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Encyclopedia > Kakapo
Kakapo

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Subfamily: Psittacinae
Tribe: Strigopini
Genus: Strigops
Gray, 1845
Species: S. habroptilus
Binomial name
Strigops habroptilus
Gray, 1845

The Kakapo (Māori: kākāpō, meaning night parrot), Strigops habroptilus (from the Greek strix, genitive strigos: owl and ops: face; and habros: soft, and ptilon: feather), also called owl parrot, is a species of nocturnal parrot with finely blotched yellow-green plumage endemic to New Zealand.[1] It has a distinct facial disc of sensory, vibrissa-like feathers, a large grey beak, short legs, large feet, and wings and a tail of relatively short length. A certain combination of traits makes it unique among its kind—it is the world's only flightless parrot, the heaviest parrot, nocturnal, herbivorous, it sports visible sexual dimorphism in body size, has a low basal metabolic rate, no male parental care, and is the only parrot to have a polygynous lek breeding system. It is also possibly one of the world's longest-living birds.[2] Its anatomy typifies the tendency of bird evolution on oceanic islands with few predators and abundant food: accretion of thermodynamic efficiency at the expense of flight abilities, reduced wing muscles, a diminished keel on the sternum, a generally robust physique.[2] Image File history File links Kakapo2. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... . ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Families Cacatuidae Psittacidae The order Psittaciformes (Parrots) includes about 353 species of bird which are generally grouped into two families: the Cacatuidae or cockatoos, and the Psittacidae or true parrots. ... For the runtime engine for Perl 6, see Parrot virtual machine. ... Tribes Psittrichadini Cyclopsittacini Polytelini Psittaculini Psittacini The Psittacinae is a subfamily in the parrot family Psittacidae. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... George Robert Gray (July 8, 1808 - May 6, 1872) was an English zoologist and author and head of the ornithological section of the British Museum in London for forty-one years. ... Māori or Te Reo Māori, commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) is an official language of New Zealand. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... A bat illustrating nocturnal features. ... Systematics (but see below) Family Cacatuidae (cockatoos) Family Psittacidae (true parrots) Subfamily Loriinae (lories and lorikeets) Subfamily Psittacinae (typical parrots and allies) Tribe Arini (American psittacines) Tribe Cyclopsitticini (fig-parrots) Tribe Micropsittini (pygmy-parrots) Tribe Nestorini (kakas and Kea) Tribe Platycercini (broad-tailed parrots) Tribe Psittrichadini (Pesquets Parrot) Tribe... This article is a parent page for a series of articles providing information about endemism among birds in the Worlds various zoogeographic zones. ... This article is about vibrissae, often called whiskers. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment, in the post-absorptive state (meaning that the digestive system is inactive, which requires about twelve hours of fasting in humans). ... The term polygyny (neo-Greek: poly+gune Many + Wives) is used in related ways in social anthropology and sociobiology. ... A lek is a gathering of males, of certain animal species, for the purposes of competitive mating display. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dunamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into bird skeleton. ... The sternum (from Greek στέρνον, sternon, chest) or breastbone is a long, flat bone located in the center of the thorax (chest). ...


Kakapo are critically endangered; only 86 living individuals are known, all of which have been given names.[3] The ancestral Kakapo migrated to the islands of New Zealand in prehistory; in the absence of mammalian predators, it lost the ability to fly. Because of Polynesian and European colonisation and the introduction of predators such as cats, rats, and stoats, most of the Kakapo were wiped out. Conservation efforts began in the 1890s, but they were not very successful until the implementation of the Kakapo Recovery Plan in the 1980s. As of November 2005, surviving Kakapo are kept on four predator-free islands, Maud, Chalky (Te Kakahu), Codfish (Whenua Hou) and Anchor islands, where they are closely monitored.[2] Two large Fiordland islands, Resolution and Secretary, have been the subject of large-scale ecological restoration activities to prepare self-sustaining ecosystems with suitable habitat for the Kakapo. Every known Kakapo has been given a name by Kakapo Recovery Programme officials. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The stoat (Mustela erminea) is a small mammal of the family Mustelidae. ... Maud Island, originally called Te Hoiere in the Māori language, is the second-largest island in the Marlborough Sounds on the northern tip of the South Island of New Zealand, with a total area of 320 ha. ... Chalky Island is a small island in the southwest of New Zealand, and is part of Fiordland National Park. ... Codfish island or Whenua Hou is a small island (14 km2) located to the east of Stewart Island/Rakiura in southern New Zealand. ... Anchor Island or Pukenui (1380 ha) is an island in Dusky Sound, Fiordland National Park in the Southland district of New Zealand. ... Location of Resolution Island Resolution Island is the largest (uninhabited) island in Fiordland, in the southwest of New Zealand. ... Location of Secretary Island Secretary Island is an island in southwestern New Zealand. ... Island restoration is the application of the principles of ecological restoration to islands and island groups. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ...


The conservation of the Kakapo has made the species well known. Many books and documentaries detailing the plight of the Kakapo have been produced in recent years, one of the earliest being Two in the Bush, made by Gerald Durrell for the BBC in 1962.[4] Two of the most significant documentaries, both made by NHNZ, are Kakapo - Night Parrot (1982) and To Save the Kakapo (1997). The BBC's Natural History Unit also featured the Kakapo, including a sequence with Sir David Attenborough in The Life of Birds. It was also one of the endangered animals that Douglas Adams and Mark Carwardine set out to find for the radio series and book Last Chance to See. Gerald Durrell – founder of the Jersey Zoo and pioneer of captive breeding The Gerald Durrell Memorial VHS cover, with a self portrait Gerald (Gerry) Malcolm Durrell OBE (January 7, 1925 – January 30, 1995) was a naturalist, zookeeper, conservationist, author, and television presenter. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... Sir David Frederick Attenborough, CH, CVO, CBE, FRS, born May 8, 1926 in London, (the younger brother of director and actor Richard Attenborough), is the presenter of many ground-breaking and award winning BBC wildlife documentaries, and a former senior manager for the BBC. He has travelled widely, originally to... The Life of Birds is a BBC nature documentary series written and presented by David Attenborough, first transmitted in the UK from 21 October 1998. ... Douglas Noël Adams (11 March 1952 – 11 May 2001) was an English author, comic radio dramatist, and musician. ... Mark Carwardine (born 1959-03-09) is a zoologist, who at one time was affiliated with the World Wildlife Fund, and has been a free lance writer, photographer and zoologist since 1986. ... The front cover of the first US hardcover edition of Last Chance to See. ...


