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Encyclopedia > Kai Tak Airport
Kai Tak Airport
啟德機場
IATA: HKG - ICAO: VHHX
Summary
Airport type public
Operator Civil Aviation Department
Serves Hong Kong
Elevation AMSL 28 ft (9 m)
Coordinates 22°19′43.80″N, 114°11′39.56″E
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
13/31 11,122 3,390 Paved

Kai Tak Airport (Traditional Chinese: 啟德機場) was the international airport of Hong Kong from 1925 until 1998. On July 6, 1998, the airport was replaced by the new Hong Kong International Airport at Chek Lap Kok. Image File history File links Kai-tak-3. ... An IATA airport code, also known an IATA location identifier, IATA station code or simply a location identifier [1], is a three-letter code designating many airports around the world, defined by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). ... The ICAO (IPA pronunciation: ) airport code or location indicator is a four-letter alphanumeric code designating each airport around the world. ... The term above mean sea level (AMSL) refers to the elevation (on the ground) or altitude (in the air) of any object, relative to the average sea level. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Hong Kong International Airport (IATA: HKG, ICAO: VHHH) (Chinese: 香港國際機場; Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2 gwok3 zai3 gei1 coeng4; Mandarin Pinyin: ) is the principal airport in Hong Kong. ... Chek Lap Kok (Chinese: 赤鱲角; Jyutping: cek3 laap6 gok3; Cantonese IPA: ; Pinyin: Chìliè Jiǎo; Red Perch Cape) is an island in the western waters of Hong Kong. ...


The airport was home to Hong Kong's national carrier Cathay Pacific, as well as Dragonair, Air Hong Kong and Hong Kong Airways. With numerous skyscrapers and mountains located to the north and its only runway jutting out into Victoria Harbour, the airport was infamously difficult to land at. Cathay Pacific Airways (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; abbreviation: 國泰) (SEHK: 0293) is an airline based in Hong Kong, operating scheduled passenger and cargo services to over 104 destinations world-wide. ... Hong Kong Dragon Airlines Limited (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a subsidiary of Cathay Pacific. ... Cargo aircraft of Air Hong Kong taken in Narita Airport. ... Logo of Hongkong Airways Hongkong Airways was an airline based in Hong Kong in the 1950s. ... Victoria Harbour The night view of the Victoria Harbour with the skyscrapers in Central behind, viewed from Tsim Sha Tsui Victoria Harbour (Traditional Chinese: 維多利亞港; Simplified Chinese: 维多利亚港; Cantonese Jyutping: wai4 do1 lei6 aa3 gong2; Mandarin Pinyin: Wéiduōlìyà Gǎng) is the harbour between the Kowloon Peninsula and the...

Contents

Geographic environment

Kai Tak is located north of Kowloon Bay in Kowloon, Hong Kong. The vicinity is surrounded by rugged mountains. Less than 10 km to the north and northeast is a range of hills reaching an altitude of 2000 ft. To the east of the runway, the hills are less than 5 km away. Immediately to the south of the airport is the Victoria Harbour, and further south is Hong Kong Island with hills up to 2100 ft. Kowloon Bay (九龍灣) is a bay located at the east of the Kowloon Peninsula and north of Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong. ... In modern day Hong Kong, Kowloon refers to the urban area made up of Kowloon Peninsula and New Kowloon, bordered by the Lei Yue Mun strait in the east, Mei Foo Sun Chuen and Stonecutters Island in the west, Tates Cairn and Lion Rock in the north, and...


There was only one runway at Kai Tak, oriented at 136.1 degrees and 316.1 degrees, hence its name 13/31. The runway was made by reclaiming land from the harbour and had been extended several times since its initial construction. When the airport was closed, the length of the runway was 3390 m.


Landing at Kai Tak was considered challenging. Depending on the landing direction, aircraft had to pass over densely populated areas in Kowloon at low altitudes.


