the Sami. ... In Finnish mythology, the Sampo was a magical artifact constructed by Ilmarinen that brought good fortune to its holder; nobody knows exactly what it was supposed to be. ... Seppo Ilmarinen, the Eternal Hammerer, blacksmith and inventor in the Kalevala, is an archetypal artificer from Finnish mythology. ...


Cantos 11–15: The first Lemminkäinen cycle: Lemminkäinen steals the maid Kyllikki of the Island; they make a vow; she forgets her vow; Lemminkäinen travels to Pohjola to propose to the Maid of the North; deeds Lemminkäinen must accomplish: ski for the Demon’s elk, bridle the Demon’s horse and shoot the Swan of Tuonela (the land of the dead); a herdsman kills Lemminkäinen and throws his body into the River of Tuonela; Lemminkäinen’s mother awakens him into life. Lemminkäisen äiti by Akseli Gallen-Kallela. ...


Cantos 16–18: The second Väinämöinen cycle: Väinämöinen' travels to Tuonela and to meet Antero Vipunen in order to get spells for boat building and sails to Pohjola; Ilmarinen and Väinämöinen compete for the hand of the Maid of the North.


Cantos 19–25: Ilmarinen's wedding: Ilmarinen accomplishes the needed deeds with the help of the Maid: ploughing the viper-field, quelling of the wolves of Tuonela and catching the pike out of the River of Tuonela; the wedding of Ilmarinen and the Maid of the North. The story of the brewing of the ale.


Cantos 26–30: The second Lemminkäinen cycle: Lemminkäinen is resentful for not having been invited to the wedding; he travels to Pohjola and wins the duel with the Master of Northland; an army is conjured to get back at Lemminkäinen; at his mother’s advice he flees to the Island of Refuge; returning home he sees that his house is burned down; he goes to Pohjola with his companion Tiera to get revenge but the Mistress of the North freezes the seas and Lemminkäinen has to return home.

"Sammon puolustus" (The defence of the Sampo) by Akseli Gallen-Kallela 1895
"Sammon puolustus" (The defence of the Sampo) by Akseli Gallen-Kallela 1895

Cantos 31–36: The Kullervo cycle: Untamo kills his brother Kalervo’s people except for the wife who begets Kullervo; Untamo gives Kullervo several tasks but he sabotages them all; Kullervo is sold as a slave to Ilmarinen; after being tormented by Ilmarinen’s wife, he exacts revenge and the wife gets killed; Kullervo runs away and finds his family unharmed near Lapland; Kullervo seduces a maiden and later finds out she is his sister; Kullervo destroys Untamola (the realm of Untamo) and upon returning home finds everyone killed; Kullervo kills himself. Painting by Akseli Gallen-Kallela, out of copyright Jpg version of Image:Gallen-Kallela The defence of the Sampo. ... Painting by Akseli Gallen-Kallela, out of copyright Jpg version of Image:Gallen-Kallela The defence of the Sampo. ... In Finnish mythology, the Sampo was a magical artifact constructed by Ilmarinen that brought good fortune to its holder; nobody knows exactly what it was supposed to be. ... From the Kalevala, 1896 Akseli Gallen-Kallela (April 26, 1865 _ March 7, 1931) was a Finnish painter who is most of all known for his illustrations of the Kalevala, the Finnish national epic (illustration, right). ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... National anthem Sámi soga lávlla Languages Sami, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian Area ca. ...


Cantos 37–38: The second Ilmarinen cycle: Ilmarinen forges himself a wife out of gold and silver but finds her to be cold and discards her; Ilmarinen then robs the sister of the Maid of the North from Pohjola; she insults him so he discards her; Ilmarinen tells Väinämöinen of the carefree life of Pohjola because of the Sampo.


Cantos 39–44: The plunder of the Sampo (third Väinämöinen cycle): Väinämöinen, Ilmarinen and Lemminkäinen sail to get the Sampo; they kill a great pike out of whose jaw bone the first kantele is made; Väinämöinen lulls everyone in the hall of Pohjola to sleep with his singing and the Sampo is stolen; the Mistress of the Northland conjures a great army, turns herself into an eagle and fights for the Sampo; the Sampo falls into the sea. Koistinen concert kantele with 38 strings A kantele, Finnish (or kannel) in Estonian, is a traditional plucked string instrument. ...


Cantos 45–49: Louhi's revenge on Kalevala: The Mistress of the North sends the people of Kaleva diseases and a bear to kill their cattle; she hides the sun and the moon and steals fire from Kaleva; Väinämöinen and Ilmarinen restore fire and Väinämöinen forces the Mistress to return the Sun and the Moon to the skies.