The Kakapo, like many other bird species, has historically been important to the Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, appearing in many of the traditional legends and folklore.

Contents

Description

Photo of a 1-year-old Kakapo on Codfish Island
Photo of a 1-year-old Kakapo on Codfish Island

Kakapo are large, rotund parrots; males measure up to 60 centimetres (24 in) and weigh between 2 and 4 kilograms (4.5–9 lb) at maturity.[5] Kakapo are unable to fly, having short wings for their size and lacking the pronounced keel bone (sternum) that anchors the flight muscles of other birds. They use their wings for balance, support, and to break their falls when leaping from trees. Unlike other land birds, Kakapo can accumulate large amounts of body fat to store energy making them the heaviest parrot.[2] Image File history File linksMetadata Strigops_habroptilus_1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Strigops_habroptilus_1. ... Codfish island or Whenua Hou is a small island (14 km2) located to the east of Stewart Island/Rakiura in southern New Zealand. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... “Kg” redirects here. ... WING ESPN 1410 is a commercial AM radio station in Dayton, Ohio operating with 5,000 watts at 1410 kHz with studios, offices and transmitter located on David Road in Kettering. ... The sternum (from Greek στέρνον, sternon, chest) or breastbone is a long, flat bone located in the center of the thorax (chest). ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ...


The upper parts of the Kakapo have yellowish moss-green feathers barred or mottled with black or dark brownish grey, blending well with native vegetation. Individuals may have strongly varying degrees of mottling and colour tone and intensity — museum specimens have shown that some birds had completely yellow colouring. The breast and flanks are yellowish-green streaked with yellow. Their bellies, undertail, necks and faces are predominantly yellowish, streaked with pale green and weakly mottled with brownish-grey. Because the feathers do not need the strength and stiffness required for flight, they are exceptionally soft, giving rise to the specific epithet habroptilus. Kakapo have a conspicuous facial disc of fine feathers, resembling the face of an owl; thus, early European settlers called it the "owl parrot". Their beaks are surrounded by delicate vibrissa or "whiskers", which they use to sense the ground for navigation as they walk with their heads lowered. The mandible is mostly ivory-colored, with part of the upper mandible being bluish-grey. The eyes are dark brown. Kakapo feet are large, scaly, and, as in all parrots, zygodactyl (two toes face forward and two backward). They have pronounced claws particularly useful for climbing. The ends of their tail feathers often become worn from being continually dragged on the ground.[2] Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants, and is, by far, the most abundant biotic element of the biosphere. ... A specific epithet is a biological epithet of a species. ... Families Strigidae Tytonidae Ogygoptyngidae (fossil) Palaeoglaucidae (fossil) Protostrigidae (fossil) Sophiornithidae (fossil) Synonyms Strigidae sensu Sibley & Ahlquist Owls are a group of birds of prey. ... This article is about vibrissae, often called whiskers. ... // In biology, dactyly is the arrangement of digits (fingers and toes) on the hands, feet, or sometimes wings of a tetrapod animal. ...

The "whiskers" around the beak
The "whiskers" around the beak

Females are easily distinguished from males due to some notable differences: they have a more narrow and less domed head, their beaks are narrower and proportionally longer, their ceres and nostrils smaller, their legs and feet more slender and pinkish grey, and their tails are proportionally longer. While their plumage color is not very different to that of males, the toning is more subtle, with less yellow and mottling. They tend to be more resistant and aggressive than males when handled. Nesting females are also distinguished by a brood-patch on the bare skin of the belly.[2] Image File history File linksMetadata Strigops_habroptilus,_face. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Strigops_habroptilus,_face. ...


Like many parrots, Kakapo have a variety of calls. In addition to the booms (see below for a recording) and chings of their mating calls, they often skraark to announce their location to other birds. Binomial name Gray, 1845 The Kakapo (Māori: kākāpō, meaning night parrot), Strigops habroptilus (from the Greek strix, genitive strigos: owl and ops: face; and habros: soft, and ptilon: feather), also called owl parrot, is a species of nocturnal parrot with finely blotched yellow-green plumage endemic to...


Kakapo have a well-developed sense of smell, which complements their nocturnal lifestyle.[6] They can discriminate among odours while foraging; a behaviour reported for only one other parrot species.[6] One of the most striking characteristics of Kakapo is their pleasant and powerful odour, which has been variously described as musty, honey-like, fruity or like air freshener[citation needed]. Given the Kakapo's well-developed sense of smell, this scent may be a social chemosignal. The smell often alerts predators to the largely defenseless Kakapo. Air fresheners are consumer products meant to mitigate the experience of unpleasant odors in indoor spaces. ... Young boy smelling a flower Olfaction, which is also known as Olfactics is the sense of smell, and the detection of chemicals dissolved in air. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ...


Classification

The Kakapo has so many unusual features that it was initially placed in its own family, Strigopidae. However, it is now recognised as a member of the parrot family, Psittacidae. Its distinctiveness is highlighted by its classification in its own genus, Strigops; and tribe, Strigopini, in the subfamily Psittacinae. Some maintain the Kakapo in a subfamily of its own, Strigopinae.[7] For the runtime engine for Perl 6, see Parrot virtual machine. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... In biology, a tribe is a taxonomic classification in between family and genus. ... ... Tribes Psittrichadini Cyclopsittacini Polytelini Psittaculini Psittacini The Psittacinae is a subfamily in the parrot family Psittacidae. ...


