FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Kalabagh Dam

The Kalabagh dam is a mega water reservoir that Government of Pakistan is planning to develop across the Indus River, one of the world's largest rivers. The proposed site for the dam is situated at Kalabagh in Mianwali District of the north-west Punjab province, bordering NWFP. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Kalabagh is situated in Mianwali district of Punjab on the bank of Indus River. ... This article is about structures for water impoundment. ... Government of Pakistan (Urdu: حکومتِ پاکستان)The Constitution of Pakistan provides for a Federal Parliamentary System of government, with a President as the Head of State and an indirectly-elected Prime Minister as the chief executive. ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindhu; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδός Indos) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... Kalabagh is situated in Mianwali district of Punjab on the bank of Indus River. ... Mianwali (Urdu: میانوالی) is a District in the north-west of Punjab province, Pakistan. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ...


The dam project is a highly controversial and has been so since its inception. In December 2005, General Pervez Musharraf, President of Pakistan, announced that he would definitely build the dam in the larger interest of Pakistan. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... General Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ) (born August 11, 1943) serves as President of Pakistan and the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ...

Kalabagh Dam Key Facts

Name Kalabagh
Dam Type Earthfill
Height (above riverbed) 79 m
Length 3,3352 m
Area at retention level 164 miles²
Catchment Area 110,500 miles²
Gross Storage Capacity 7.9 MAF
Live Storage Capacity 6.1 MAF
Dead Storage 1.8 MAF
Retention Level 915 feet amsl
Main Spillway Capacity 1.07 million ft³/s
Design Flood Discharge 1.92 million ft³/s
Hydropower Generation 3,600 MW
Maximum Discharge 1.2 million ft³/s (in 1929)
Total Volume of Dam 34 million cubic yards

Contents

This article is about structures for water impoundment. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... An acre foot is a unit of volume commonly used in the United States in reference to large-scale water resources, such as reservoirs, aqueducts, canals, and river flows. ... An acre foot is a unit of volume commonly used in the United States in reference to large-scale water resources, such as reservoirs, aqueducts, canals, and river flows. ... An acre foot is a unit of volume commonly used in the United States in reference to large-scale water resources, such as reservoirs, aqueducts, canals, and river flows. ... The term above mean sea level (AMSL) refers to the elevation (on the ground) or altitude (in the air) of any object, relative to the average sea level. ... The megawatt (symbol: MW) is a unit for measuring power corresponding to one million (106) watts. ... This article is about the unit of measure known as the yard. ...

History

The region of Kalabagh was once an autonomous jagir (feudal estate) within Punjab. It was annexed by the Sikhs in 1822. After the British annexed the Punjab, the Nawab of Kalabagh was granted the jagir of Kalabagh, in recognition of his services to the British Raj. Kalabagh is situated in Mianwali district of Punjab on the bank of Indus River. ... A Jagir is a small territory granted by a ruler to an army chieftain (called a sardar in Marathi language) in recognition of his military service. ... Nawab of Kalabagh (Urdu: نواب کالا باغ ) ruled the Kalabagh state situated in the Mianwali district of Punjab, Pakistan. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858...


According to the PC-II of the Project, Kala Bagh dam was initiated by GOP in 1953, and until 1973, the project was basically considered as a storage project for meeting the irrigation needs, and consequently, rapid increases in the cost of energy have greatly enhanced the priority of the dam as a power project.


The project's paperwork was finalized in March, 1984, with the assistance of the United Nations Development Programme; supervised by the World Bank, for the client Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) of Pakistan. The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) is the main government agency in Pakistan responsible for developing Water resources, Dams and Electrical power in Pakistan. ...


Controversy

The proposed construction of the Kalabagh Dam triggered an extremely bitter controversy among the four provinces of Pakistan, namely Punjab, Sindh, North-West Frontier Province, and Balochistan. The only province which is in favor of this dam, is Punjab which is the strongest among all four provinces, as usually the government is mainly centralized in it. The other three provinces have expressed extreme dissatisfaction, going so far as to have their provincial assemblies pass unanimous resolutions condemning the proposed dam. Hence, the project is still under consideration. This article is about the Pakistani province. ... Sindh (Sindhī: سنڌ, Urdū: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ...


The delay is also being caused by the fact that according to international water distribution law, the tailender has a legal and natural right on river and that is why no mega construction or reservoir can be built without permission and endorsement of the tailender i.e. Sindh. In the case where the tailender is not using water i.e. building a water reservoir, a reservoir can be made upstream. The Ashokan Reservoir, located in Ulster County, New York, USA. It is one of 19 that supplies New York City with drinking water. ...