Canto 50: The Marjatta cycle: Marjatta gets impregnated from a berry she ate and begets a son, an allusion to Mary and Jesus Christ; Väinämöinen orders the killing of the boy; the boy starts to speak and reproaches Väinämöinen for ill judgement; he is then baptised king of Karelia; Väinämöinen sails away. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Characters

The main character of the Kalevala is Väinämöinen, a shamanistic hero with the magical power of songs and music. He is born of the primeval Maiden of the Air and contributes to the creation of the world. Many of his travels resemble shamanistic journeys, most notably the one where he visits the belly of a ground-giant, Antero Vipunen, to find the words of boat generation. He plays the kantele, a Finnish stringed instrument that resembles and is played like a zither. One of his kanteles is made of the jawbone of a giant pike. His search for a wife is a central element in many stories; he never finds one, though. For example one of the brides, Joukahainen's sister Aino, drowns herself instead of marrying him. He is also part of the group who steals the Sampo, a magical mill, from the people of Pohjola. Illustration from the Kalevala, by Akseli Gallen-Kallela 1896. ... The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means... In Finnish mythology, Ilmatar or Luonnotar was the virgin goddess of the heavens. ... Koistinen concert kantele with 38 strings A kantele, Finnish (or kannel) in Estonian, is a traditional plucked string instrument. ... Concert zither The zither is a musical string instrument, mainly used in folk music, most commonly in German-speaking Alpine Europe. ... In Finnish mythology, the Sampo was a magical artifact constructed by Ilmarinen that brought good fortune to its holder; nobody knows exactly what it was supposed to be. ... Pohjola is a location in Finnish mythology, referring to Pohja (North), as a point of the compass, the Northland — the whole polar region, and in the world of the Kalevala, the land of the Sami. ...


Seppo Ilmarinen, a heroic artificer-smith (comparable to the Germanic Weyland and perhaps the Greek Daedalus) who crafted the sky dome, the Sampo and more. Ilmarinen is also one of the group who steal the Sampo. Seppo Ilmarinen, the Eternal Hammerer, blacksmith and inventor in the Kalevala, is an archetypal artificer from Finnish mythology. ... Weyland (also spelled Wayland, Weland and Watlende) is the mythical smith-god of the Saxon immigrants into Britain. ... Daedalus and Icarus, by Charles Paul Landon, 1799 (Musée des Beaux-Arts et de la Dentelle, Alençon) In Greek mythology, Daedalus (Latin, also Hellenized Latin Daedalos, Greek Daidalos (Δαίδαλος) meaning cunning worker, and Etruscan Taitle) was a most skillful artificer, so skillful that he was said to have invented... Finnish mythology has many features that it shares with other Finnic mythologies, like the Estonian mythology, and also elements similar with non-Finnic neighbours, especially the the Balts and the Scandinavians. ...


Louhi the Hag of the North, is a shamanistic matriarch of a people rivalling those of Kalevala who at one stage pulls the sun and the moon from the sky and steals the fire away from the people of Kalevala. She rules Pohjola alone after Lemminkäinen has killed her husband, Master of Pohjola. She promises her daughter to Ilmarinen in exchange for him building a Sampo. In Finnish mythology and the mythology of Lapland, Louhi is a goddess of the land of the dead known as Pohjola. ...


Väinämöinen's young rival, Joukahainen, who promises his sister Aino to Väinämöinen when he loses a singing contest. Joukahainen attempts to gain his revenge on Väinämöinen by killing him with a crossbow, he fails but his actions lead to Väinämöinen promising to build a Sampo in return for Louhi rescuing him. Joukahainen is a character in the Kalevala, the Finnish epic poem of fifty parts. ...


Vengeful, self-destructive Kullervo who is born as a slave, sold to Ilmarinen and given work by Ilmarinen's wife whom he later kills. Kullervo is a misguided and troubled youth often at odds with himself and his situation. He often goes into berserk rage and in the end commits suicide. Kullervos Curse by Akseli Gallen-Kallela In the Finnish Kalevala, Kullervo was the ill-fated son of Kalervo. ... Berserkers in the kings hall, illustration by Louis Moe, 1898 Berserkers (or Berserks) were Norse warriors who were commonly understood to have fought in an uncontrollable rage or trance of fury; the berserkergang. ...


Handsome but arrogant Lemminkäinen, whose mother has to rescue his corpse from the river of Death which runs through Tuonela, and bring him to life, echoing the myth of Osiris. Lemminkäinen is the third member of the group which steals the Sampo from Pohjola. In Finnish mythology, Lemminkäinen is a god of magic, or else a sorceror who could sing the sand into pearls. Lemminkäinen is good looking, yellow wavy haired, and young. ... Lemminkäisen äiti by Akseli Gallen-Kallela. ... For other uses, see Osiris (disambiguation). ...


Some of the chapters describe ancient creation myths, a long wedding ceremony, and the right words for magical spells of healing and craftsmanship.