At the northern end of the runway, buildings up to 6 stories rose just across the road. The other three sides of the runway were surrounded by Victoria harbour. The low altitude manoeuvre was so spectacular that some passengers have claimed to have witnessed the flickering of televisions through apartment windows as their aircraft approached the airport's landing strip.


The growth of Hong Kong also put a strain on the airport's capacity. The airport was designed to handle 24 million passengers per year but in 1996, Kai Tak had already handled 29.5 million passengers, plus 1.56 million tonnes of freight, making it the third busiest airport in the world in terms of passenger traffic, and first in terms of cargo.[1] The airport ran out of landing slots and parking bays, and flights often had to be diverted to other airports.[citation needed] Moreover, the clearance requirements for aircraft takeoffs and landings made it necessary for a limit on the height of the buildings that could be built in Kowloon to be enforced. The airport also caused serious noise pollution for nearby residents.[2] A night curfew from midnight to about 6:30 in the early morning also hindered operations.[3]

Plan of Kai Tak Airport
Plan of Kai Tak Airport

As a result, in the late 1980s, the Hong Kong Government began searching for alternative locations for a new airport in Hong Kong to replace the aging airport. After deliberating on a number of locations including the southside of Hong Kong Island the government decided to build the airport on the island of Chek Lap Kok off Lantau Island.[citation needed] A huge number of resources were mobilised to build this new airport, part of the ten programmes in Hong Kong's Airport Core Programme. The new airport was officially opened on 6 July 1998; and in a testament to logistical planning, all the essential airport supplies and vehicles that were left in the old airport for operation (some of the non-essential ones had already been transported to the new airport) were transported to Chek Lap Kok in one early morning with a single massive move, after the last plane touched down at Kai Tak at 1:28 am, and before the first plane arrived at 6:25 am.[citation needed] Kai Tak was subsequently closed, transferring its IATA Airport Code to the replacement airport at Chek Lap Kok. Image File history File links Kaitak_tchn. ... Image File history File links Kaitak_tchn. ... On July 1, 1997, the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) resumed its exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong, ending more than 150 years of British colonial control. ... The night view of the Island side as seen from the Kowloon side - the opposite side of the Victoria Harbour Hong Kong Island (Traditional Chinese: 香港島; Simplified Chinese: 香港岛; Cantonese Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2 dou2; Mandarin Pinyin: XiānggÇŽngdÇŽo) is the island where the colonial settlement of the Hong Kong territory... Chek Lap Kok (Chinese: 赤鱲角; Jyutping: cek3 laap6 gok3; Cantonese IPA: ; Pinyin: Chìliè Jiǎo; Red Perch Cape) is an island in the western waters of Hong Kong. ... Map of Lantau Island, Hong Kong Lantau Island (based on the local old name of Lantau Peak 爛頭 Làntóu, Ragged Head; 大嶼山/大屿山 pinyin: DàyÇ” shān, Cantonese: Tai yue shan, Big Island Mountain), also Lantao, is the largest island in Hong Kong, located at the mouth of the Pearl... Airport Core Programme was a series of infrastructural works organised by the Government of Hong Kong during the 1990s. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


History

The story of Kai Tak started in 1924. The location of Kai Tak belonged to two plutocrats Ho Kai and Au Tak, who owned the land before the government acquired it (the land originally did not have a name), which explains the name of the airport. First planned as an estate site, the land was given to the government after the plan failed. Later Harry Abbot assisted by Fergal Kelleher opened a flying school on the piece of land. Soon, it became a small airport for the Royal Air Force, flying clubs and pilot training centre. In 1928, a concrete slipway was built for seaplanes that used the adjoining Kowloon Bay.[citation needed] A plutocracy is a government system where wealth is the principal basis of power (from the Greek ploutos meaning wealth). ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


In 1936, the first domestic airline in Hong Kong was established.[citation needed]

Military activity at Kai Tak Airport, c.1946
Military activity at Kai Tak Airport, c.1946

Hong Kong fell into the hands of the Japanese in 1941 during World War II. In 1943 the Japanese army extended Kai Tak, using many Canadian prisoner-of-war labourers, building an additional runway that extended across Clear Water Bay Road. During the process, its construction destroyed the historic wall of the Kowloon Walled City, as well as the 45 m (148 ft) tall Sung Wong Toi — a memorial for the last Song dynasty emperor, for materials.[citation needed] Japan surrendered shortly after the completion of the second runway in 1945. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Kowloon Walled City before its demolition. ... Sung Wong Toi (宋王臺 Sung3 Wong4 Toi4) was an important historic relic in Hong Kong. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou...


