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Encyclopedia > Kajkavian dialect
Central South Slavic
languages and dialects
(Central South Slavic diasystem)
Bosnian · Bunjevac
Burgenland Croatian · Croatian
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Chakavian · Kajkavian · Molise Croatian
Shtokavian · Torlak · Užice speech
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Gaj’s Latin alphabet
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Location map of Kajkavian
Location map of Kajkavian

Kajkavian (kajkavski) dialect (proper name: kajkavica) is one of the three main dialects of the Croatian. The name of the dialect, like those of its correspondents, Shtokavian and Chakavian, is based on the interrogative pronoun kaj ("what"). The dialect is spoken in the northern and northwestern parts of Croatia, including Croatian capital Zagreb, as well as in a few Croatian language islands in Austria, Hungary and Romania. Bunjevac language or Bunjevac dialect (Bunjevački jezik or Bunjevački dijalekat) is a language/dialect spoken by Bunjevac ethnic group in Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro. ... Burgenland Croatian language or dialect (gradišćanskohrvatski jezik) belongs to the South Slavic branch of the Slavic languages. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... NaÅ¡inski is the Torlakian dialect used by the Gorani in southern Kosovo. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Å okac language (Å okački jezik) was a language listed in Austro-Hungarian censuses. ... The Romano-Serbian language is a language in the Western group of South Slavic languages. ... The Slavoserbian language (славяносербскій [slavjanoserbskij], словенскій [slovenskij]; in Serbian славеносрпски/slavenosrpski) is a form of the Serbian language which was predominantly used at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century by educated Serbian citizens in Vojvodina, and the Serbian diaspora in other parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. ... The standard Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian languages differ in various aspects as outlined below. ... Chakavian (ÄŒakavian, čakavski) dialect is a dialect of the Croatian language. ... Molise Croatian dialect (also: Molise Slavic, Slavisano, na-naÅ¡o) is spoken in the Campobasso Province in the Molise Region of Italy, in three villages — Montemitro (Mundimitar), Aquaviva Collercroce (Živavoda Kruč) and San Felice del Molise (Å tifilić). These have approximately 3,000 speakers. ... Shtokavian or Å tokavian is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system: Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Bosnian languages. ... Torlak[1] (Торлачки говор or Torlački govor) is the name used for the Slavic dialects spoken in southern and eastern Serbia, northeast Republic of Macedonia (Kratovo-Kumanovo), northwest Bulgaria (Vidin-Bregovo), and further afield in the CaraÅŸ-Severin County in Romania. ... Užican speech (Serbian: ужички говор or užički govor), also known as Zlatiborian speech (златиборски говор or zlatiborski govor) is a dialect of the Serbian language. ... The variant of the Latin alphabet devised by Ljudevit Gaj, in his book 1830 Kratka osnova horvatsko-slavenskog pravopisanja (A short primer of Croatian-Slavic orthography), is currently used as the only script of the Bosnian and Croatian standard languages, and as one of the two scripts of the Serbian... The modern Macedonian alphabet (as any Slavic Cyrillic alphabet) is ultimately based on the Cyrillic alphabet (кирилица) of Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius; it is an adaptation of Vuk Karadžićs (Serbian) phonetic alphabet. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Bohorič alphabet (slovene bohoričica) was slovene writing system used in years 1550-1850. ... Dajnko alphabet or dajnčica was a slovenian writing system invented by Peter Dajnko. ... Metelko alphabet (slovene: metelčica) was a slovenian writing system developed by Franc Serafin Metelko. ... Bosancica is a script, that was used in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia (Dalmatia and Dubrovnik). ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 665 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1501 × 1354 pixel, file size: 193 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kajkavian dialect ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 665 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1501 × 1354 pixel, file size: 193 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kajkavian dialect ... Shtokavian (Štokavian, štokavski) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian. ... Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - City 641. ...


Kajkavian can be classified as a transitional dialect of the Central South Slavic diasystem, similar to Slovenian language, because it was one of the languages spoken in old Karantania, but it now is a Croatian dialect and fits into this wider group only due to its marginal mixing with Shtokavian and Chakavian. Kajkavian was once the official language standard in Croatia from 16th to mid 19th century. In linguistics, a diasystem is a term used in structural dialectology, to refer to a single genetic language which has two or more standard forms. ... Slovenian or Slovene (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) is an Indo-European language that belongs to the family of South Slavic languages. ... Karantania (also Carantania, Carentania, in old Slovenian onomastics Korotan, or Karantanija) was a Slavic principality that emerged in the 7th century and was centered on the territory of contemporary Carinthia. ... Shtokavian (Štokavian, štokavski) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian. ... Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ...

