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Encyclopedia > Kale
Kale
Curly kale
Species
Brassica oleracea
Cultivar group
Acephala Group
Origin
unknown, before the Middle Ages
Cultivar group members
Many, and some are known by other names.

Kale or Borecole is a form of cabbage (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group), green in color, in which the central leaves do not form a head. It is considered to be closer to wild cabbage than most domesticated forms. The species Brassica oleracea contains a wide array of vegetables, including broccoli, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts. The Cultivar Group Acephala also includes spring greens and collard greens, which are extremely similar genetically. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1227x1172, 442 KB) Picture taken by myself: Curly kale (Boerenkool; Brassica oleracea File links The following pages link to this file: Kale ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Brassica oleracea L. See also cabbage Brassica oleracea or Wild Cabbage, is a species of Brassica native to coastal southern and western Europe, where its resistance to salt and lime but intolerance of competition from other plants typically restricts its natural occurrence to limestone sea cliffs. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... The Acephala Group is a cultivar group for the species Brassica oleracea. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Brassica oleracea L. See also cabbage Brassica oleracea or Wild Cabbage, is a species of Brassica native to coastal southern and western Europe, where its resistance to salt and lime but intolerance of competition from other plants typically restricts its natural occurrence to limestone sea cliffs. ... The Acephala Group is a cultivar group for the species Brassica oleracea. ... Broccoli is a plant of the Cabbage family, Brassicaceae (formerly Cruciferae). ... Cauliflower is a cultivar group within Brassica oleracea, in the family Brassicaceae. ... Cultivar Group Brassica oleracea Gemmifera Group The Brussels sprout (Brassica oleracea Gemmifera Group) is a cultivar group of cabbage cultivated for its small (typically 2. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... Spring greens are a form of kale (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group) in which the central leaves do not form a head or only a very loose one. ... Collards, also called collard greens or borekale (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group), are various loose-leafed cultivars of the cabbage plant. ...

Contents

Cultivation

Freshly picked Siberian kale (Gulag Star).
Freshly picked Siberian kale (Gulag Star).

The most important growing areas lie in central and northern Europe and North America. Kale grows more rarely in tropical areas as it prefers cooler climates. Kale is the most robust cabbage type - indeed the hardiness of kale is unmatched by any other vegetable. Kale will also tolerate nearly all soils provided that drainage is satisfactory. Another advantage is that kale rarely suffers from pests and diseases of other members of the cabbage family - pigeons, club root and cabbage root fly (Delia radicum). Places where kale grows are called kalefields. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 784 KB) Picture taken by me in September, 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 784 KB) Picture taken by me in September, 2006. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Hardiness of plants is a term used to describe their ability to survive adverse growing conditions. ... Larval form of some beetle is damaging specimen of Sceliphron destillatorius in entomogical collection. ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... Clubroot is a disease of cabbages, radishes, turnips, and other plants belonging to the family Cruciferae (mustard family). ...


Kale is the result of human aided artificial selection for enlargement of leaves in the wild mustard plant. Species See text. ...


Nutritional value

Kale is considered to be one of the most highly nutritious vegetables, with powerful antioxidant properties and is anti-inflammatory.[1]


Kale is very high in beta carotene, vitamin K, vitamin A, vitamin C, lutein and zeaxanthin and reasonably rich in calcium. Beta-carotene is a form of carotene with β-rings at both ends. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Lutein (LOO-teen) (from Latin lutea meaning yellow) is one of over 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids. ... Zeaxanthin is one of the two carotenoids contained within the retina. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ...