From September 1945 to August 1946 it was a Royal Navy shore base "HMS Nabcatcher" the name previously attached to a Mobile Naval Air Base for the Fleet Air Arm. On 1 April 1947 a Royal Navy air station HMS Flycatcher was commissioned there. [4] The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Mobile Naval Operating Air Bases (MONABs) were a series of mobile units first formed in 1944 to provide logistical support to the Fleet Air Arm aircraft of the Royal Navys British Pacific Fleet towards the end of World War II. Each unit was self-contained and designed to service... The Fleet Air Arm is the branch of the Royal Navy responsible for the operation of the aircraft on board their ships. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... HMS Flycatcher was a stone frigate name for the Royal Navys headquarters for its Mobile Naval Air Bases which supported their Fleet Air Arm units. ...


An official plan to modify Kai Tak to a modern airport was released in 1954.[citation needed] In 1957, the original runways were replaced by a new NW/SE heading 2194 m runway extending into the Kowloon Bay completed by land reclamation. The runway was extended to 2529 m in 1970 and again to 3390 m in 1975. In 1962, the passenger terminal was completed and Kai Tak was renamed Hong Kong International Airport.[citation needed] Kowloon Bay (九龍灣) is a bay located at the east of the Kowloon Peninsula and north of Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong. ... Land reclamation is either of two distinct practices. ...


An Instrument Guidance System (IGS) was installed in 1974 to aid landing on runway 13. Utilization of the airport under adverse conditions was greatly increased.[citation needed]


At its beginning, Kai Tak was "far away" from residential areas, but as both residential areas and the airport expanded, Kai Tak became too close to the residential areas. Its usage was also close and for some time exceeding the designed capacity. There was much talk about a new airport but nothing came of it, for various reasons. Finally in 1990, partly to boost the confidence of the population in the future of Hong Kong after the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, the Hong Kong Government decided to go ahead with the so-called "Rose Garden Plan" of which the Chek Lap Kok International Airport was the centrepiece. The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 were a series of demonstrations led by students, intellectuals, and labour activists in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) between April 15, 1989 and June 4, 1989. ...


On July 6, 1998 at 1:28 am, Kai Tak was finally retired as an airport. The new airport took over HKG, Kai Tak's IATA code. The passenger terminal was later being used as government offices, automobile dealerships, a go kart racecourse, snooker, recreational facilities, a bowling alley, car sales showrooms and a golf range.[citation needed] Government reports later reviewed that Chep Lap Kok airport was not ready to be opened to public despite trial runs were held. Water supply and sewage were not installed completely. Telephones were available but the lines were not connected. The baggage system did not undergo an extensive troubleshoot and dislocated passengers' baggages as well as cargoes which many were perishable goods. The government decided to temporarily reactivate the cargo terminal to be minimize the damage caused by a software bug in the new airport's cargo handling system.[5] By December 2003 and January 2004, the passenger terminal was demolished. is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The International Air Transport Association is an international trade organization of airlines headquarted in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... A kart racer takes a turn on an indoor track Kart racing (as the word is so spelled by enthusiasts) or karting is a variant of open-wheeler motor sport with simple, small four-wheeled vehicles called karts, go-karts, or gearbox/shifter karts depending on the design. ... Snooker is a cue sport that is played on a large baize-covered table with pockets in each of the four corners and in the middle of each of the long side cushions. ... A container terminal is a facility where cargo containers are loaded or unloaded from ships to land vehicles, for further transport. ...