Earlier ornithologists felt the Kakapo may be related to the Ground Parrot and Night Parrot of Australia; others pointed to the Nestorini tribe.[8] A 2005 sex chromosome spindlin DNA sequence study confirmed affinities with the genus Nestor, which contains the Kākā and the Kea. The molecular data further suggests that the two Nestor species, and the Kakapo in its own genus, comprise an ancient group that split off from all other Psittacidae before their radiation,[9] but fossil evidence seems to contradict this[citation needed]; given the violent geological history of New Zealand (see, for example, Taupo Volcanic Zone), other explanations such as episodes of genetic drift seem better supported by evidence. Binomial name Pezoporus wallicus Kerr, 1792 The Ground Parrot (Pezoporus wallicus) is one of only four ground-dwelling parrots in the world, the others being its closest relative, the extremely rare Night Parrot, the somewhat closely related Antipodes Island Parakeet, and the unrelated highly endangered kakapo from New Zealand. ... Binomial name Pezoporus occidentalis (Gould, 1861) Synonyms Geopsittacus occidentalis The Night Parrot (Pezoporus occidentalis) is (or was, depending on opinion) a small broad-tailed parrot endemic to the continent of Australia. ... Species The genus Nestor, the only genus of the Nestorinae subfamily, contains two parrot species from New Zealand and one extinct species from Norfolk Island, Australia. ... The ZW sex-determination system is a system that birds, some fishes, and some insects (including butterflies and moths) use to determine the sex of their offspring. ... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... Binomial name Nestor meridionalis (Gmelin, 1788) The Kākā, Nestor meridionalis, is a parrot native to the forests of New Zealand. ... Binomial name Nestor notabilis Gould, 1856 The Kea (Nestor notabilis) is a highly unusual species of parrot found in forested and alpine regions of the South Island of New Zealand. ... For the runtime engine for Perl 6, see Parrot virtual machine. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Thermally active area - Craters of the Moon, North Island, New Zealand. ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ...


Ecology and behaviour

   Maximum distribution since 1840   Fossil evidence Historic distribution of the Kakapo.
 
Maximum distribution since 1840
 
Fossil evidence
Historic distribution of the Kakapo.

The only mammals native to New Zealand are three species of small bats (one extinct). It seems that the Kakapo — like many of New Zealand's bird species — has evolved to occupy an ecological niche normally filled by various species of mammal. Before the arrival of humans, Kakapo were largely distributed throughout the three main islands of New Zealand. They lived in a variety of habitats, including tussocklands, scrublands and coastal areas. They also inhabited forests, including those dominated by podocarps (rimu, matai, kahikatea, totara), beeches, tawa, and rata. They particularly favored forest margins and areas of regenerating forest for the wider variety of vegetation in a compact area[citation needed] . In Fiordland, areas of avalanche and slip debris with regenerating and heavily fruiting vegetation — such as five finger, wineberry, bush lawyer, tutu, hebes, and coprosmas — became known as "Kakapo gardens"[citation needed] . Image File history File links Kakapohist. ... Image File history File links Kakapohist. ... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Two lichenes species on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in an ecosystem. ... Tusock grass can be any tall strong growing grass; one that grows in thick clumps or tussocks. ... Genera Acmopyle Afrocarpus Dacrycarpus Dacrydium Falcatifolium Halocarpus Lagarostrobos Lepidothamnus Manoao Microcachrys Microstrobos Nageia Parasitaxus Phyllocladus Podocarpus Prumnopitys Retrophyllum Saxegothaea Sundacarpus A large family of mainly Southern Hemisphere conifers, with 18-19 genera and about 170-200 species of evergreen trees and shrubs. ... Binomial name Sol. ... Binomial name (Banks & Sol. ... Binomial name Dacrycarpus dacrydioides (A.Rich. ... Binomial name Podocarpus totara G.Benn. ... Species Nothofagus alpina - Rauli Beech Nothofagus antarctica - Antarctic Beech Nothofagus betuloides - Magellanes Beech Nothofagus cunninghamii - Myrtle Beech Nothofagus dombeyi - Coigüe Beech Nothofagus fusca - Red Beech Nothofagus gunnii - Tanglefoot Beech Nothofagus menziesii - Silver Beech Nothofagus moorei - Negrohead Beech Nothofagus obliqua - Roble Beech Nothofagus pumilio - Lenga Beech Nothofagus solanderi - Black Beech... Binomial name Beilschmiedia tawa The Tawa tree (Beilschmiedia tawa) is a New Zealand broadleaf tree common in coastal areas in the central parts of the country. ... Binomial name Cav. ... Fiordland is a region of New Zealand that is situated on the south-western corner of the South Island. ... Binomial name Aristotelia serrata Oliv. ... Bush lawyer is the common name of a number of climbing plants of the Rubus species that are found in New Zealand. ... Tutu is a common name of Māori origin for plants in the genus Coriaria (Coriariaceae) found in New Zealand. ... Species See text. ... Species Coprosma acerosa Coprosma antipoda Coprosma brunnea Coprosma cheesmanii Coprosma crassifolia Coprosma crenulata Coprosma elatirioides Coprosma ernodeoides Coprosma fauriei Coprosma intertexta Coprosma montana Coprosma nivalis Coprosma persicifolia Coprosma petriei Coprosma pumila Coprosma quadrifida Coprosma robusta Coprosma rugosa Coprosma waimeae Coprosma is a genus of plants that are found primarily in...


Kakapo are primarily nocturnal; they roost under cover in trees or on the ground during the day and rove their territories at night.[1] Though the Kakapo cannot fly, they are excellent climbers, ascending to the crowns of the tallest trees. They can also "parachute" from heights by spreading their wings, floating gently to the forest floor[citation needed]. Having lost the ability to fly, they have developed strong legs. Movement is often by way of a rapid "jog-like" gait by which they can move many kilometres.[5] Females make two return trips each night during nesting from their nest to the food source up to 1 km (0.5 miles) away[10] and males walk from their home ranges to the mating arena up to 5 km (3 miles) away during the mating season (October–January).[11]


Kakapo are a curious species and have been known to interact with humans. Conservation staff and volunteers have engaged extensively with some Kakapo, and they are known to have distinct personalities.


One behaviour that has not recently served the Kakapo well is their reaction to threats. When Kakapo feel threatened, they freeze, hoping to blend in with the vegetation that they resemble. This was a good strategy to foil their main native predator, the giant Haast's Eagle. However, it does not protect them from their new mammalian predators (feral cats and dogs), which rely on an excellent sense of smell. A typical way for humans to hunt down Kakapo is by releasing trained dogs.[12] Binomial name Harpagornis moorei Haast, 1872 Haasts Eagle (Harpagornis moorei), was a massive, extinct eagle that once lived on the South Island of New Zealand. ...