Impact assessments of the proposed dam have shown that while it will provide storage and electricity, the dam will also have adverse impacts on the environment, as can be expected from any large dam. It will also displace a large number of people. While proponents point to the benefits, the adverse factors have been played up by the opponents of the dam. As a result, the dam has been stalled by claims and counterclaims since 1984.


The controversy can be best understood by looking at the viewpoints of each of the four provinces.


Punjab viewpoint

Punjab — desperately needs more water to keep up with the growing population and industrial demands on its agriculture. A dam at Kalabagh would also supply cheap hydro-electric power to the whole country.


The annual outflow of water into the Arabian Sea is considered a "waste" in Punjab, which feels that water can be used to irrigate infertile lands. The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia...


Punjab wants not just Kalabagh, but also two more large dams on the Indus, at Bhasha and Skardu/Katzarah. It feels that the Kalabagh site is the most favourable, compared to the other two, and that it should be built first. Bahalwalpur and Bahawalnagar will get most of the water stored in Kalabagh Dam. Skardu Town as seen from the Skardu Fort Skardu (Urdu: سکردو) is the principle town and capital of Baltistan district, one of the districts making up Pakistans Northern Areas (also part of the Pakistani-administered part of Kashmir). ...


Sindh viewpoint

Sindh, the first province to point KBD project a blame game, is the lower riparian and strongest opponent of KBD. But its case mainly against Punjab is more on a conceptual basis of what Sindh thought to be "theft of water by Punjab" rather than locating an actual incident of theft. Sindh supports its argument by stating that by virtue of its name and history of water rights of the province, Indus River belongs exclusively to Sindh. Therefore, claiming the construction of dams, Tarbela and Mangla and now KBD actions of theft of water at the irrigation cost of Sindh. Further, Sindh presents many objections against the proposed dam, some of these objections are as follows:

  • Sindh objects that their share of the Indus water will be curtailed as water from the Kalabagh will go to irrigate farmlands in Punjab and NWFP, at their cost. Sindhis hold that their rights as the lower riparian have precedence according to international water distribution law.
  • The coastal regions of Sindh require a constant flow of water down the Indus into the Arabian Sea so that the flowing water can keep the seawater from intruding inland. Such seawater intrusion would literally turn vast areas of Sindh's coast into an arid saline desert, and destroy Sindh's coastal mangroves.
  • With the construction of dams, such as Mangla Dam and Tarbela Dam across the Indus, Sindhis have seen the once-mighty Indus turned into a shadow of its former glory downstream of the Kotri Barrage up to Hyderabad. They fear that there simply is not enough water for another large dam across the Indus, let alone three.
  • The Kalabagh site is located in a highly seismic zone near an active fault, and the underlying rocks are likely to contain numerous fractures, causing the reservoir water to seep through the catacomb of fractures and discharge at the lowest point around the reservoir and the Indus river. [1]
  • Damming the Indus has already caused a number of environmental problems that have not yet addressed. Silt deposited in the proposed Kalabagh dam would further curtail the water storage capacity of Manchar Lake and other lakes and of wetlands like Haleji Lake.
  • President General Musharraf and other leaders, such as Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz, have promised 'iron-clad' constitutional guarantees to ensure that Sindh gets its fair share of water. However, these assurances mean little to most Sindhis, who claim that even the earlier 1991 Indus Water-Sharing Accord, which is a document already guaranteed by the constitutional body, the Council of Common Interests, has been violated, and that Punjab has "stolen" their water.