Many aviation enthusiasts were upset at the demise of Kai Tak because of the unique approach. As private aviation is not allowed at Chek Lap Kok (moved to Sek Kong Airfield), some enthusiasts had lobbied to keep around 1 km of the Kai Tak runway for general aviation, but the suggestion was rejected as the Government has planned to build a new cruise terminal at Kai Tak.[6] The Shek Kong Airfield (石崗機場) (, , ICAO:VHSK) is the airbase of Peoples Liberation Army Air Force in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. ... General aviation (abbr. ...


Operations

Terminal

The Kai Tak airport consisted of a linear terminal building with a garage attached at the rear. There were eight gates attached to the terminal building.[5]


Airlines based at HKIA

Several airlines were based at Kai Tak:

Other tenants included: Cathay Pacific Airways (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; abbreviation: 國泰) (SEHK: 0293) is an airline based in Hong Kong, operating scheduled passenger and cargo services to over 104 destinations world-wide. ... Airbus S.A.S. is the aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS N.V., a pan-European aerospace concern. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661 ) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Boeing. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses of this term, see Dragonair. ... Cargo aircraft of Air Hong Kong taken in Narita Airport. ...

The Hong Kong Aviation Club is a flying club based at Hong Kong International Airport. ... Government Flying Service is the flying services unit of the Hong Kong Government, mainly for search and rescue, air ambulance, firefighting, and police operations. ...

The 13 approach

The landing approach using runway 13 at Kai Tak was distinctive. To land on runway 13, an aircraft first took a descent heading northeast. The aircraft would pass over the harbour, and then the very densely populated areas on Western Kowloon. This leg of the approach was guided by an IGS (Instrument Guidance System, a modified ILS) after 1974. Upon reaching a small hill marked with a checkerboard in red and white, which is being marked as a middle marker in the final approach, the pilot needed to make a 47° visual right turn to line up with the runway and complete the final leg. The aircraft would be just two nautical miles from touchdown, at a height of less than 1000 ft when the turn was made. Typically the plane would enter the final right turn at the height of about 650 ft and exit it at the height of 140 ft to line up with the runway. Landing the 13 approach is already difficult with normal crosswinds since even if the wind direction is constant, it is changing relative to the airplane when the 47° visual right turn is being made. The landing would become even more challenging when crosswinds from the northeast were strong and gusty during typhoons. The mountain range northeast of the airport also makes wind vary greatly in both speed and direction; thus, varying the lift of the airplane. This approach was used most of the time due to the prevailing wind direction in Hong Kong. The Localizer station at Hanover/Langenhagen International Airport in Hanover, Germany. ... A Marker Beacon is a beacon used in Aviation in conjunction with an Instrument Landing System(ILS), to give pilots a means to determine distance to the runway. ...


Due to the turn in final approach, no landings in runway 13 could use ILS and had to follow a Visual Approach. This made the runway unusable in low visibility conditions.[citation needed] The Localizer station at Hanover/Langenhagen International Airport in Hanover, Germany. ...


The 31 runway

Landing from 31 was just like other normal runways in terms of landing where ILS landing was possible. For takeoffs, aircraft had to make a sharp left turn soon after takeoff to avoid the hills (a reverse of what landing traffic would do on Runway 13). Because the taxiway next to the runway would have been occupied by aircraft taxiing for takeoff, landing traffic could only exit the runway right at the end. The Localizer station at Hanover/Langenhagen International Airport in Hanover, Germany. ...