Origins

Lacinato Kale (left) with Collard greens (right)
Lacinato Kale (left) with Collard greens (right)

Until the end of the Middle Ages, kale was one of the most common green vegetable in all of Europe. Curly leaved varieties of cabbage already existed along with flat leafed varieties in Greece, in the fourth century BC. These forms, which were referred to by the Romans as Sabellian kale, are considered to be the ancestors of modern kales. Today, one may differentiate between varieties according to the low, intermediate or high length of the stem, with varying leaf types. The leaf colours range from light green through green, dark green and violet-green to violet-brown. Russian kale was introduced into Canada (and then into the U.S.) by Russian traders in the 19th century. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1355x1075, 1341 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1355x1075, 1341 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Collards, also called collard greens or borekale (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group), are various loose-leafed cultivars of the cabbage plant. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


During World War II, the cultivation of Kale was encouraged by the Dig for Victory campaign. The vegetable was easy to grow and provided important nutrients to supplement those missing from an ordinary normal diet because of rationing[2]. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Victory Garden is a work of electronic literature by American author Stuart Moulthrop. ... Civilian rationing: A shopkeeper cancels the coupons in a British housewifes ration book Rationing in the United Kingdom is the series of food rationing policies put in place by the government of the United Kingdom during certain wartime periods of the 20th Century. ...


Kai-lan, a separate cultivar of Brassica oleracea much used in Chinese cuisine, is somewhat similar to kale in appearance and is occasionally called "kale" in English. Cultivar Group Brassica oleracea Alboglabra Group Kai-lan (Simplified Chinese: 芥兰; Traditional Chinese: 芥蘭; Hanyu Pinyin: , lit. ...


Cultivars

Kale Lutes can be classified by leaf type:

  • Curly leaved (Scots Kale Lutes)
  • Plain leaved
  • Rape Kale Lutes
  • Leaf and spear (a cross between curly leaved and plain leaved Kale Lutes)
  • Cavolo nero (also known as black cabbage, Tuscan kale, Lacinato and dinosaur Kale Lutes)

Because Kale Lutes can grow well into winter, one variety of Rape Kale Lutes is called 'Hungry Gap', named after the period in winter in traditional agriculture when little could be harvested.


Culinary uses

Steamed kale and slivered almonds
Steamed kale and slivered almonds

Kale freezes well and actually tastes sweeter and more flavorful after being exposed to a frost. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1267x1063, 1508 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1267x1063, 1508 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Binomial name (Mill. ... Frost on black pipes Frost is a solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. ...


Tender kale greens can provide an intense addition to salads, particularly when combined with other such strongly-flavored ingredients as dry-roasted peanuts, tamari-roasted almonds, or red pepper flakes. For other uses, see Peanut (disambiguation). ... Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce (UK) is a fermented sauce, made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and sea salt (US will use salt unless otherwise stated). ... Species C. annuum (incl. ...


In the Netherlands it is very frequently used in the winter dish stamppot and seen as one of the country's traditional dishes, called Boerenkool. Stamppot is a traditional Dutch peasant dish made from a combination of potatoes mashed with another vegetable. ...


A traditional Portuguese soup, caldo verde, combines pureed potatoes, diced kale, olive oil, broth, and, generally, sliced cooked spicy sausage. Under the name of couve, kale is also popular in the former Portuguese colony of Brazil, in caldo verde, or as a vegetable dish, often cooked with carne seca (shredded dried beef). When chopped and stir-fried, couve accompanies Brazil's national dish, feijoada. Caldo verde is a popular soup of Portuguese cuisine. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ... This article is about the prepared meat. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... Brazilian Feijoada and common accompanying dishes. ...

Grünkohl dinner with Sausage, smoked pork chop and bacon
Grünkohl dinner with Sausage, smoked pork chop and bacon

A whole culture around kale has developed in north-western Germany around the towns of Bremen and Oldenburg as well as in the land of Schleswig-Holstein. There, most social clubs of any kind will have a "Grünkohlfahrt" ("kale tour") sometime in January, visiting a country inn to consume large quantities of kale, sausage and schnapps. Most communities in the area have a yearly kale festival which includes naming a "kale king". Curly kale is used in Denmark and Halland, Sweden, to make (grøn-)långkål, an obligatory dish on the julbord in the region, and is commonly served together with the christmas ham (Sweden, Halland). The kale is used to make a stew of minced boiled kale, stock, cream, pepper and salt that is simmered together slowly for a few hours. In Scotland, kale provided such a base for a traditional diet that the word in dialect Scots is synonymous with food. To be "off one's kail" is to feel too ill to eat. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the prepared meat. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Smoking Smoking is the process of curing, cooking, or seasoning food by exposing it for long periods of time to the smoke from a wood fire. ... Pork chops, cooked and served. ... For other uses, see Bacon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Oldenburg (Low German: Ollnborg) is an Independent City in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... Inns are establishments where travellers can procure food, drink, and lodging. ... Schnapps is a type of distilled beverage. ... is a historical province (landskap) on the western coast of Sweden. ... Smorgasbord is an anglification of the Swedish word Smörgåsbord. ... The Christmas Ham is an ancient traditional ingredient in the Finnish and Swedish Christmas celebration and remains as important there as the Christmas tree. ...