The last chapter, Son of Marjatta, is an allegory of Christianization of Finland. Maid Marjatta becomes pregnant after eating a lingonberry (allusion of Maria to marja (Finnish for berry) and gives birth to a son. Since the son has been born out of wedlock, Väinämöinen sentences him to be killed. The infant boy then begins to speak and demands Ukko as his judge. After the infant has witnessed sad details of Väinämöinen's own past and of Väinämöinen's own culpability, Ukko declares the young infant boy as the King of Karelia. In the end Väinämöinen exits the material world, but leaves his kantele (symbol for poetry and literary arts) as heirloom for Finns. St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Binomial nomenclature Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Ref: ITIS 505637 The Cowberry or Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) is a small evergreen shrub in the plant Family Ericaceae that bears edible fruits. ... Several types of berries from the market. ... Simplified drawing of a stone carving type found in Karelia, which is believed to have characteristics of both snake and thunder In Finnish mythology, Ukko (Estonian spelling Uku) is a god of sky, weather, crops (harvest) and other natural things. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ... Koistinen concert kantele with 38 strings A kantele, Finnish (or kannel) in Estonian, is a traditional plucked string instrument. ...


List of characters

People and things in the Kalevala
Gods Ukko (Jumala) | Tapio (Kuippana) | Ahto | Ilmatar (Luonnotar) | Tuoni (Mana, Kalma) Surma | Kuutar | Melatar | Suonetar | Suvetar | Syöjätär | Loviatar | Tammatar | Terhenetar | Tuometar | Manalatar | Päivätär | Tuonetar | Vammatar | Vellamo | | Untamo (Unto)
Heroes Väinämöinen (Väinö, Osmoinen, Suvantolainen, Uvantolainen) | Lemminkäinen (Ahti, Kauko, Kaukomieli) | Ilmarinen (Ilmari) | Osmotar (Kalevatar) | Kullervo |
Villains Hiisi (Juutas, Keitolainen, Lempo, Pahalainen) | Louhi (Ilpotar) | Joukahainen (Jouko) | Untamoinen |
Others Aino | Kyllikki (Kylli) | Kauppi (Lyylikki, Vuojalainen) | Mielikki (Mimerkki, Tellervo) | Nyyrikki | Tiera | Antero Vipunen | Ainikki | Annikki | Iku-Turso (Tursas) | Kalervo | Kiputyttö | Tiera (Kuura) | Lokka | Marjatta | Märkähattu | Pakkanen | Tuuri | Sampsa Pellervoinen | Piltti | Suovakko |
Places Kalevala (Väinölä, Suvantola) | Tuonela (Manala, Ulappala) | Suomi | Pohjola (Pimentola, Sariola) | Tapiola | Ahtola | Hiitola | Horna | Ilma | Karjala | Metsola | Osmo | Saari | Savo | Untamola (Untola) | Viro |
Things Kantele | Musti | Kemi | Otava | Pisa | Turja | Sampo | Sima | Vuoksi | Otso |

Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Simplified drawing of a stone carving type found in Karelia, which is believed to have characteristics of both snake and thunder In Finnish mythology, Ukko (Estonian spelling Uku) is a god of sky, weather, crops (harvest) and other natural things. ... Jumala, Jumal, Jumali or Ibmel meas god in Finnish, both the Christian God and any other deity of any religion. ... Tapio is an East Finnish forest spirit or god. ... In Finnish mythology, Ahti or Ahto is the god of the sea and of fishing, portrayed as a man with a beard of moss. ... In Finnish mythology, Ilmatar or Luonnotar was the virgin goddess of the heavens. ... In Finnish mythology, Tuoni was the god of the underworld (Tuonela). ... Surma is a character similar to Cerberus in the Finnish mythology of Kalevala. ... Loviatar is the Goddess of Death, in Finnish mythology. ... Tuonetar (Twon-etar), in Finnish mythology, is the Queen of the Underworld. ... Vammatar is the Finnish goddess of pain, disease, and/or suffering (other versions have her as more actively negative, the goddess of evil and misfortune). ... In Finnish mythology, Vellamo is the goddess of the sea, the wife of Ahti. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... Illustration from the Kalevala, by Akseli Gallen-Kallela 1896. ... In Finnish mythology, Lemminkäinen is a god of magic, or else a sorceror who could sing the sand into pearls. Lemminkäinen is good looking, yellow wavy haired, and young. ... Seppo Ilmarinen, the Eternal Hammerer, blacksmith and inventor in the Kalevala, is an archetypal artificer from Finnish mythology. ... Kullervos Curse by Akseli Gallen-Kallela In the Finnish Kalevala, Kullervo was the ill-fated son of Kalervo. ... “Bad guy” redirects here. ... Hiisi (root: hiite-) are a kind of tutelary spirits in mythologies of the Baltic Sea area, especially in Finland. ... In Finnish mythology and the mythology of Lapland, Louhi is a goddess of the land of the dead known as Pohjola. ... Joukahainen is a character in the Kalevala, the Finnish epic poem of fifty parts. ... Painting by Akseli Gallen-Kallela, depicting the Aino Story of Kalevala on three panes: The first one is about the encounter of Väinämöinen and Aino in the forest, second depicts Väinämöinens proposal. ... Piia-Noora Kauppi (born January 7, 1975) is a Finnish politician representing the National Coalition Party (Kokoomus). ... Mielikki is the Finnish goddess of forests and the hunt. ... Nyyrikki, the Finnish god of the hunt, has been tenously associated with Nimrod. ... Iku-Turso [] (the eternal Turso; also known as Iku-Tursas, Iki-Tursas, Meritursas, Tursas, Turisas among others) is a malevolent sea monster in the Finnish mythology. ... A Cannabis sativa plant Look up marijuana in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tuuri is a village in Töysä, a municipality of Finland. ... Sampsa Pellervoinen is a mythological person from Finnish mythology. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... Lemminkäisen äiti by Akseli Gallen-Kallela. ... Pohjola is a location in Finnish mythology, referring to Pohja (North), as a point of the compass, the Northland — the whole polar region, and in the world of the Kalevala, the land of the Sami. ... This article is about the place in Finland. ... Khiytola (Russian: ; Finnish: ) is a settlement and a railway station in Lakhdenpokhsky District of the Republic of Karelia, Russia. ... Horna (abyss) is a Finnish black metal band, formed in 1993. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Map of the Estonian archipelago (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) Landsat satellite photo of Saaremaa Saaremaa is the largest island (2,673 km²) belonging to Estonia. ... Savonia, Savolax or Savo, is a historical province in the south of Finland. ... For other uses, see Estonia (disambiguation). ... In philosophy, an object is a thing, an entity, or a being. ... Koistinen concert kantele with 38 strings A kantele, Finnish (or kannel) in Estonian, is a traditional plucked string instrument. ... Kemi is a town and municipality of Finland. ... The editorial offices in the centre of Helsinki. ... Leaning Tower of Pisa. ... Located in 16: Valjala Commune in the Saare County of western Estonia Turja is a village in Valjala Commune in Saare County in western Estonia. ... In Finnish mythology, the Sampo was a magical artifact constructed by Ilmarinen that brought good fortune to its holder; nobody knows exactly what it was supposed to be. ... Sima (Simplified Chinese: 司马; Traditional Chinese: 司馬; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ssu-ma) is a Chinese family name. ... The River Vuoksi (Finnish) or River Vuoksa (Russian standard transcription) runs in the northernmost part of the Karelian Isthmus, from Lake Saimaa in southeastern Finland flowing into Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia. ... In Finnish mythology Otso, Ohto, Kontio, metsän kuningas (the king of the forest), and mesikämmen (honeypaws) are some of the many rarely-uttered circumlocutory epithets for the spirit that was never directly named. ...