Accidents

Despite its challenging approach and mountainous geographical surroundings, there were relatively few accidents at Kai Tak. Some of the most serious accidents at Kai Tak during its seventy years of service were:

  • 21 December 1948 - A Douglas DC-4 of Civil Air Transport struck Basalt Island after a descent through clouds. 33 were killed.
  • 24 February 1949 - A Douglas DC-3 of Cathay Pacific crashed into a hillside near Braemar Reservoir after aborting an approach in poor visibility and an attempt to go around. 24 were killed.
  • 11 March 1951 - A Douglas DC-4 of the Pacific Overseas Airlines crashed after take off into the hills between Mount Butler and Mount Parker on the Hong Kong Island. The Captain of the aircraft allegedly failed to execute the turn left operation after departure. 23 were killed.
  • 09 April 1951 - A Douglas DC-3 of Siamese Airways lost control on its turn while attempting a night-time visual approach. The captain allegedly allowed the aircraft to lose flying speed while attempting to turn quickly. 16 were killed.
  • 11 April 1955 - Air India "Kashmir Princess" (Lockheed Constellation) went down on the sea after a bomb explosion, killing 16 people. A Kuomintang (KMT) secret agent put the bomb in the airplane during its transit in Hong Kong Airport intending to kill People's Republic of China (PRC) Prime Minister Zhou Enlai.
  • Jan 1961 - A US military Douglas DC-3 crashed on Mount Parker after take off.
  • 24 August 1965 - A US Marines Lockheed Hercules C-130 lost control shortly after take off from runway 13. The plane plunged and sank into the harbour. 59 of the 71 soldiers on board were killed. This was the deadliest accident at Kai Tak.
  • 30 June 1967 - A Thai Airways International Sud Aviation SE-210 Caravelle III crashed into the sea while landing during a typhoon. The co-pilot, who was flying the aircraft, allegedly made an abrupt heading change, causing the aircraft to enter into a high rate of descent and a crash into the sea short of the runway. 24 were killed.
  • 2 September 1977 - A Canadair CL-44 of Transmeridian Air Cargo lost control and crashed into the sea on fire shortly after take-off. The no. 4 engine was said to have failed, causing an internal fire in the engine and the aircraft fuel system that eventually resulted in a massive external fire. 4 were killed.
  • 9 March 1978 - A hijacker boarded a China Airlines Boeing 737-200, demanding to be taken to China. The hijack lasted less than a day, and the hijacker was killed.
  • 18 October 1983 - A Lufthansa Boeing 747 freighter abandoned take off after engine #2 malfunctioned, probably at speed exceeding V1 (the takeoff/abort decision point). The aircraft overran the runway onto soft ground and sustained severe damage. 3 were injured.
  • 31 August 1988 - The right outboard flap of a China CAAC Hawker Siddeley Trident hit approach lights of runway 31 while landing under rain and fog. The right main landing gear then struck a lip and collapsed, causing the aircraft to run off the runway and slip into the harbour. 7 were killed.
  • 4 November 1993 - A China Airlines Boeing 747-400, China Airlines Flight 605, overran the runway while landing during a typhoon. The wind was gusting to gale force at the time. Despite the plane's unstable approach the captain did not go around. It touched down more than 2/3 down the runway and was unable to stop before the runway ran out.
  • 23 September 1994 - A Lockheed Hercules lost control shortly after take off from runway 13. The pitch control system of one of its propellers was said to have failed. 6 were killed.