Contents

Characteristics

The Kajkavian dialect area is bordered on the northwest by Slovenian language territory and Kajkavian is transitional to Slovenian, with which it shares various features, including the word kaj for "what". The Kajkavian dialect area is bordered on the east and southeast by Shtokavian dialects roughly along a line that was the former division between Civil Croatia and the Habsburg Military Frontier; in southwest along Kupa and Dobra rivers, it persisted in ancient (medieval) contact with Chakavian dialects. Slovenian or Slovene (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) is an Indo-European language that belongs to the family of South Slavic languages. ... Civil Croatia (Croatian: ) was a designation for the areas of Central Croatia that were not part of the Habsburg Military Frontier. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Frontiersman from Pomorišje, first half of the 18th century. ...


Some kajkavian words bear a closer resemblance to other Slavic languages (such as Russian) than they do to Štokavian or Čakavian. For instance gda seems (at first glance) to be unrelated to kada, however, when compared to the Russian когда, the relationship becomes more apparent. Kajkavian kak (how) and tak (so) are exactly like their Russian cognates, as compared to Štokavian and Čakavian kako and tako. (This vowel loss occurred in most other Slavic languages; Štokavian is a notable exception, whereas the same feature of Macedonian is probably not a Serbian influence, as the word is preserved in the same form in Bulgarian, to which Macedonian is much closer related than to Serbian.) Shtokavian (Štokavian, štokavski) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian. ... Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ... Shtokavian (Štokavian, štokavski) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian. ...


Kajkavian further stands out by lacking phonemes such as 'c' (instead using the combination of 'ts' as in Hrvatska), 'č' (instead using 'tš'), 'ć', 'đ', 'dž', 'lj' and 'nj', as well as the characteristic semi-vowel 'r'; this is partly similar as in Chakavian phonetics. Furthermore, Kajkavian includes the vowel 'ə' which is similar to the Scandinavian 'ø'; it missing from Štokavian, and partly from Čakavian (but it occurs in northern Istra and Vis island). Look up C, c in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Motto God and Croats Historically Antemurale Christianitatis (Latin) Forewall of Christianity Anthem Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino Our beautiful homeland Croatia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Zagreb Official languages Croatian1 (Hrvatski) Demonym Croat(s) Croatian(s) Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Stjepan Mesić  -  Premier Ivo Sanader Establishment  -  Founded    -  Medieval... ÄŒ in upper- and lowercase ÄŒ is the fourth letter of the Bosnian, Croatian, Czech, Slovak and Slovenian alphabet and the fifth letter of the Lithuanian and Latvian alphabet. ... The acute accent ( Â´ ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin script. ... Ð, Unicode codepoint 208, U+00D0 is: Ð or Eth, a letter used in Old English and present-day Icelandic and Faroese. ... Ç… (lowercase dž) is the seventh letter of the Croatian and Serbian (Latin form) alphabets, after D and before Đ. It is pronounced as . ... LJ might be an acronym, abbreviation, or nickname for: LJ is the IATA code for Sierra National Airlines LJ, the sequent calculus of Gentzens for intuitionist logic LiveJournal Linux Journal La Jolla, California Library Journal Ljubljana or its University of Ljubljana LaserJet Lord Justice of Appeal (plural: LJJ) Larry... Nj can stand for: nj (letter), the 20th letter of the Albanian alphabet Nj, Њ or Nje letter, the 17th letter of the Cyrillic alphabet in Serbian language The two-letter abbreviation for the state of New Jersey, United States Napierville Junction Railway (AAR reporting mark NJ) The pen name of... Look up R, r in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... , or , is a letter derived from the Latin alphabet. ... // The Ø (minuscule: ø), is a vowel and a letter used in the Danish, Faroese and Norwegian alphabets. ...


Another distinctive feature of Kajkavian is the preference for the future tense. Instead of Shtokavian "ću", "ćeš", "će", Kajkavian speakers say "bum", "buš" and "bu",. This is again very similar to Slovene forms "bom", "boš", "bo". The near-future tense is far more often used than in the standard Croatian language. For example, the phrase "I'll show you" is "Ti bum pokazal" in Kajkavian whereas in standard Croatian it is "Pokazat ću ti". It has been suggested that Future perfect tense be merged into this article or section. ...


History

Dialectogical investigations of kaykavian dialect have begun at the end of the 19th century: the first comprehensive monograph was written in Russian by Ukrainian philologist A.M.Lukjanenko in 1905 (Kajkavskoe narečie). Kajkavian dialects have been classified along various criteria: Serbian philologist Aleksandar Belić had divided (1927) Kajkavian dialect according the reflexes of Ur-Slavic phonemes /tj/ and /DJ/ into three subdialects: eastern, northwestern and southwestern.