Contents

  1. Birth of Väinämöinen.
  2. Väinämöinen's Sowing.
  3. Väinämöinen and Joukahainen.
  4. The Fate of Aino.
  5. Väinämöinen's Fishing.
  6. Joukahainen's Crossbow.
  7. Väinämöinen Meets Louhi.
  8. Väinämöinen's Wound.
  9. Origin of Iron.
  10. Ilmarinen Forges the Sampo.
  11. Lemminkäinen and Kyllikki.
  12. Kyllikki's Broken Vow.
  13. The Elk of Hiisi.
  14. Lemminkäinen's trials and death.
  15. Lemminkäinen's Restoration.
  16. Väinämöinen's Boat-building.
  17. Väinämöinen and Antero Vipunen.
  18. Väinämöinen and Ilmarinen, Rival Suitors.
  19. Ilmarinen's trials and betrothal.
  20. The Brewing of Beer.
  21. Ilmarinen's Wedding-feast.
  22. The Tormenting of the Bride.
  23. Osmotar Advises the Bride.
  24. The departure of the bride and bridegroom.
  25. The homecoming of the bride and bridegroom.
  26. Lemminkäinen's journey to Pohjola.
  27. The dual at Pohjola.
  28. Lemminkäinen's mother.
  29. The Isle of Refuge.
  30. Lemminkäinen and Tiera.
  31. Untamo and Kullervo.
  32. Kullervo As A Shepherd.
  33. The Death of Ilmarinen's Wife.
  34. Kullervo finds his family.
  35. Kullervo finds his sister.
  36. Kullervo's Victory and Death.
  37. Ilmarinen's Bride of Gold.
  38. Ilmarinen's Fruitless Wooing.
  39. The Expedition Against Pohjola.
  40. The Pike and The Kantele.
  41. Väinämöinen's Music.
  42. The Recovery of the Sampo.
  43. The Sampo Lost In the Sea.
  44. The Birth of the Second Harp.
  45. Louhi's Pestilence on Kalevala.
  46. Otso, the Bear.
  47. The Robbery of the Sun, Moon and Fire.
  48. Capture of the Fire-fish.
  49. Restoration of the Sun and Moon.
  50. Marjatta.

Influence of the Kalevala

As a major part of Finnish culture and history the influence of the Kalevala is widespread in Finland from music to fine arts. The Kalevala's influence has also been felt in other cultures around the world although to a lesser degree.

The ill-fated Kullervo has been a source of inspiration for several authors.

Kullervos Curse by Akseli Gallen-Kallela This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Kullervos Curse by Akseli Gallen-Kallela This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Kullervos Curse by Akseli Gallen-Kallela In the Finnish Kalevala, Kullervo was the ill-fated son of Kalervo. ...