Note: If Project Bojinka had not been discovered after a fire in Manila, Philippines, one or more aircraft owned by a U.S. carrier/s flying from this airport might have blown up over the Pacific Ocean on January 21, 1995 as part of the project's first phase.[citation needed] December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... The designation DC-4 was used by Douglas Aircraft Company when developing the DC-4E as a large, four-engined type to complement its forthcoming DC-3 design. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing, propeller-driven aircraft, which revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s and is generally regarded as one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made (also see Boeing 707 and Boeing 747). ... Cathay Pacific Airways (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; abbreviation: 國泰) (SEHK: 0293) is an airline based in Hong Kong, operating scheduled passenger and cargo services to over 104 destinations world-wide. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (71st in leap years). ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The designation DC-4 was used by Douglas Aircraft Company when developing the DC-4E as a large, four-engined type to complement its forthcoming DC-3 design. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing, propeller-driven aircraft, which revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s and is generally regarded as one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made (also see Boeing 707 and Boeing 747). ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Air India (formerly Air-India, Hindi: ) is the national flag carrier of India with a worldwide network of passenger and cargo services. ... Kashmir Princess was a L-749A Constellation aircraft owned by Air India that exploded in midair and crashed into the sea in 11 April 1955, killing 16 people. ... The Lockheed Constellation, affectionately known as the “Connie”, was a four-engine propeller-driven airliner built by Lockheed between 1943 and 1958 at its Burbank, California, USA, facility. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and Chinas foreign minister from 1949 to... The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing, propeller-driven aircraft, which revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s and is generally regarded as one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made (also see Boeing 707 and Boeing 747). ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Thai Airways International (Thai: ) is the national air carrier of Thailand, operating out of Suvarnabhumi Airport, and is a founding member of the Star Alliance network. ... September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Demonstration of the loading of the CL-44-D4 with automobiles. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Not to be confused with Air China. ... 737 in new Boeing Colors. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Deutsche Lufthansa AG (ISIN: DE0008232125) (pronounced ) is the largest airline in Europe. ... The Boeing 747, commonly nicknamed the Jumbo Jet, is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing. ... The V1 of an aircraft is the V speed which refers to the critical engine failure recognition speed. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The General Administration of Civil Aviation of China (中国民用航空总局, Pinyin: Zhōngguó Mínyòng Hángkōng ZÇ’ngjú), most widely recognized by the initials CAAC, is an administrative body under the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China that oversees civil aviation in mainland China. ... Trident 1E The Trident, model DH121 or HS121, was a short/medium-range airliner designed by de Havilland in the 1950s, and built by the Hawker-Siddeley Group in the 1960s when de Havilland was merged, along with several other British aviation firms. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Not to be confused with Air China. ... The Boeing 747-400 is the latest version of the Boeing 747 in service and the largest commercial airliner, a title it will lose to the Airbus A380 when it enters service in October 2007. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... Oplan Bojinka (also known as Operation Bojinka, Project Bojinka, Bojinka Plot, Bojinga, from Arabic: بجنكة – slang in many dialects for explosion and pronounced Bo-JIN-ka, except in Egyptian where it is Bo-GIN-ka) was a planned large-scale attack on airliners in 1995... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


Note: The world's first hijacked commercial plane, "Miss Macao," a Catalina operated by a Cathay Pacific subsidiary, was also bound for Hong Kong. Shortly after take-off in Macao on July 16, 1948, four armed hijackers entered the cockpit. The hijackers shot the pilot, whose wounded body fell onto the control stick, causing the plane to crash into the sea. 26 were killed; only the hijack leader survived. Moreover, since the foundation of Kai Tak Airport, there had been 5 accidents of aircraft crashing down into sea when touching down.[7] Miss Macao was a Catalina seaplane, owned and operated by Cathay Pacific on June 16th, 1948 it became the victim of the first air hijacking. ... Cathay Pacific Airways (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; abbreviation: 國泰) (SEHK: 0293) is an airline based in Hong Kong, operating scheduled passenger and cargo services to over 104 destinations world-wide. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ...


Future plans for the site

2002 blueprint

In October 1998, the Government drafted a new plan for the old Kai Tak Airport site, involving a reclamation of 219 hectares. After it received a large number of objections, the Government scaled down the reclamation to 166 hectares in June 1999. The Territorial Development Department of the Hong Kong SAR Government conducted a new study on the development of the area, entitled "Feasibility Studies on the Revised Southeast Kowloon Development Plan" which commenced in November 1999, and a new public consultation exercise was conducted in May 2000, land reclamation was further scaled down to 133 hectares. The new plans based on the feasibility studies was passed by the Chief Executive in July 2002.[8] There were plans for the site of Kai Tak to be used for housing development, which was once projected to house around 240,000-340,000 residents. Due to calls from the public to protect the harbour and participate more deeply in future town planning, the scale and plan of the project are yet to be decided. There will also be a railway station and maintenance centre in the proposed plan for the Shatin to Central Link. Chief Executive may refer to: Chief Executive of Hong Kong Chief Executive of Macau Chief Executive Officer This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