Diet

The beak of the Kakapo is specially adapted for grinding food finely. For this reason, Kakapo have very small gizzards compared to other birds of their size. They are generally herbivorous, eating native plants, seeds, fruits, pollens and even the sapwood of trees. A study in 1984 identified 25 plant species as Kakapo food.[1] They are particularly fond of the fruit of the rimu tree, and will feed on it exclusively during seasons when it is abundant. Kakapo have a distinctive habit of grabbing a leaf or frond with a foot and stripping the nutritious parts of the plant out with their beaks, leaving a ball of indigestible fiber. These little clumps of plant fibers are a distinctive sign of the presence of Kakapo.[13][14] The gizzard is an adapted stomach that is found in birds, earthworms, and other animals. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Binomial name Sol. ...


Kakapo diet changes seasonally. The plants eaten most frequently during the year include some species of Lycopodium ramulosum, Lycopodium fastigium, Schizaea fistulosa, Blechnum minus, Blechnum procerum, Cyathodes juniperina, Dracophyllum longifolium, Olearia colensoi and Thelymitra venosa. Individual plants of the same species are often treated differently. Kakapo leave conspicuous evidence of their feeding activities, from 10×10 m to 50×100 m feeding ground areas.[1] Manuka and yellow silver pine scrubs are obvious signs of their center of feeding activities. Binomial name Leptospermum scoparium J.R.Forst. ...


Reproduction

Kakapo camouflaged by its feathers.
Kakapo camouflaged by its feathers.

Kakapo are the only parrots in the world that have a lek breeding system.[15] Males loosely gather in an arena and compete with each other to attract females. Females watch the males display, or "lek".[16] They choose a mate based on the quality of his display; they are not pursued by the males in any overt way. No pair bond is formed; males and females meet only to mate. Image File history File linksMetadata Strigops_habroptilus,_camouflage. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Strigops_habroptilus,_camouflage. ... Countershaded Ibex are almost invisible in the Israeli desert. ... A lek is a gathering of males, of certain animal species, for the purposes of competitive mating display. ...


During the courting season, males leave their home ranges for hilltops and ridges where they establish their own mating courts. These leks can be up to 7 kilometres (4 mi) from a Kakapo's usual territory and are an average of 50 metres (160 ft) apart within the lek arena. Males remain in the region of their court throughout the courting season. At the start of the breeding season, males will fight to try to secure the best courts. They confront each other with raised feathers, spread wings, open beaks, raised claws and loud screeching and growling. Fighting may leave birds with injuries. A ridge is a geological feature that features a continuous elevational crest for some distance. ...


Each court consists of bowl-like depressions dug in the ground by the male, up to 10 centimetres (4 in) deep and long enough to fit the half-metre length of the bird. Bowls are often created next to rock faces, banks, or tree trunks to help reflect sound.[15] Each male’s bowls are connected by a network of trails or tracks which may extend 50 metres (160 ft) along a ridge or 20 metres (60 ft) in diameter around a hilltop.[15] Males meticulously clear their bowls and tracks of debris. One way researchers check whether bowls are visited at night is to place a few twigs in the bowl; if the male visits overnight, he will pick them up in his beak and toss them away. “Footpath” redirects here. ...


To attract females, males make loud, low-frequency (below 100 Hz) booming calls from their bowls by inflating a thoracic sac.[5][17] They start with low grunts, which increase in volume as the sac inflates. After a sequence of about 20 loud booms, the volume drops off. The male Kakapo then stands up for a short while before again lowering his head, inflating his chest and starting another sequence of booms. The booms can be heard at least one kilometre (0.6 mi) away on a still night; wind can carry the sound at least five kilometres (3 mi).[15] Males boom for an average of eight hours a night; each male may produce thousands of booms in this time. This may continue every night for three or four months during which time the male may lose half his body weight. Each male moves around the bowls in his court so that the booms are sent out in different directions. MHZ redirects here. ... Diagram of a tsetse fly, showing the head, thorax and abdomen The thorax is a division of an animals body that lies between the head and the abdomen. ...


Females are attracted by the booms of the competing males; they too may need to walk several kilometers from their territories to the arena. Once a female enters the court of one of the males, the male performs a display in which he rocks from side to side and makes clicking noises with his beak.[2] He turns his back to the female, spreads his wings in display and walks backwards towards her. The duration of attempted copulation is between 2 to 14 minutes.[2] Once the birds have mated, the female returns to her home territory to lay eggs and raise the chicks. The male continues booming in the hope of attracting another female.


Female Kakapo lay up to three eggs per breeding cycle.[17] They nest on the ground under the cover of plants or in cavities such as hollow tree trunks. They incubate the eggs faithfully, but are forced to leave them every night in search of food. Predators are known to eat the eggs and the embryos inside can also freeze to death in the mother's absence. Kakapo eggs usually hatch within 30 days,[18] bearing fluffy gray chicks that are quite helpless. After the eggs hatch, the female feeds the chicks for three months, and the chicks continue to remain with the female for some months after fledging.[17] The young chicks are just as vulnerable to predators as the eggs, and young have been killed by many of the same predators that attack adults. Chicks leave the nest at approximately 10 to 12 weeks of age. As they gain greater independence, their mothers may feed the chicks sporadically for up to 6 months. A human ovum Sperm cells attempting to fertilize an ovum An ovum (plural ova) is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. ... Fledge is the stage in a young birds life when the feathers and wing muscles are sufficiently developed for flight. ...


Because Kakapo are quite long-lived, they tend to have an adolescence before beginning breeding. Males do not start to boom until about 5 years of age.[5] Females do not seek out males until they are between 9 and 11 years old.[18] This long delay before they start to reproduce leaves plenty of time to perpetuate the species. Kakapo do not breed every year and have one of the lowest rates of reproduction among birds. Breeding occurs only in years when trees mast (fruit heavily), providing a plentiful food supply. Rimu mast occurs only every three to five years, so in rimu-dominant forests such as those on Codfish Island, Kakapo breeding occurs as infrequently.[19] Binomial name Sol. ...


Conservation

The population of Kakapo in New Zealand has been significantly reduced since human habitation of the country. Since 1891, conservation efforts have been attempted to prevent extinction. The most successful scheme has been the Kakapo Recovery Plan; this was implemented in 1989 and is still ongoing.