Celebration

The Kalevala Day is celebrated in Finland on the 28th of February, which is how Elias Lönnrot dated his first version of the Kalevala in 1835. February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Several of the names in Kalevala are also celebrated as Finnish name days, although this has no direct relationship with the Kalevala itself. The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ...


Artwork

Several artists have been influenced by the Kalevala, most notably Akseli Gallen-Kallela who has painted many pieces relating to the Kalevala. From the Kalevala, 1896 Akseli Gallen-Kallela (April 26, 1865 _ March 7, 1931) was a Finnish painter who is most of all known for his illustrations of the Kalevala, the Finnish national epic (illustration, right). ...


One of the earliest artists to depict a scene from the Kalevala is Robert Wilhelm Ekman. One drawing from 1886 depicts Väinämöinen playing his kantele. Robert Wilhelm Ekman, Väinämöisen soitto (Väinämöinens Play), 1866 Robert Wilhelm Ekman (aka. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Aarno Karimo was a Finnish artist who illustrated the beautiful Kuva Kalevala (Published by Pellervo-Seura in 1953). He unfortunately died before completing it. Hugo Otava finished it using original sketches as a guide. Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1989 the fourth full translation of Kalevala into English was published, richly illustrated by Björn Landström.


Literature

The Kalevala has not only been translated into over 45 languages but it has also been retold in many languages and adapted to different situations.


The most famous example of the Kalevala's influence upon another author is most likely with J.R.R. Tolkien. He claimed the Kalevala as one of his sources for the writings which became the Silmarillion. For example, the story of Kullervo has been extensively used in the Silmarillion (including the sword that speaks when the anti-hero uses it for a suicide) as the basis of Túrin Turambar in Narn i Chîn Húrin. Echoes of the Kalevala's characters, Väinämöinen in particular, can also be found in the wizards of The Lord of the Rings. J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ... The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens mythopoeic works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher Tolkien in 1977, with assistance from Guy Gavriel Kay, who would later become a noted fantasy fiction writer. ... In literature and film, an anti-hero is a central or supporting character that has some of the personality flaws and ultimate fortune traditionally assigned to villains but nonetheless also have enough heroic qualities or intentions to gain the sympathy of readers or viewers. ... In The Silmarillion by J. R. R. Tolkien, Túrin Turambar was a Man of Middle-earth, who became a tragic hero (or anti-hero) of the First Age in the tale called Narn i Chîn Húrin (The Tale of the Children of Húrin). Unpublished drafts of... ... The Narn i Hîn Húrin or Lay of the Children of Húrin is a part of the Unfinished Tales by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... This article is about the novel. ...


The German-language translation of the epic was an inspiration for Longfellow's 1855 poem, The Song of Hiawatha, which is written in the same metre (trochaic tetrameter), and also inspired the British science fiction writer Ian Watson to write the Books of Mana duology: Lucky's Harvest and The Fallen Moon. The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... Baron Longfellow , also named Andy Kim was an artist from the 60s. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Statue of Hiawatha carrying Minnehaha at Minnehaha Park in Minneapolis, Minnesota. ... In verse, many meters use a foot as the basic unit in their description of the underlying rhythm of a poem. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Ian Watson (born 1943) is a British science fiction author. ...


It is often claimed that the Estonian national epic Kalevipoeg (compiled and written by Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald, first published 1853) was somewhat inspired by the Kalevala. Mainly because both Väinämöinen and Ilmarinen are mentioned in the poem and that the overall story of the Kalevipoeg (Kalev's son) bears some major similarities with the Kullervo story. Illustration to Kalevipoeg by Oskar Kallis Kalevipoeg is an epic poem by Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald held to be the Estonian national epic. ... Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald (born December 26, 1803 Jömper/Jõepere manor near Sankt Katharinen/Kadrina, Virumaa/Wierland county - died August 25, 1882 Tartu) was an Estonian writer and physician. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Another famous book is the children's book Koirien Kalevala (The Canine Kalevala) written and illustrated by Mauri Kunnas. (Translated into English by Tim Steffa). This book inspired the American (US) cartoonist Keno Don Rosa to draw a Donald Duck (both of whom enjoy a widespread popularity in Finland) story based on the Kalevala, called The Quest for Kalevala. Mauri Kunnas (born February 11, 1950 in Vammala) is a Finnish cartoonist and childrens book writer. ... Keno Don Hugo Rosa (often just called Don Rosa) is a famous illustrator of Donald Duck and other Disney characters. ... Donald Duck is an animated cartoon and comic-book character from Walt Disney Productions. ... The Quest for Kalevala is a Donald Duck comic book story written and drawn by Keno Don Rosa in 1999. ...


The Neustadt Prize winning poet and playwright Paavo Haavikko who is regarded as one of Finland's finest writers, is also known to have taken a lot of influence from the Kalevala. The Neustadt International Prize for Literature is a biennial award sponsored by the University of Oklahoma and World Literature Today. ... Paavo Haavikko (born 1931) is a Finnish poet and playwrite, considered one of the countrys most outstanding writers. ...