There were also proposals to dredge the runway to form several islands for housing, to build a terminal capable of accommodating cruise ships the size of the Queen Mary 2, and more recently, to house the Hong Kong Sports Institute, as well as several stadia, in the case that the institute is forced to move so that the equestrian events of the 2008 Summer Olympics may be held at its present site in Sha Tin. Legend of the Seas moored at San Diego, California A cruise ship, or less commonly cruise liner, is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the amenities of the ship are considered an essential part of the experience. ... I name the ship Queen Mary 2 --Queen Elizabeth II The Queen Mary 2 is a Cunard Line passenger ship named after the earlier Cunard liner Queen Mary, which was in turn named after Mary of Teck. ... The Hong Kong Sports Institute is a sports institute in Hong Kong, China. ... The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, were awarded to Beijing, China after an exhaustive ballot of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) on July 13, 2001. ... Shing Mun River and Lek Yuen Bridge (瀝源橋). Sha Tin ( also spelt Shatin ) is an area in the New Territories, in the Hong Kong special administrative region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


On January 9, 2004 the Court of Final Appeal in Hong Kong ruled that no reclamation plan for Victoria Harbour could be introduced unless it passed an "overriding public interest" test.[9] Subsequently, the Government abandoned the plans proposed in July 2002. is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Victoria Harbour The night view of the Victoria Harbour with the skyscrapers in Central behind, viewed from Tsim Sha Tsui Victoria Harbour (Traditional Chinese: 維多利亞港; Simplified Chinese: 维多利亚港; Cantonese Jyutping: wai4 do1 lei6 aa3 gong2; Mandarin Pinyin: Wéiduōlìyà Gǎng) is the harbour between the Kowloon Peninsula and the...


Kai Tak Planning Review

The Government set up a "Kai Tak Planning Review" in July 2004 for further public consultation.[10] A number of blueprints have been presented.


June 2006 blueprint

A blueprint for the redevelopment of Kai Tak was issued by the government in June 2006. Under these proposals hotels would be scattered throughout the 328-hectare site, and flats aimed at housing 86,000 new residents were proposed.


Other features of the plan include :

  • two planned cruise terminals
  • a giant stadium

October 2006 blueprint

The Planning Department unveiled a major reworking of its plans[11] for the old Kai Tak airport site on October 17, 2006, containing "a basket of small measures designed to answer a bevy of concerns raised by the public". The revised blueprint will also extend several "green corridors" from the main central park into the surrounding neighborhoods of Kowloon City, Kowloon Bay and Ma Tau Kok. is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Kowloon City (九龍城, Pinyin: Jiu3long2cheng2) is one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong. ... Kowloon Bay (九龍灣) is a bay located at the east of the Kowloon Peninsula and north of Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong. ... Ma Tau Kok (馬頭角) is a place between To Kwa Wan and Ma Tau Chung in Hong Kong. ...


Included in the revised plan, the following features are proposed

  • two planned cruise terminals, and a third terminal could be added if the need arises
  • a luxury hotel complex near the cruise terminals. The complex would be about seven storeys, and with hotel rooms above and tourist-related or commercial space below.
  • an eight-station monorail linking the tourist hub with Kwun Tong
  • a giant stadium
  • a "central park" to provide much-needed greenery
  • a 200-metre high public "viewing tower" near the tip of the runway.
  • a new bridge likely to involve further reclamation of Victoria Harbour.

the following are major changes There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Kwun Tong (Traditional Chinese: ; originally 官塘) is an area in Kwun Tong District, New Kowloon, Hong Kong. ... Victoria Harbour The night view of the Victoria Harbour with the skyscrapers in Central behind, viewed from Tsim Sha Tsui Victoria Harbour (Traditional Chinese: 維多利亞港; Simplified Chinese: 维多利亚港; Cantonese Jyutping: wai4 do1 lei6 aa3 gong2; Mandarin Pinyin: Wéiduōlìyà Gǎng) is the harbour between the Kowloon Peninsula and the...