However, later investigations have not corroborated Belić's division. Contemporary Kajkavian dialectology originates mainly from Croatian philologist Stjepan Ivšić's work "Jezik Hrvata kajkavaca"/The Language of Kajkavian Croats, 1936, which is based on accentuation characteristics. Due to great diversity of Kajkavian speech, primarily in phonetics, phonology and morphology — the Kajkavian dialectological atlas is notable for its bewildering proliferation of subdialects: from four identified by Ivšić, via six proposed by Shtokavian linguist Brozović (formerly accepted division) to fifteen, according to a monograph authored by Kajkavian linguist Lončarić (1995).


Area of use

Kajkavians now include 1/3 or 31% i.e. 1.300.000 of Croatian inhabitants, chiefly in northern and NW Croatia. The towns along the eastern and southern edge of Kajkavian speaking area are Pitomača, Čazma, Kutina, Sunja, Petrinja, Karlovac, Ogulin, Fužine, and Čabar, with included Shtokavian enclaves of Bjelovar, Sisak, Dubrava and Novi Zagreb. All three Croatian dialects collide between Karlovac and Ogulin. Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - City 641. ...


The major cities in northern Croatia with prevailing urban Kajkavians (purgeri) are chiefly Zagreb (old central city + Sesvete and V. Gorica), Koprivnica, Križevci, Varaždin, Čakovec etc. The typical and archaic Kajkavian is today spoken chiefly in Zagorje hills and Medjimurje plain, and in adjacent areas of NW Croatia where other immigrants and Shtokavian standard yet had scarcer influence. The most peculiar Kajkavian archidiom (Baegnunski) is spoken at Bednja in northernmost Croatia. Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - City 641. ... Categories: Geography stubs | Counties of Croatia ...


Most other Croatian speakers know of Kajkavian as the metropolitan dialect of Zagreb city, where a half of citizens (nearly 300.000 ones) now widely use the "zagrebečki" speech (a half-kaykavian koine) for their private communication at home and on street (using a shtokavian speech in official sites only). This relative stability of Zagreb kaykavian is due to prevailing local immigration of many surroundung kaykavians from NW Croatia and from kaykavian satellite towns. Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - City 641. ...


Moreover, in the central city of old Zagreb and in satellite towns Sesvete and V. Gorica, up today persist at least 7.000 indigenous kaykavian elders speaking old "Agramer" archidiom; they understand official standard but hardly can speak them. Also the coastal Chakavian immigrants in Zagreb or elsewhere in NW Croatia quickly transform to kaykavians in one generation: their non-standard accentuation is subequal to kaykavian, with many connecting archaisms in vocabulary. The best adaptable are the transitional northern chakavians from NE Istra, Cres, Vinodol and Pokupje accepting well kaykavian in few years.


Other southeastern people who immigrate to Zagreb from shtokavian territories often pick up rare elements of kaykavian in order to assimilate, notably the pronoun "kaj" instead of "što" and the extended use of second future, but they never adapt well because of alien eastern accents and ignoring kaykavian-chakavian archaisms and syntax. In older serbo-croatian times, as explained by the Serbian linguist Pavle Ivić (from Srpski narod i njegov jezik): "Not to be able to work Kajkavština means to be considered inferior, to show utterly that you don't come from the capital". Professor Pavle Ivić (December 1, 1924 - September 19, 1999) was a leading South Slavic and general dialectologist and phonologist. ...


It still holds true that Shtokavian speakers in Zagreb clearly show that they aren't from the capital, but given how Zagreb had been inundated with Yugoslav immigrants, this had partly lost in importance over past years; but now in independent Croatia to speak metropolitan became a new prestige of true citizens, and others unadapted ones there are considered as Balkanites.


Kajkavian literary language

Kajkavian is not only a folk dialect, but in the course of history of Croatian language, has been the written public language (along with the corpus written in Chakavian and Shtokavian). Kajkavian was the last to appear on the scene, mainly due to economic and political reasons. While first Croatian truly vernacular Chakavian texts (ie. not mixed with Church Slavonic) go back to the 13th century, Shtokavian to 14th century, the first Kajkavian published work was Pergošić's "Decretum", 1574. Croatian language (hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily by the inhabitants of Croatia and Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of the Croatian diaspora. ... Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ... Shtokavian (Štokavian, štokavski) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian. ... Year 1574 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