Kullervo is one the major influences on British fantasy author Michael Moorcock's sword and sorcery anti-hero, Elric of Melniboné. Kullervos Curse by Akseli Gallen-Kallela In the Finnish Kalevala, Kullervo was the ill-fated son of Kalervo. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Michael John Moorcock (born December 18, 1939, in London, England) is a prolific English writer primarily of science fiction and fantasy who has also published a number of literary novels. ... This article is about a fantasy sub-genre. ... In literature and film, an anti-hero is a central or supporting character that has some of the personality flaws and ultimate fortune traditionally assigned to villains but nonetheless also have enough heroic qualities or intentions to gain the sympathy of readers or viewers. ... Elric as depicted in Weird of the White Wolf (Berkeley Books, 1983) Elric of Melniboné (pronounced mel-NIH-boh-nay) is a fictional character created by Michael Moorcock. ...


Music

Music is probably the area which has the richest influence from the Kalevala, which is fitting because of the nature that the original folk singers would perform the poems. Because of the folk music history of the Kalevala there have been a few folk music records and anthologies based upon or claiming inspiration from the Kalevala. Folk music can have a number of different meanings, including: Traditional music: The original meaning of the term folk music was synonymous with the term Traditional music, also often including World Music and Roots music; the term Traditional music was given its more specific meaning to distinguish it from the...


Arguably the most famous Kalevala inspired music is that of the classical composer Jean Sibelius. Twelve of Sibelius' best known works are based upon and influenced by the Kalevala, most notably his Kullervo Symphony. There are also three contemporary operas based on the Kalevala (Sammon ryöstö, Marjatta and Thomas) composed by Einojuhani Rautavaara. Johan Julius Christian Jean / Janne Sibelius ( ; December 8, 1865 – September 20, 1957) was a Finnish composer of classical music and one of the most notable composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Einojuhani Rautavaara (born October 9, 1928) is a Finnish composer of classical music, probably the best known Finnish composer of his generation. ...


Classical music is however not the only area of influence. There was a Finnish progressive rock band called Kalevala in the seventies. They made three albums, which are not currently available as CDs, however an anthology set was published in 2004. See: Kalevala (band) For the Swedish political music movement, see progg. ...


The Finnish metal band Amorphis have based several concept albums on the Kalevala using the original translation as lyrics. The band are well known for their use of the Kalevala as a source for their lyrics. Their albums specifically inspired by the Kalevala are Tales from the Thousand Lakes, Elegy, Eclipse and Silent Waters (album). Also, Finnish Folk metal band Ensiferum have based several songs such as "Old Man" and "Little Dreamer" on the Kalevala as well. Amorphis is a Finnish metal band started by Jan Rechberger, Tomi Koivusaari and Esa Holopainen in 1990. ... Tales from the Thousand Lakes is the second full-length album by Amorphis. ... For other uses, see Elegy (disambiguation). ... Eclipse is the seventh album by Amorphis. ... Silent Waters is the eighth album by Amorphis. ... Folk metal is a diverse collection of music, encompassing a wide variety of different styles and approaches. ... Ensiferum (Latin ensĭfĕrum (neuter adjective) meaning sword bearing) is a Viking / Folk metal band from Helsinki, Finland. ...


In 2003, the Finnish progressive rock quarterly Colossus and French Musea Records convinced 30 progressive rock groups from all over the world to compose musical pieces based on assigned parts of the Kalevala. The result was a three-disc, multilingual, four hour epic of the same name, and can be regarded as one of the most ambitious musical projects ever. See: Kalevala (project) For the Swedish political music movement, see progg. ... Musea is a French music label dedicated to progressive rock. ... Kalevala is a 3 CD progressive rock epic based upon the Finnish national epic of the same name. ...


Film

In 1959 a joint Finnish/Soviet production entitled Sampo (aka The Day the Earth Froze) was released, inspired by the story of the Sampo from the Kalevala. Sampo, also known in its edited US version The Day the Earth Froze, is a joint Finnish and Soviet production. ...


The martial arts film Jadesoturi (aka Jade Warrior), released in Finland on October 13, 2006, is based upon the Kalevala and set in Finland and China. Jade Warrior (Finnish Jadesoturi, Chinese 玉武士 (Yù wǔ shì)) is a Finnish-Chinese co-production movie. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Historic interpretations of Kalevala

Several interpretations for the themes in Kalevala have been put forward. Some parts of the epic have been perceived as ancient conflicts between Finnics and Samis. In this context, the country of Kalevala could be understood as Southern Finland and Pohjola as Lapland. However, the place names in Kalevala seem to transfer the Kalevala further south, which has been interpreted as reflecting the Finnic settlement expansion from the South that came to push the Samis further to the north. Some scholars locate the lands of Kalevala to East Karelia, where most of the Kalevala stories were written down. In 1961 a small town of Uhtua in the Soviet Republic of Karelia was renamed "Kalevala," perhaps to promote that theory. Finnic peoples (Fennic, sometimes Baltic-Finnic) refers to a group of related ethnic groups and nations speaking Finnic languages (also known as Balto-Finnic languages). ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... Pohjola is a location in Finnish mythology, referring to Pohja (North), as a point of the compass, the Northland — the whole polar region, and in the world of the Kalevala, the land of the Sami. ... National anthem Sámi soga lávlla Languages Sami, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian Area ca. ... East Karelia and West Karelia with borders of 1939 and 1940/1947. ... “CCCP” redirects here. ... The Republic of Karelia (Russian: ) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...