  • The hotel spaces are to be centralized near the end of the runway, and will face out into the harbor towards Central
  • A third terminal could be added at the foot of the hotel cluster if the need arises
  • A second row of luxury residential spaces which face Kwun Tong, and will be placed on an elevated terrace or platform to preserve a view of the harbor.

The government has promised that :

  • total amount of housing and hotel space would remain the same as proposed in June 2006,
  • the plot ratios would also be the same levels as before.
  • Total commercial space on the site will also remain about the same

A new bridge at the end of the runway joining the hotel district with Kwun Tong proposed by the government could be a potential source of controversy. Under the Protection of the Harbour Ordinance, no harbor reclamation can take place unless the Government can demonstrate to the courts that there is an "overriding public need" for it.[citation needed]


The new Kai Tak blueprint is to be presented to the Legislative Council on October 24, 2006 after review by the Town Planning Board. The Legislative Council (abbreviated as LegCo; Chinese: 立法會, Pinyin: Lìfǎ Huì; formerly 立法局, Lìfǎ Jú) is the unicameral legislature of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


See also

Hong Kong International Airport (IATA: HKG, ICAO: VHHH) (Chinese: 香港國際機場; Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2 gwok3 zai3 gei1 coeng4; Mandarin Pinyin: ) is the principal airport in Hong Kong. ... Hong Kong has a highly developed and sophisticated transportation network, encompassing both public and private transport. ... This is a list of buildings and structures in Hong Kong. ... Government Flying Service is the flying services unit of the Hong Kong Government, mainly for search and rescue, air ambulance, firefighting, and police operations. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

References

  1. ^ Kai Tak Airport 1925-1998 - Civil Aviation Department
  2. ^ Aircraft Noise: Comparison Between Kai Tak and the new Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) - Civil Aviation Department
  3. ^ Official Record of Proceedings, Wednesday, 19 April 1995 - Hong Kong Legislative Council
  4. ^ http://www.helis.com/database/go/hk_kai_tak.php
  5. ^ a b Sung Hin-lun: A Hundred Years of Aviation in Hong Kong. ISBN 962-04-2188-4
  6. ^ Kai Tak Planning Review - Report of Stage 2 Public Participation: Outline Zone Plans. Planning Department, the Government of HKSAR. Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  7. ^ http://www.americandefenseforces.com/hijackings.htm
  8. ^ Planning history of Kai Tak
  9. ^ Judgement :Town Planning Board v Society for the Protection of the Harbour. Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal. Retrieved on 2006-10-20.
  10. ^ Kai Tak planning review. Government of the Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved on 2006-10-20.
  11. ^ Cheng, Jonathan (October 18, 2006). Kai Tak blueprint redrawn. Hong Kong Standard. Retrieved on 2006-10-20.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Accidents and other miscellaneous bad landings

Retrieved from Airliners.net:


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kai Tak Airport information - Search.com (0 words)
Having the IATA airport code HKG as well as the ICAO airport code VHHH, both of which were taken over as codes for the new airport, the famous airport served as Cathay Pacific's, Dragonair's and Air Hong Kong's hub.
Kai Tak was located in the north of Kowloon Bay in Kowloon, Hong Kong.
Kai Tak was subsequently retired, transferring its IATA Airport Code to the replacement airport at Chek Lap Kok.
Kai Tak Airport Information (2222 words)
Kai Tak was the international airport of Hong Kong until July 6, 1998.
Kai Tak had the IATA airport code HKG as well as the ICAO airport code VHHH, both of which were taken over by the new Chek Lap Kok Airport.
Kai Tak was subsequently retired, transferring its IATA Airport Code to the replacement airport at Chek Lap Kok.
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