After that, numerous works appeared in Croatian Kajkavian literary language: chronicles by Vramec, liturgical works by Rattkay, Habdelić, Mulih; poetry of Katarina Zrinska, dramatic opus of Tituš Brezovački. Kajkavian-based are important lexicographic works like Jambrešić's "Dictionar", 1670, and monumental (2,000 pages and 50,000 words) inter-dialectal (Čakavian-Štokavian-Kajkavian, but based on Kajkavian idiom) dictionary "Gazophylacium" by Belostenec (posthumously, 1740). Interestingly enough, Miroslav Krleža's visionary poetic masterpiece, "Balade Petrice Kerempuha", 1936, drew heavily on Belostenec's dictionary. Croatian Kajkavian grammars include Kornig's, 1795, Matijević's, 1810 and Đurkovečki's, 1837. The Zrinski family, known also as Zrínyi in Hungarian, was a Croatian noble family, influential in the Croato-Hungarian Kingdom during the period in history marked by the Ottoman wars in Europe. ... Miroslav Krleža. ...


Kajkavian literary language gradually fell into disuse since Croatian National Revival, ca. 1830-1850, when leaders of Croatian National Unification Movement (the majority of them being Kajkavian native speakers themselves) adopted the most widespread and developed Croatian Shtokavian literary language as the idiom for Croatian standard language. Croatian language (hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily by the inhabitants of Croatia and Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of the Croatian diaspora. ...


However, after a period of lethargy, the 20th century has witnessed new flourishing of Kajkavian literature- this time as Croatian dialectal poetry, main authors being Antun Gustav Matoš, Miroslav Krleža, Ivan Goran Kovačić, Dragutin Domjanić, Nikola Pavić (uncle of Serbian post-modernist fantasy writer Milorad Pavić) etc. Antun Gustav Matos (Antun Gustav MatoÅ¡) (June 13th, 1873 - March 17th, 1914) is Croatian writer best known as the representative of modernism in Croatian literature. ... Miroslav Krleža. ... Ivan Goran Kovačić (1913-1943) was one of the greatest Yugoslavian writers of the 20th century. ... Milorad Pavić (Милорад Павић) is a noted Serbian poet, prose writer, translator, and literary historian. ...


Kajkavian lexical treasure is being published by the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts in "Rječnik hrvatskoga kajkavskoga književnoga jezika"/Dictionary of the Croatian Kajkavian Literary Language, 8 volumes (1999). The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Latin Academia Scientiarum et Artium Croatica, Croatian Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti) is the national academy of Croatia. ...


Examples

  • Kak je, tak je; tak je navek bilo, kak bu tak bu, a bu vre nekak kak bu!
  • "Nigdar ni tak bilo da ni nekak bilo, pak ni vezda ne bu da nam nekak ne bu." - Miroslav Krleža (quotation from poem "Khevenhiller")
  • Kaj buš ti, bum pa ja! (Whatever you do, I'll do it too!)
  • Ne bu išlo! (standard Croatian: Ne može tako, Neće ići "It won't work!")
  • "Bumo vidli!" (štokavski: "Vidjet ćemo!", English: "We will see!")
  • "Dej muči!" or "Muči daj!" (štokavski: "Daj šuti!", English: "Shut up!")
  • "Buš pukel?" - "Bum!" (jokingly: "Will you explode?" - "I will!")
  • Numerous supplementary examples: A. Negro, "Agramerski štikleci", <http://agramerskistikleci.blog.hr>

Notes

References

  • Milan Moguš: A History of the Croatian Language, NZ Globus, Zagreb 1995
  • Mijo Lončarić: Kajkavsko narječje. Školska knjiga, 198 p.+ 1 map, Zagreb 1996
  • Rajko Fureš & Alojz Jembrih: Kajkavski u povijesnom i sadašnjem obzorju, I.-IV. Muži zagorskog srca, 587 p., Zabok-Krapina 2002-2006 (Proceedings of 4 Kajkavian symposia)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kajkavian dialect - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1093 words)
Kajkavian can be classified as a dialect of the Central South Slavic diasystem, generally referred to as the Serbo-Croatian language, but it is an exclusively Croatian dialect and fits into the wider group only due to its mixing with Shtokavian and Chakavian.
Kajkavian is not only a folk dialect, but has, in the course of history of Croatian language, been the written language (along with the corpus written in Chakavian and Shtokavian).
Kajkavian lexical treasure is being published by the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts in "Rječnik hrvatskoga kajkavskoga književnoga jezika"/Dictionary of Croatian kajkavian literary language, 8 volumes (1999).
Serbo-Croatian language: Definition and Links by Encyclopedian.com - All about Serbo-Croatian language (494 words)
The Shtokavian dialect is spoken in Serbia, Bosnia, Montenegro and the greater part of Croatia.
The Kajkavian dialect is mostly spoken in North-Eastern Croatia.
The Chakavian dialect is spoken in Western Croatia, mainly in Istria and Dalmatia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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