Proponents of a Southern Kalevala argue that the name Kaleva probably was first recorded in an atlas of al Idrisi in the year 1154, where a town of qlwny (or tlwny) is recorded. This is probably present-day Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, known in old East Slavic sources as Kolyvan. The Finnish word Kalevan ("of Kaleva") has almost the same meaning as Kalevala. The Saari (literally "the Island") might be the island of Saaremaa in Estonia, while the people of Väinölä might have some resemblance with the Livonian tribe of Veinalensis in present-day Latvia, mentioned in the 13th century chronicle connected to Henry of Livonia. Ancient Finns, Estonians and Livonians spoke similar Finnic dialects and are thought to share common ancestry. Al_Idrisis world map from 1154. ... King Stephen of England dies at Dover, and is succeeded by his adopted son Henry Plantagenet who becomes King Henry II of England, aged 21. ... County Area 159. ... Map of the Estonian archipelago (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) Landsat satellite photo of Saaremaa Saaremaa is the largest island (2,673 km²) belonging to Estonia. ... The Livonians are the indigenous inhabitants of a large part of what is today the Republic of Latvia. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia (Latvian: Indrika hronikas, Latin: Heinrici Cronicon Lyvoniae) is a historic document describing the history of Latvia and Estonia from 1180 to 1227. ... The Livonians were the indigenous Finnics who since ancient times populated the shores of the Gulf of Riga adjacent to the Indo-European Balts. ... Finnic peoples (Fennic, sometimes Baltic-Finnic) refers to a group of related ethnic groups and nations speaking Finnic languages (also known as Balto-Finnic languages). ...


However, Matti Kuusi and Pertti Anttonen state in their book "Kalevala Lipas" (Finnish Literary Society, 1985) that such terms as "the people of Kalevala" or "the tribe of Kalevala" are made up out of whole cloth by Elias Lönnrot. Moreover, they contend that the word "Kalevala" is very rare in traditional poetry and that by emphasizing dualism (Kalevala vs. Pohjola) Elias Lönnrot created the required tension that made the Kalevala dramatically successful and thus fit for a national epic. Facade of the societys headquarters in Helsinki The Finnish Literature Society (Finnish: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura or SKS) was founded in 1831 to promote literature written in Finnish. ... This article is about the year. ...


See also

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Finnish mythology has many features that it shares with other Finnic mythologies, like the Estonian mythology, and also elements similar with non-Finnic neighbours, especially the the Balts and the Scandinavians. ... Pohjola is a location in Finnish mythology, referring to Pohja (North), as a point of the compass, the Northland — the whole polar region, and in the world of the Kalevala, the land of the Sami. ... Illustration to Kalevipoeg by Oskar Kallis Kalevipoeg is an epic poem by Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald held to be the Estonian national epic. ...

References

Sample

"Vaka vanha Väinämöinen" Image File history File links Vaka_vanha_Vainamoinen. ...


Finnish poetry from the Kalevala from the Library of Congress' California Gold: Northern California Folk Music from the Thirties Collection; performed by John Soininen on November 5, 1939 in Berkeley, California Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ...

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Vaka vanha Väinämöinen itse tuon sanoiksi virkki:/ "Näistäpä toki tulisi kalanluinen kanteloinen,/ kun oisi osoajata; soiton luisen laatijata."/


Kun ei toista tullutkana, ei ollut osoajata,/ soiton luisen laatijata, vaka vanha Väinämöinen/ itse loihe laatijaksi, tekijäksi teentelihe./ Laati soiton hauinluisen, suoritti ilon ikuisen./


Kust' on koppa kanteletta? Hauin suuren leukaluusta./ Kust' on naulat kanteletta? Ne on hauin hampahista./ Kusta kielet kanteletta? Hivuksista Hiien ruunan./


Jo oli soitto suorittuna, valmihina kanteloinen,/ soitto suuri hauinluinen, kantelo kalaneväinen./


Tuli tuohon nuoret miehet, tuli nainehet urohot,/ tuli pojat puol'-ikäiset sekä pienet piikalapset,/ tytöt nuoret, vaimot vanhat, naiset keskikertaisetki,/ kanteletta katsomahan, soittoa tähyämähän./


Vaka vanha Väinämöinen käski nuoren, käski vanhan,/ käski keskikertaisenki soittamahan sormillansa/ tuota ruotaista romua, kalanluista kanteletta./