The objection to Kalabagh in Sindh is widespread. Even political parties of Sindh that are in the central cabinet and are supported by General Musharraf, such as the MQM, have strongly denounced the dam. This article is about the Pakistani province. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal Mangroves are woody trees or shrubs that grow in mangrove habitats or mangal (Hogarth, 1999). ... A view of the Mangla Dam The Mangla Dam (Urdu: منگلا بند) in Pakistan is the twelfth largest dam in the world[1]. It was built in 1967. ... Image of the Tarbela Dam from space. ... Hyderabad   or Haidarābād (Urdu/Sindhi: حيدر آباد) is located in the Sindh province of Pakistan (formerly known as Neroon Kot نيرُون ڪوٽ). Formerly the capital of Sindh and known as the city of perfumes, it is now a regional headquarter of the district of Hyderabad. ... If you want to build a house and need to know where the best (or the worst) place to locate for earthquake shaking, then you need to dig up the regional seismic hazard maps. ... Geologic faults, fault lines or simply faults are planar rock fractures, which show evidence of relative movement. ... Lake Manchar is the largest freshwater lake in Pakistan and one of Asias largest. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... Haleji Lake (Urdu: ہالیجی جھیل ) is located in Thatta District, Sindh, Pakistan. ... General Pervez Musharraf (born August 11, 1943, Delhi, India) became de facto ruler (using the title Chief Executive and assuming extensive power) of [[the office of President of Pakistan (becoming Head of State) on June 20, 2001. ... Shaukat Aziz (Urdu:: شوکت عزیز) (born March 6, 1949 in Karachi, Pakistan) is the current Prime Minister and Finance Minister of Pakistan. ... This article is about the governmental body. ... Muttahida Qaumi Mahaz (MQM, United National Front), originally known as Mohajir Quami Movement (Emigrant National Movement), a political party in Pakistan. ...


NWFP viewpoint

The NWFP has two main objections to the dam. North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ...

  • While the reservoir will be in the NWFP, the dam's electricity-generating turbines will be just across the provincial border in Punjab. Therefore, Punjab would get royalties from the central government in Islamabad for generating electricity. Contrary to this, however, Punjab has agreed not to accept any royalties from the Kalabagh Dam. The fact that the NWFP will suffer the adverse consequences of the reservoir but not get royalties is seen as unfair.
  • Concerns that large areas of Nowshera district would be submerged by the dam and even wider areas would suffer from waterlogging and salinity as has occurred with the Tarbela Dam.

Islamabad (Urdu: اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is located in the Potohar Plateau in the northwest of the country. ... Nowshera (Pashto: نوښار) (Urdu: ) - known locally as Now-khaar or Now-Shaar is the chief city of Nowshera District in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. ...

Balochistan viewpoint

The Baloch are not directly affected by the dam as such. Rather, most nationalist Baloch Sardars see the dam as another instance of Punjab lording it over the smaller provinces. By opposing the dam they are signalling their disaffection with being the poorest province and most neglegted of all in development. In reality Balochistan can only get more water and its due share after the construction of Kalabagh dam and Kachhi canal.


Analysis

Most independent analysts believe that the foremost problem with the proposed dam at Kalabagh is one of a trust deficit between the Punjab on one side and the other three provinces on the other. The noted columnist, Ayaz Amir suggested that the people of Punjab should redefine their assumptions about the rest of Pakistan and distribution of resources. A layman of Punjab does not understand why the rest of Pakistan does not trust Punjab. The answer, according to Amir, lies in the frequent coups staged by the Pakistan Army (which is overwhelmingly Punjabi in its composition), as well as the Army's extra-constitutional intervention and influence in public sector and civil institutions of the country in general and Sindh in particular. Now no province is ready to trust the Punjab. Ayaz Amir is a renowned Pakistani journalist, most famous for his columns in the newspaper Dawn as well as known as a politician as well . ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. ...


All Pakistanis agree that Pakistan faces a severe water shortage, and that some form of water management must be implemented soon. Many point out that even if work on Kalabagh were to start tomorrow, it would still take at least eight years to complete and commission such a large dam. In the meantime, the water situation would continue to worsen. Smaller dams, barrages, and canals must be built before that, and water conservation techniques introduced.


The WAPDA [2] for years repeatedly changed its statistics on the dam, to the point where no-one in Pakistan now believes any of its figures. Government of Pakistan formed a technical committee, headed by A. N. G. Abbasi, to study the technical merits of the Kalabagh dam vis-a-vis the other two. The four-volume technical report concluded that Bhasha or Katzarah dam should be built before Kalabagh, further complicating matters. To make matters even more complex, the report also stated that Kalabagh and Bhasha Dams could be considered feasible


The abrupt way in which President General Musharraf announced the decision to build the dam, simply overruling the objections of the smaller states, has sharply polarised public opinion. In Punjab the view is one of "...its high time!" while in the other states, especially Sindh, the reaction has been one of "...over my dead body!". General Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ) (born August 11, 1943) serves as President of Pakistan and the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ...


The fact that the General literally dragged so controversial an issue off the backburner and thrust it into national centre stage without considering the predictable reactions from the smaller provinces has left many aghast. Much has been said in the press, and the issue is still far from being resolved.


External links


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m