Human impact

The first factor in the decline of the Kakapo was the arrival of humans. According to Māori folklore, Kakapo were found throughout the country when the Polynesians first arrived in Aotearoa 1,000 years ago;[20] subfossil and midden deposits show that they were present throughout the North island, South island and Stewart island before and during early Māori times.[21] Māori settlers from Polynesia hunted the Kakapo for food and for their skins and feathers, which were made into luxurious capes.[20] They used the dried heads as ear ornaments. Due to its flightlessness, strong scent and habit of freezing when threatened, the Kakapo were easy prey for the Māori and their dogs. Their eggs and chicks were also predated by the Polynesian Rat or kiore, which the Māori brought to New Zealand.[16] Furthermore, the deliberate clearing of vegetation by Māori reduced the habitable range for Kakapo. Although the Kakapo were extinct in many parts of the islands by the time Europeans arrived,[22]including the Tararua and Aorangi Ranges,[23] they were still present in the central part of North island and forested parts of South island.[21] This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... Polynesian is an adjectival form which refers variously to: Polynesian pie Polynesian sauce, a food condiment available at Chick-fil-A the aboriginal inhabitants of Polynesia, and their: Polynesian culture Polynesian mythology Polynesian languages Category: ... Look up Aotearoa in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Subfossil is attributed to bones or whole skeletons (and, in general all materials having living parts that can become fossil) whose fossilization process is not complete, either for lack of time or because the condition in which bones were buried were non optimal for fossilization. ... A midden, also known as kitchen middens, is a dump for domestic waste. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... For other uses, see Cape (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Rattus exulans (Peale, 1848) The Polynesian Rat or Pacific Rat (Rattus exulans), known to the Maori as Kiore, is the third most widespread species of rat in the world behind the Brown Rat and Black Rat. ... The Tararua Range (often referred to as the Tararua Ranges) is one of several mountain ranges in the North Island of New Zealand which form a ridge running parallel with the east coast of the island between East Cape and Wellington. ... The Aorangi Range (or Haurangi Range as it is also known) in south eastern Wairarapa is the southernmost mountain range in the North Island and extends more than 20 kilometres north from Cape Palliser. ...


From the 1840s, European settlers cleared vast tracts of land for farming and grazing, further jeopardising the Kakapo and their habitat. They brought more dogs and other mammalian predators, including domestic cats, black rats and stoats.[24] Europeans knew little of the Kakapo until George Gray of the British Museum described it from a skin in 1845. As the Māori had done, early European explorers and their dogs fed on Kakapo. In the late 1800s, Kakapo became well-known as a scientific curiosity, and thousands were captured or killed for zoos, museums and collectors. Most captured specimens died within months. From at least the 1870s, collectors knew the Kakapo population was declining; their prime concern was to collect as many as possible before they became extinct. Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Grazing To feed on growing herbage, attached algae, or phytoplankton. ... George Robert Gray (July 8, 1808 - May 6, 1872) was an English zoologist and author and head of the ornithological section of the British Museum in London for forty-one years. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ...


In the 1880s, large numbers of mustelids (stoats, ferrets and weasels) were released in New Zealand to reduce rabbit numbers,[25] but they also preyed heavily on many native species including the Kakapo. Other browsing animals, such as introduced deer, competed with Kakapo for food, and caused the extinction of some of its preferred plant species. Kakapo were reportedly still present near the head of the Whanganui River as late as 1894, with one of the last records of a Kakapo in the North Island being a single bird caught in the Kaimanawa Ranges by one Te Kepa Puawheawhe in 1895.[23] Subfamilies Lutrinae Melinae Mellivorinae Taxidiinae Mustelinae Mustelidae is a family of carnivorous mammals. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The stoat (Mustela erminea) is a small mammal of the family Mustelidae. ... This article is about the mammal. ... It has been suggested that boogle be merged into this article or section. ... Genera Pentalagus Bunolagus Nesolagus Romerolagus Brachylagus Sylvilagus Oryctolagus Poelagus Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world. ... This article is about the ruminant animal. ... The Whanganui River is a major river in the North Island of New Zealand. ... The Kaimanawa Range of mountains (often known as the Kaimanawa Ranges) is located in the central North Island of New Zealand. ...


Early protection efforts

Thousands of Kakapo were collected for museums across the world.
Thousands of Kakapo were collected for museums across the world.

In 1891, the New Zealand government set aside Resolution Island in Fiordland as a nature reserve; in 1894, the government appointed Richard Henry as caretaker. A keen naturalist, Henry was aware that native birds were declining, and began catching and moving Kakapo and kiwi from the mainland to the predator-free Resolution Island. In six years, he moved more than 200 Kakapo to Resolution Island. By 1900, however, stoats had swum to Resolution Island and colonised it; they wiped out this nascent Kakapo population within 6 years.[26] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2169x1209, 662 KB) Kakapo (strigops habroptilus) Mounted exhibition at the de:Museum Koenig in Bonn, Germany (Check the german Wikipedia for more details on the museum, Photo taken by user BS Thurner Hof Feb 2005 File links The following pages link... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2169x1209, 662 KB) Kakapo (strigops habroptilus) Mounted exhibition at the de:Museum Koenig in Bonn, Germany (Check the german Wikipedia for more details on the museum, Photo taken by user BS Thurner Hof Feb 2005 File links The following pages link... Location of Resolution Island Resolution Island is the largest (uninhabited) island in Fiordland, in the southwest of New Zealand. ... Richard Treacy Henry (4 June 1845 – 13 November 1929) was a New Zealand conservationist and reserve manager who became an expert on the natural history of flightless birds in New Zealand, especially the Kakapo. ... Species See text. ...


In 1903, three Kakapo were moved from Resolution Island to the nature reserve of Hauturu/Little Barrier Island north-east of Auckland, but feral cats were present and the Kakapo were never seen again. In 1912, three Kakapo were moved to another reserve, Kapiti Island, north-west of Wellington. One of them survived until at least 1936, despite the presence of feral cats for part of the intervening period.[26] Hauturu/Little Barrier Island lies off the northeastern coast of New Zealands North Island. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... Most feral kittens have little chance of surving more than a few months and are vulnerable to starvation, predators, disease and even flea-induced anemia. ... Kapiti Island seen from Waikanae Beach, Kapiti Coast. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Wellington Region. ...