Kale is a very good source of iron, calcium, vitamin C, vitamin K and Carotenoids (which provide vitamin A). In Japan, kale juice (known as aojiru) is a popular dietary supplement. For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... Carotenoids are organic pigments naturally occurring in plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some types of fungus and some bacteria. ... Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Aojiru ) is a Japanese vegetable drink most commonly made from kale. ...


Kale can be used in a nutritious shake, combine fruit juice with a banana and a generous portion of kale. Blend until smooth.


Decorative uses

Image:Flowering-cale.jpg
Ornamental kale

Many varieties of kale are referred to as "flowering kales" and are grown mainly for their ornamental leaves, which are brilliant white, red, pink, lavender, blue or violet in the interior or the rosette. Most plants sold as "ornamental cabbage" are in fact kales. Ornamental kale is every bit as edible as any other variety. [3]


Literature

The Kailyard school of Scottish writers, which included J. M. Barrie (author of Peter Pan), consisted of authors who wrote about traditional rural Scottish life (kailyard = kale field). The Kailyard school of Scottish fiction came into being at the end of the nineteenth century as a reaction against what was seen as increasingly coarse writing representing Scottish life complete with all its blemishes. ... For the British Army surgeon, see James Barry (surgeon). ... This article is about the play by J.M. Barrie. ...


Kale was also mentioned in Robert Louis Stevenson's novel Kidnapped. Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850 – December 3, 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet, and travel writer, and a leading representative of Neo-romanticism in English literature. ...


Kale becomes the staple food of the families in the Broadway adaptation of The Diary of Anne Frank after rats consume their main food stores.


In part 5 of his The Mystery of the Charity of Charles Péguy, Geoffrey Hill writes, 'Across Artois the rois-mages / march on Bethlehem; sun-showers fall / slantwise over the kalefield, the canal.' for the British aeronautical engineer and professor, see Geoffrey T. R. Hill Geoffrey Hill (born June 18, 1932) is an English poet, professor of English Literature and religion, and co-director of the Editorial Institute at Boston University, Massachusetts, USA. // Geoffrey Hill was born in Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, England, in 1932. ...


References

  1. ^ http://www.whfoods.org/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=38#healthbenefits
  2. ^ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/news/news.html?in_article_id=485506&in_page_id=1770
  3. ^ http://davesgarden.com/pf/go/686/index.html
  • Dr D.G.Hessayon (2003)The Vegetable & Herb Expert. Expert Books. ISBN 0-903505-46-0

See also

Produced by Humphry Bowen, this material was used for the calibration of early scientific instruments intended to measure trace elements in the 1960s. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Brassica oleracea Acephala
  • Kale: Plants For a Future database
  • Pests commonly found on Collards, Kale, Mustard and Turnip
  • PROTAbase on Brassica oleracea (headed cabbage)
  • Detailed nutritional composition of kale: Nutritiondata.com
  • Veg Box Recipes: Recipe ideas for cooking kale

  Results from FactBites:
 
kale - definition of kale in Encyclopedia (151 words)
Kale (the name has one syllable) is a kind of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) which is unusual in that the central leaves do not form a head.
Kale (the name has two syllables) in Greek mythology is the name of one of the Graces.
Kale (pronounced like the mythological character) is one of the smaller moons of Jupiter, discovered in 2001 by astronomers at the University of Hawaii.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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