Soitti nuoret, soitti vanhat, soitti keskikertaisetki./ Nuoret soitti, sormet notkui, vanhat väänti, pää vapisi:/ ei ilo ilolle nousnut, soitto soitolle ylennyt./


Articles and Papers

Books

Translations

  • The Kalevala: The Epic Poem of Finland, translations by John Martin Crawford, ISBN 0-7661-8938-4
  • The Kalevala: Or the Land of Heroes, translations by William Forsell Kirby, ISBN 1-85810-198-0
  • The Kalevala: Or Poems of the Kaleva District, translations by Francis Peabody Magoun, ISBN 0-674-50010-5
  • The Kalevala: Epic of the Finnish People, translations by Eino Friberg, Björn Landström, George C. Schoolfield, ISBN 951-1-10137-4
  • The Kalevala: Or the Land of Heroes, translations by Keith Bosley, foreword by Albert B. Lord (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990), ISBN 0-19-283570-X

John Martin Crawford (1845 - 1916) was an American (US) physician and scholar who translated the Finnish epic Kalevala into English (From a previous German translation by Franz Anton Schiefner published in 1852), to be published for the first time in 1888. ... William Forsell Kirby (January 14, 1844 - 1912) was an English entomologist and folklorist. ... Francis Peabody Magoun (January 6, 1895 – June 5, 1979) was an American British Royal Flying Corps Lieutenant, who served in the First World War and became an ace on October 28, 1918. ... Eino Friberg (1901 - after 1995), was a Finnish born citizen of the United States. ... Keith (Anthony) Bosley (born 1937 in Bourne End, Buckinghamshire, grew up in Maidenhead, Berkshire) is a British language expert. ... Albert Bates Lord (1912-1991) was a Professor of Slavic and Comparative Literature at Harvard University who, after the untimely death of Milman Parry, carried on that scholars research into epic literature. ...

Retellings

  • The Kalevala Graphic Novel, a complete comic book version of the 50 chapters of the Kalevala by Finnish artist Kristian Huitula, translation by Eino Friberg, ISBN 952-99022-1-2
  • The Magic Storysinger: A Tale from the Finnish Epic Kalevala, M. E. A. McNeil, a retelling in a style friendly to children, ISBN 0-88045-128-9
  • The Canine Kalevala, Tim Steffa (Translator), Mauri Kunnas, ISBN 951-1-12442-0
  • The Quest for Kalevala, Uncle Scrooge #334, by Keno Don Rosa, A story in tribute to the Kalevala featuring Scrooge McDuck and some characters from Kalevala, ISBN 0-911903-55-0

Francis Peabody Magoun (January 6, 1895 – June 5, 1979) was an American British Royal Flying Corps Lieutenant, who served in the First World War and became an ace on October 28, 1918. ... Elias Lönnrot ( ) (April 9, 1802 – March 19, 1884) was a Finnish philologist and collector of traditional Finnish oral poetry. ... Eino Friberg (1901 - after 1995), was a Finnish born citizen of the United States. ... Mauri Kunnas (born February 11, 1950 in Vammala) is a Finnish cartoonist and childrens book writer. ... The Quest for Kalevala is a Donald Duck comic book story written and drawn by Keno Don Rosa in 1999. ... Keno Don Hugo Rosa (often just called Don Rosa) is a famous illustrator of Donald Duck and other Disney characters. ...

Analysis

  • The Key to the Kalevala, by Pekka Ervast, John Major Jenkins, Tapio Joensuu, ISBN 1-57733-021-8

Movies

The Day the Earth Froze (Finnish name: Sampo) is a joint Finnish and Soviet production. ... YLE (Yleisradio Oy) is Finlands National Broadcasting Company, founded in 1926. ... Jade Warrior (Finnish: Jadesoturi, Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a Finnish-Chinese co-produced movie. ...

External links

Online versions of the Kalevala

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

Online versions of the Kalevala in other languages


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kalevala: from myth to symbol — Virtual Finland (2575 words)
The events in Kalevala's opening canto, the creation of the world, are central to the successful practice of magic: the association of spells with the acts which occurred at the beginning of time was the surest way for a worker of magic in the Finnish Karelian area to ensure that his magic would be effective.
Frequently we glimpse in the lines of Kalevala the multitude of rites with which men and women attempted to come to terms with uncertainty, practising them to appease the omnipresent spirits, to protect their families and livestock whenever they had to leave the safety of the home, and to ward off illness and disease.
The characters of Kalevala have their namesakes in the first names of several generations of children; the names of streets, ships, buildings, offices, shops, companies, factories, newspapers, theatres, and clubs are a permanent reminder of the need to assert the strength of one's patriotism through association with a powerful symbol.
Kalevala - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2126 words)
The Kalevala is an epic poem which Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish folk lore in the 19th century.
Proponents of a Southern Kalevala argue that the name Kaleva probably was first recorded in an atlas of al Idrisi in the year 1154, where a town of qlwny (or tlwny) is recorded.
The Kalevala: Or the Land of Heroes, by Keith Bosley, with a foreword by Albert B. Lord.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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