By the 1920s, the Kakapo were extinct on the North Island and their range and numbers on the South Island were declining.[22] One of their last refuges was rugged Fiordland. There, during the 1930s, they were often seen or heard, and occasionally eaten, by hunters or roadworkers. By the 1940s, reports of Kakapo were becoming scarce. North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... The South Island The South Island is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the more populous North Island. ...


1950–1989 conservation efforts

In the 1950s, the New Zealand Wildlife Service was established and began making regular expeditions to search for Kakapo, mostly in Fiordland and what is now the Kahurangi National Park in the northwest of the South Island. Seven Fiordland expeditions between 1951 and 1956 found only a few recent signs. Finally, in 1958 a Kakapo was caught and released in the Milford Sound catchment area in Fiordland. Six more Kakapo were captured in 1961; one was released and the other five were transferred to the aviaries of the Mount Bruce Bird Reserve near Masterton in the North Island. Within months, four of the birds had died and the fifth died after about four years. In the next 12 years, regular expeditions found few signs of Kakapo, indicating that numbers were continuing to decline. Only one bird was captured in 1967; it died the following year. Kahurangi National Park is a National Park in the northwest of the South Island of New Zealand. ... Panorama of Milford Sound on a beautiful day. ... An aviary is a large enclosure for confining birds. ... Masterton is a town (and local government district) in the Wellington region of New Zealand. ...


By the early 1970s, it was uncertain whether Kakapo was still an extant species. At the end of 1974, scientists located several more male Kakapo and made the first scientific observations of Kakapo booming. These observations led Don Merton to speculate for the first time that Kakapo had a lek breeding system.[16] From 1974 to 1976, 14 Kakapo were discovered but all appeared to be males. One male bird was captured in the Milford area in 1975, christened "Richard Henry", and transferred to Maud Island. This raised the possibility that all the females had died and that the species was functionally extinct. All the birds the Wildlife Service discovered from 1951 to 1976 were in U-shaped glaciated valleys flanked by almost-vertical cliffs and surrounded by high mountains. Such extreme terrain had slowed colonisation by browsing mammals, leaving islands of virtually unmodified native vegetation. However, even here, stoats were present and by 1976 Kakapo were gone from the valley floors and only a few males survived high on the most inaccessible parts of the cliffs.[2] Don Merton(*February 1939 in Auckland/NZ) is a New Zealand conservationist best known for saving the black robin from extinction. ... Maud Island, originally called Te Hoiere in the Māori language, is the second-largest island in the Marlborough Sounds on the northern tip of the South Island of New Zealand, with a total area of 320 ha. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... A glaciated valley is one formed by the process of glaciation. ...


Prior to 1977, no expedition had been to Stewart Island/Rakiura, despite government workers seeing a Kakapo there and snatching feathers from it in 1949[citation needed]. In 1977, sightings of Kakapo were reported on Stewart Island.[2] An expedition to the island found a track and bowl system on its first day; soon after, it located several dozen Kakapo. The finding in an 8,000 ha area of fire-modified scrubland and forest raised hope that the population would include females. The total population was estimated at 100 to 200 birds.[27] Scrubland is plant community characterized by scrub vegetation. ...


Mustelids have never colonised Steward Island/Rakiura, but feral cats were present. During a survey, it was apparent that cats killed Kakapo with a predation rate of 56% per annum.[28] At this rate, the birds could not survive on the island and therefore an intensive cat control was introduced in 1982, after which no cat-killed Kakapo were found.[2] However, to ensure the survival of the remaining birds, scientists decided later that this population should be transferred to predator-free islands; this operation was carried between 1982 and 1997.[29] Subfamilies Lutrinae Melinae Mellivorinae Taxidiinae Mustelinae Mustelidae is a family of carnivorous mammals. ... Rescued feral kittens Most feral kittens have little chance of surviving more than a few months and are vulnerable to starvation, predators, disease and even flea-induced anemia[1][2]. Here, kittens from two feral litters are fostered by a domestic mother. ...


Kakapo recovery plan

Kakapo Translocations 1974–1992[29]
Translocated to Number of Kakapo Deaths < 6 months Survived as of Nov. 1992
Maud Island (1974–81) 9 (6♂, 3♀) 3 (2♂, 1♀) 4 (2♂, 2♀)
Little Barrier Island (1982) 22 (13♂, 9♀) 2 (1♂, 1♀) 15–19 (10–12♂, 5–7♀)
Codfish Island (1987–92) 30 (20♂, 10♀) 0 20–30 (13–20♂, 7–10♀)
Maud Island (1989–91) 6 (4♂, 2♀) 0 5 (3♂, 2♀)
Mana Island (1992) 2 (2♀) 1 (1♀) 1 (1♀)
Total 65 (43♂, 22♀) 6 (4♂, 2♀) 41–55 (27–36♂, 14–19♀)

Note: ♂ = males, ♀ = females.

In 1989, a Kakapo Recovery Plan was developed and a Kakapo Recovery Group established to implement it.[30] The New Zealand's Department of Conservation replaced the Wildlife Service for this task. The first action of the plan was to relocate all the remaining Kakapo to suitable islands for them to breed. None of the New Zealand islands were ideal to establish Kakapo without rehabilitation by extensive revegetation and the eradication of introduced mammalian predators and competitors. Four islands were finally chosen: Maud, Hauturu/Little Barrier, Codfish and Mana.[29] Some islands had to be rehabilitated several times when feral cats, stoats and weka kept appearing. Sixty-five Kakapo (43 males, 22 females) have been successfully transferred onto the four islands in five translocations.[29] As of November 2005, Hauturu/Little Barrier Island and Mana Island were replaced with Chalky Island (Te Kakahu) and Anchor Island as Kakapo sanctuaries.[2] Island restoration is the application of the principles of ecological restoration to islands and island groups. ... Maud Island, originally called Te Hoiere in the Māori language, is the second-largest island in the Marlborough Sounds on the northern tip of the South Island of New Zealand, with a total area of 320 ha. ... Hauturu/Little Barrier Island lies off the northeastern coast of New Zealands North Island. ... Codfish island or Whenua Hou is a small island (14 km2) located to the east of Stewart Island/Rakiura in southern New Zealand. ... Mana Island seen from Porirua Mana Island is the smaller we we pooper of two islands that lie off the southwest coast of the North Island of New Zealand (the larger is Kapiti Island). ... Binomial name Gallirallus australis Sparrman, 1786 The Weka or woodhen (Gallirallus australis) is an endemic bird of New Zealand. ... Chalky Island is a small island in the southwest of New Zealand, and is part of Fiordland National Park. ... Anchor Island or Pukenui (1380 ha) is an island in Dusky Sound, Fiordland National Park in the Southland district of New Zealand. ...

Following the implementation of the Kakapo Recovery Plan, Kakapo numbers have generally increased.
Following the implementation of the Kakapo Recovery Plan, Kakapo numbers have generally increased.

A key part of the Recovery Plan is the supplementary feeding of females. Kakapo breed only once every two to five years, when a certain type of plant species, primarily Dacrydium cupressinum (rimu), produces protein-rich fruit and seeds. Observations of the relationship between intermittent breeding and the plant's mast year help biologists choose which suitable supplementary foods to increase Kakapo breeding frequency.[31] In 1989, six preferred foods (apples, sweet potatoes, almonds, brazil nuts, sunflower seeds and walnuts) were supplied ad libitum each night to 12 feeding stations. Males and females ate the supplied foods, and females nested on Little Barrier Island in the summers of 1989–91 for the first time since 1982, although nesting success was low.[32] Image File history File links Kakapobestand. ... Image File history File links Kakapobestand. ... Binomial name Sol. ... A Mast Year is a year in which vegetation produces a significant abundance of fruit. ... Binomial name Borkh. ... Binomial name L. “Camote” redirects here. ... Binomial name (Mill. ... Binomial name Bertholletia excelsa Humb. ... The sunflower seed is the seed of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus). ... For other uses, see Walnut (disambiguation). ... Ad libitum is Latin for at ones pleasure, often shortened to Ad lib. ...


Supplementary feeding not only increases the Kakapo breeding frequency, but also affects the sex ratio of Kakapo offspring.[33] Females fed protein-rich foods produce more male-biased offspring (males have 30–40% more body weight than females). Females produce bias offsprings towards the dispersive sex when competition for resources (such as food) is high and to the non-dispersive sex when food is plentiful; a female Kakapo will likely be able to produce eggs, even when there are few resources, while a male Kakapo will be more capable of perpetuating the species when there are plenty, by mating with several females. This finding was subsequently used to increase the number of female chicks by deliberately manipulating maternal condition.[34] During the winter of 1981, only females below 1.5 kg weight were given supplementary feeding to avoid raising their body condition, and the sex ratio results in 1982 were close to parity, eliminating the male-biased sex ratios in the unrestricted feeding. Sex ratio by country for total population. ...


Though breeding can be improved by supplementary feeding, the survival of young Kakapo is hampered by the presence of Polynesian rats. Of 21 chicks that hatched between 1981 and 1994, nine were either killed by rats or died and were subsequently eaten by rats.[31] Nest protection has been intensified since 1995 by using traps and poison stations as soon as a nest had been detected. A small video camera and infra-red light source watch the nest continuously, which will remotely scare approaching rats by small bang and flash lights. To increase the success rate of nesting, a nest watcher places a small thermostatically controlled electric blanket over the eggs or chicks, whenever the female leaves the nest for food. The survival rate of chicks has increased from 29% in unprotected nests to 75% in protected ones.[31] Innocent mice often meet their demise in such cruel death traps A rat trap is a contraption used to, as the name implies, trap rats, but not necessarily kill them. ... Image of two girls in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false-color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of radio waves. ...


To monitor the Kakapo population continuously, each bird is equipped with a radio transmitter.[31] Every known Kakapo has been given a name by Kakapo Recovery Programme officials. It is an affectionate way for conservation staff to refer to individual birds, and a stark reminder of how few remain. Artificial incubation of eggs and hand-raising of chicks interventions were often used to strengthen conditions of the eggs and the chicks.[35] As of November 2005, the population comprised 41 females and 45 males, including four fledging (3 females and 1 male) bred in 2005.[2] The oldest surviving Kakapo, "Richard Henry", is thought to be between 35 and 50 years old.[36] In communications and information processing, a transmitter (sometimes abbreviated XMTR) is an object (source) which sends information to an observer (receiver). ... Every known Kakapo has been given a name by Kakapo Recovery Programme officials. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Kakapo Recovery Plan has been a successful program as the numbers of Kakapo increase steadily. The adult survival rate and their productivity have both improved significantly since the programme's inception. However, the main goal is to establish at least one viable, self-sustaining, unmanaged population of Kakapo as a functional component of the ecosystem in a protected habitat.[37] To accept this conservation challenge, two large Fiordland islands, Resolution (20,860 ha) and Secretary (8,140 ha), have been prepared for re-introduction of Kakapo with large-scale ecological restoration activities.[2] A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Location of Resolution Island Resolution Island is the largest (uninhabited) island in Fiordland, in the southwest of New Zealand. ... Location of Secretary Island Secretary Island is an island in southwestern New Zealand. ...


In Māori culture

The Kakapo has a rich tradition of Māori folklore and beliefs associated with it as a species. Their irregular breeding cycle was noted to be associated with heavy fruiting or "masting" events of particular plant species such as the Rimu which led the Māori to credit the bird with the ability to foretell the future.[38] Used to substantiate this claim were reported observations of these birds dropping the berries of the Hinau and Tawa trees (when they were in season) into secluded pools of water to preserve them as a food supply for the summer ahead; the Māori practice of immersing food in water for the same purpose is believed to originate from these observations.[38] This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... A Mast Year is a year in which vegetation produces a significant abundance of fruit. ... Binomial name Sol. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tava. ...


Use for food and clothing

The meat of Kakapo made good eating and was considered by Māori to be a delicacy[39] and they were hunted for food during the time they were still widespread.[40] One source states that its flesh "resembles lamb in taste and texture",[38] although European settlers have described the bird as having a "strong and slightly stringent flavor".[39] This is a List of delicacies. ... It has been suggested that Lambing be merged into this article or section. ... A European is primarily a person who was born into one of the countries within the continent of Europe. ...


In breeding years, the loud booming calls of the males at their mating arenas made it easy for Māori hunting parties to track them down, and they were also hunted while feeding or when having dust baths in dry weather. The birds were caught, generally at night, using snares, pitfall traps, or by groups of domesticated Polynesian dogs which accompanied the hunting parties — sometimes they would use fire sticks of various sorts to dazzle the birds in the darkness, stopping them in their tracks and making the capture easier.[38] Cooking was either done in a Hāngi or in gourds of boiling oil.[40] The flesh of the birds could be preserved in their own fat and stored in containers for later consumption — hunters of the Ngāi Tahu tribe would pack the flesh in baskets made from the inner bark of Totara tree or in containers constructed from kelp.[41] Bundles of Kakapo tail feathers were attached to the sides of these containers to provide decoration and a way to identify their contents.[39] [41]Also taken by the Māori were the bird's eggs, which are described as "white-ish but not pure white", and about the same size as a kererū egg.[38] A lek is a gathering of males, of certain animal species, for the purposes of competitive mating display. ... A kind of trap used in trapping. ... Hāngi (pronounced ) is a New Zealand Māori word for a method of cooking in an outdoor pit oven. ... Image:Ngai tahu. ... Binomial name Podocarpus totara G. Benn. ... Insert non-formatted text hereLink title Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae For other uses, see Kelp (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae (Gmelin, 1789) The kererÅ« or New Zealand Pigeon (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae novaseelandiae (Gmelin)) is a bird endemic to New Zealand. ...


As well as eating the meat of the Kakapo they killed, Māori would use Kakapo skins — with the feathers still attached — to create cloaks and capes.[40][41] Each one required up to 11,000 feathers to make.[42] Not only were these garments very beautiful, they also kept the wearer very warm.[42][40] They were highly valued, and the few still in existence today are considered Taonga (treasures) — indeed, the old Māori adage "You have a Kākāpō cape and you still complain of the cold" is used to describe someone who is never satisfied.[40] Kakapo feathers were also used to decorate the heads of taiaha, but were removed before actual use in combat.[39][41][42] Taonga is the Maori word for a treasured thing, whether tangible or intangible. ... A Taiaha (pronounced Tie-ah-ha) is a weapon carried by the Maori warriors of New Zealand. ...


Despite all, the Kakapo was also regarded as an affectionate pet by the Māori. This was corroborated by European settlers in New Zealand in the 19th century, among them George Edward Grey, who once wrote in a letter to an associate that his pet Kakapo's behavior towards him and his friends was "more like that of a dog than a bird".[38] It has been suggested that Residential pets be merged into this article or section. ... George Edward Grey Statue of Sir George Grey in Albert Park, Auckland For other men with a similar name, see George Grey or George Gray Sir George Edward Grey KCB (April 14, 1812–September 19, 1898) was a soldier, explorer, Governor of South Australia, twice Governor of New Zealand, Governor...


Media

  • Kakapo's booming
    The sound of a Kakapo's booming. If the typical low-pitched sound cannot be heard, try listening to an alternative version ( file info) which has an increased pitch of 50%.
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

Image File history File links 051226-kakapo-billbooming. ... Image File history File links 051226-kakapo-billbooming-pitch. ...

References

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  32. ^ R. G. Powlesland and B. D. Lloyd (1994). "Use of supplementary feeding to induce breeding in free-living kakapo Strigops habroptilus in New Zealand". Biological Conservation 69 (1): 97–106. 
  33. ^ Clout, M.N.; Elliott, G.P.; Robertson, B.C. (2002). "Effects of supplementary feeding on the offspring sex ratio of kakapo: a dilemma for the conservation of a polygynous parrot.". Biological Conservation 107 (1): 13–18. 
  34. ^ Robertson, B.C.; Elliott, G.P.; Eason, D.K.; Clout, M.N.; Gemmell, N.J. (2006). "Sex allocation theory aids conservation". Biology Letters 2 (2): 229–231. 
  35. ^ Daryl K. Eason and Ron J. Moorhouse. "Hand-rearing kakapo (Strigops habroptilus), 1997–2005". Notornis 53 (1): 116–125. 
  36. ^ Kakapo Recovery Programme:Richard Henry
  37. ^ Cresswell, M. (1996). Kakapo recovery plan 1996–2005. Threatened Species Recovery Plan No. 21.. Wellington: Department of Conservation. 
  38. ^ a b c d e f Murdoch Riley, "Maori Bird Lore; An introduction", Viking Sevenseas NZ LTD., 2001
  39. ^ a b c d Rob Tipa, Short note:"Kakapo in Māori Lore", Notornis, Vol. 53, 193-194
  40. ^ a b c d e Rod Morris, Hal Smith,"Wild South: Saving New Zealands endangered birds", Random House New Zealand, 1995
  41. ^ a b c d Kakapo then and now; An Iwi Perspective
  42. ^ a b c Andrew Crowe, "Which New Zealand Bird?", Penguin, 2001

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Further reading

  • Butler, David (1989). Quest for the kakapo. Auckland: Heinemann Reed. ISBN 0-7900-0065-2. 
  • Climo, Gideon and Ballance, Alison (1997). Hoki: the story of a kakapo. Auckland: Godwit. ISBN 1-86962-009-7. 
  • Jones, Jenny (2003). The Kakapo. Auckland: Reed. ISBN 1-86948-662-5. 
  • BirdLife International (2004). Strigops habroptilus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 09 May 2006. (Database entry includes justification for why this species is critically endangered.)

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Kakapo - Free English Encyclopedia from Turkcebilgi (4819 words)
Kakapo are unable to fly, having short [[wing]]s for their size and lacking the pronounced keel bone (sternum) that anchors the flight muscles of other birds.
Kakapo can also discriminate between odours while foraging, this behaviour has only been reported for one other parrot species.andlt;!--Hagelin, 2004--andgt; One of the most striking characteristics of Kakapo is their pleasant and powerful odor.
Kakapo are primarily nocturnal, roosting under cover in trees or on the ground during the day and roving their territories at night.
★ New Zealand Kakapo Bird Information Article (4434 words)
Kakapo have a facial disc of fine feathers, resembling the face of an owl; thus early European settlers called it the owl parrot.
Kakapo have a distinctive habit of grabbing a leaf or frond with a foot and stripping the nutritious parts of the plant out with their beaks, leaving a ball of indigestible fiber, similar to the way humans eat only the tender parts of artichokes.
Kakapo are naturally curious, and though they live solitary lives in remote places, they have been known to enjoy the occasional company of humans.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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